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University Degree: 1600-1699

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 2
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    'Repressive and emotionally cold'. Is this a true reflection of relations between parents and children in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England?

    4 star(s)

    From the continuality school of thought, Scholars such as Edward Shorter go as far as to say that early modern mothers from small towns and villages practiced "hideously hurtful-infant hygiene and child rearing practices"3. However, as Sharpe points out, what researchers such as Shorter are failing to understand is that family life was so much more unpredictable than by today's modern standards, hygiene was "little known" and "poverty more immediate".4 In this case, it cannot be justified that emotional feelings can be supported on this presumption.

    • Word count: 2924
  2. Marked by a teacher

    How does a change in the mortality rate explain population growth in the early modern period?

    4 star(s)

    Figures show the devastation caused by these epidemics; it has been claimed that during the period of 1557 to 1559 "a tenth of the English population died"3 as a result of influenza. The infamous plague ravaged through many European towns and cities and caused an increase in the mortality rate. In London, for example, in the three key years of 1603, 1625 and 1665, in which the Plague struck this city approximately 200,000 people were killed. In other European countries such as France, between "2.2 and 3.3 million"4 people fell victims to the plague in a large part of the seventeenth century.

    • Word count: 1802
  3. The Dutch trade during the Anglo- Dutch wars. The Anglo-Dutch wars were instigated by differences over trade between the Dutch Republic and the English Commonwealth

    at the time and pay a tribute for any herring caught 30 miles from the English shore.3 Although The Navigation Act did not affect the Dutch trade itself, it did give pirates the opportunities to take over Dutch ships legally as many Dutch ships refused to strike there flags. The striking of the flag was seen as a sign of submission and was not taken very kindly by many Dutch captains, and on May 29, 1652 Admiral Maarten Tromp refused to strike his flag.

    • Word count: 3975
  4. Why was Richelieu's foreign policy so politically divisive from 1624-42?

    My discussion will focus on specific events involving French foreign affairs from 1624 to 1642. The first section of this essay will consider Richelieu's early ministry and include the crisis over the Vatlelline valley and the War of Mantuan Succession. Both of these events are important because they show Richelieu before the Day of the Dupes, when his political authority at its weakest. The second section of this essay will address French foreign policy after 1630, specifically its alliance with the Protestant Gustavus Adolphus and its formal entrance into the Thirty Years War in 1635.

    • Word count: 4143
  5. Why had the policies of Charles I and his ministers aroused so much opposition in England by 1640?

    The 'Popish plot to subvert England's religious law'1 was also felt across the other kingdoms of the island of Britain. The puritanical masses within the nation saw Laud's changes as a return to Catholicism. The fact that the King was wed to a catholic, who had her own private church as well as Catholics in her court,2 did little to put minds at ease as to the religious direction of the country. As a result an undercurrent of resistance was formed, and continued to form as England came to odds with Scotland and Ireland over the issue of religion.

    • Word count: 2243
  6. Assess the view that Charles I rather than Archbishop Laud directed ecclesiastical affairs during the 1630s

    Davies too argues that Laud's contribution to policy was minimal, recognising Charles as the author of religious change, responsible entirely for the re-issuing of the Book of Sports for example, and thus prefers to use the term 'Carolinism' rather than 'Laudianism' to describe these reforms of the reign, arguing that to use the latter 'has always given the impression that their source was inherently ecclesiastical and that they emanated invariably from Laud'3. However, there is argument which reasonably contradicts this hypothesis; whilst Charles' name was inscribed on the book of sports, his responsibility for it can not be irrefutably proved,

    • Word count: 3032
  7. The Importance of the Diary for a Study of Archbishop Laud

    However this may mean that a large proportion of the dissertation will be theoretical as much of my argument will be based on what can be inferred from what Laud does, and even fails to record. A study of the diary is particularly important to me because I find Laud to be a fascinating character around whom much historiographical argument is centred. He was pivotal to the breakdown of the Personal Rule, and I believe it will be particularly interesting to examine events from his perspective.

    • Word count: 11421
  8. How, and how effectively, did Charles I raise new sources of revenue in the 1630s?

    Thus, in relation to the property of the subject, an evident difference can be seen between ship money and ship levy money, as not only did the ship money demanded by Charles I in 1634, 1635 and 1636 include inland counties, but it also required a direct payment from each country, over which sheriffs were appointed to supervise. Initially ship money was seen as a one-off, and thus the majority of protests 'concentrated on technical issues of rating and

    • Word count: 3155
  9. Role of Women in New France

    their association with the roles of men.1 It is through this process of diminishing the distinction between the public and domestic sphere that the women within New France lessen their isolation.2 This creates a less divided community. Though it is a generalization, women were substantially more influential in this new society. Before European contact, Aboriginal women exercised a great deal of freedom within their native communities. While most of these women did work along gender lines, they still maintained an extremely important role.3 Not only were they responsible for the children, the future of the tribe, but they also had

    • Word count: 3519
  10. Discuss the significance of scientific developments in Early Modern Europe

    Many Scientists contributed to the major changes. Some of the huge changes that occurred at the time include the theory that the earth was the centre of the universe and not the sun. The poet Pope saw this Scientific revolution as a "sudden burst of genius that altered everything" whereas Newton describes its development as "steady advances that built on earlier ones"1 One thing to be sure of is that this radical new way of thinking was one of the main motives that transformed the medieval times into the modern world.

    • Word count: 1843
  11. How successfully did Della Porta defend the naturalness of his natural magic?

    notes on compounding cosmetics, charms, love philtres, and practical jokes.'3 He writes entire chapters cataloguing animals and plants, such as chapter VI, book II, which is entitled 'How there may be Dogs of great courage, and diverse rare properties, generated of diverse kinds of beasts', and lists the breeds of dog, and their ancestry, claiming that 'a strong Indian-dog may be generated of a Tygre'4 and that 'A strong and swift Dog gendered of a kind of Wolf called Thos'5.

    • Word count: 2478
  12. Landlord Essay

    The differences in barony sizes were immense, ranging from 8,748 statute acres for Kilcullen to 48,264 acres for Carbury. The great estates and houses, such as Carton and Castletown, may create the impression that Kildare's landscape was dominated by such grandiose enterprises. Such a notion is erroneous not only in respect of Kildare but for Ireland as a whole where the moderately sized estate of 1,000 to 5,000 statute acres was the more common form of ownership. Of the 337 estates in the island of Ireland valued at �5,000 and over in 1876, seven were located in County Kildare.

    • Word count: 1457
  13. Significant Event In Russia

    * Was a series of campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union * Stalin carried out a purge of the Red Army as well as a purge of the communist party in the 1930's to eliminate all competition * Refers to collectively related campaigns of political repressions and persecution in the soviet union orchestered by Joseph Stalin during the 1930's which removed all of remaining opposition of power * Stalin's aim was to decimate the ranks of the party and eliminate all potential opposition to his rule * Over millions of people were executed during this period Provisional Government (March 1917-November 1917)

    • Word count: 829
  14. Was there a social or economic content to the political movements in the English Revolution?

    The idea that the supporters of Parliament in this period were a rising 'class' of progressive-minded capitalists, while the supporters of the King were old-fashioned and declining members of the feudal system is one that continued in the arguments even of non-Marxist historians. R.H. Tawney expounded the view that due to differences in adaptability to rising prices, new agricultural techniques and commercial methods, the old-fashioned aristocracy, the crown and the peers, declined in wealth at the same time as the gentry prospered2.

    • Word count: 1545
  15. Assess the reasons that contributed to the downfall of the French Monarchy in August 1792

    France was successful in both wars and had little to show for it apart from a dangerously damaged economy. But at this stage it could perhaps be considered that if money was spent wisely, then France could achieve a slow recovery. However, It was not only expenses on avoidable wars that was to blame for France's growing situation of extreme debt. The upper social classes of French Ancien Regime society joined the King in living excessively extravagant lifestyles. Mammoth costs were associated just with the upkeep of Louis' Palace in Versailles, and the Queen, Marie Antionette was renowned for spending huge some of money on sustaining her lavish lifestyle.

    • Word count: 1977
  16. ISU Comparative Essay

    With his parent's arrival also comes the opening of several other previously closed doors. His relationship with Lilly is suddenly out in the open, and Miles, a fine, upstanding citizen, reveals himself to be no better than James - he is as much as an alcoholic as any other criminal in the facility. When James tells his parents the story of his addiction, he is in essence giving himself another chance to regroup. By telling his parents everything about his life that had occurred for the last decade, he is in fact struggling to keep his anger in control and trying to give his parents as much information as he can, since he feels very clearly that he's lied to them for far too long and does not want to continue this pattern.

    • Word count: 1939
  17. Free essay

    Discuss the idea that The turn of the Screw is written in such a way as to keep the reader in a perpetual state of uncertainty.

    the unconscious rather than the conscious dimension of the text" (Barry p71). There is great evidence of the notion of "deconstruction" in The Turn of the Screw. James maintains a state of uncertainty in The Turn of the Screw by deconstructing the traditional notions of good and evil. The governess has a very conventional view of children and sees them as pure and angelic, and at times almost seems to idolise Miles and Flora. However, James' deconstruction of these binaries causes the reader to reassess their interpretation of children, Miles in particular, and view them as "evil".

    • Word count: 1731
  18. Free essay

    What features/factors can you see in the French Revolution and Napoleonic eras that would make it more difficult for a Bourbon monarchy to establish itself?

    The causes of the revolution of 1789 would become an obstruction to the restored Bourbon monarchy. The main cause was the organization and management of government, the Ancien Regime. There were frequent faults with this technique of governing which caused grievances predominantly in the midst of the Third Estate. There were 360 feudal codes previous to the revolution and there were 29 single-handedly in one particular town. An additional key objection was that fundamentally all decisions were made by the monarch.

    • Word count: 1633
  19. Romantic poets

    The peasants were also starting to get angry with the Lords and the Church because, while they had to pay their taxes with no money, the Lords and the Church refused to pay their taxes when they were wealthy. The storming of the Bastille was one of the first actions of the French revolution. The Bastille was a prison in Paris it held political prisoners of the old regime, the storming of the Bastille prison showed that the people of France were no longer living under the reign of a corrupt political system.

    • Word count: 1145
  20. Why was there a financial crisis in France in 1788/9

    This was so much of a problem because the country was not getting enough money in order to maintain the monarchs lavish spending and the rest of country, not to forget putting money back into the country through investment. As his father, Louis 16th had a very expensive lifestyle and taste, as did his young Austrian wife Marie Antoinette. They would spend excessive amounts on clothing, parties and luxuries. It wouldn't be unknown for the young queen of France to change clothes 2-3 times a day, and the dresses she would be clothed in often costed far more than the state could afford.

    • Word count: 1136
  21. Why did the French land in north Pembrokeshire In 1797 and how were they defeated so quickly?

    A new Revolutionary Government now controlled France. The British Government was now worried. After seeing what had happened in France, they believed that their people could do the same and rebel against them. This meant Britain had to take action. In 1793, Britain declared war on France. After this, a military man named Lazare Hoche, he planned a three pronged attack. He planned to attack Ireland in hope that they would rebel against Britain and have their freedom. He planned to send ships to north England to get support for the revolution and to distract British troops.

    • Word count: 682
  22. Causes of French Revolution essay plan

    Revolution proceeded - power was devolved from the monarchy - power to legislative bodies. The conflicting interests of these previously allied groups then became the source of conflict/bloodshed. Unmanageable national debt Resentment of royal absolutism The rise of Enlightenment ideals Food scarcity in the months leading up to the revolution High unemployment and high bread prices - ppl unable to buy food. Resentment of noble privileges and their dominance in public life by professional classes. Failure of Louis XVI to deal effectively with problems. France 1789 - absolute monarchy ( if only in theory - an increasingly unpopular form of government at the time.)

    • Word count: 551
  23. the french revolution

    Because of his age and the time he was thrown into power, it is believed he had a larger influence in terms of the French revolution. In the French imagination, he was seen as signifying everything that the Estates opposed: centralized government, prosperity, apathy. Though it is certain that Louis XVI failed to maintain the centralization of power; people were under the false impression that he was a vain, obtuse, and inadequate monarch, so clueless that on the day the Bastille was seized by revolutionaries, he wrote in his diary, "Rien," "Nothing happened.".

    • Word count: 2003
  24. causes of the french revolution

    He and his Austrian queen, Marie Antoinette, lived an extravagant life at the Palace of Versailles. They did not really care about the state of their country. The excerpt from the cahiers mentioned in document 3 shows that the votes in the assembly were not taken by head. The people of the 3rd estate felt a sense of betrayal when the king supported the block voting over the head voting. The first two estates worked together to outvote the large third estate to keep them from becoming a threat to the power. Lord Acton, an Englishmen, states that the monarchy being overthrown wasn't the spark of the Revolution.

    • Word count: 1185
  25. "Assimilation and its successor, Association, were euphemisms for the political and economic exploitation of Africans in French West Africa." Comment.

    Raymond F. Betts, argues that the French did not have a real interest in colonization, but they became one of the largest imperial powers of the world. The French adopted the philosophy of assimilation as their policy for colonization. Though the colony was to be made over in the French image, to the French, it could never be as perfect. The policy of assimilation became inadequate and the new policy of association was brought about. Association meant that the French would be involved in their colonies politics, but only to the French benefit.

    • Word count: 2453

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent do you agree with the view expressed in the extract on the importance of the New Model Army during the years 1645-1649?

    "In conclusion, the Army was the "mainspring of the Revolution and the force that deterred more radical change". However, an ongoing bad relationship between King and Parliament influenced this. If their disagreements and arguments had not reached stalemate, perhaps the Army would not have become such a politicized force. The Army deterred social radicals though. Groups such as the Puritans, Presbyterians, the Levellers and the Diggers all failed to gain complete control even though they did try. The Army intervened by using force and stop radical succeeding: "This was a revolution in that it involved a change of a political system by force" (Christopher Hill). This quote sums up the situation completely. The political system was changed due to the force of the New Model Army. Finally, the English Revolution had took place and though the Monarch was restored in 1660, "there could be no question of putting it back to where it had stood before the Civil War" (R.C Richardson), due to the actions of the New Model Army sparking off and making a Revolution inevitable."

  • Would you agree that the future of the Bourbon monarchy was doomed from the start? Discuss this with reference to the events of 1814-15?

    "In conclusion it can be seen that to a certain extent it is not entirely fair to assume that the future of the Bourbon Monarchy was doomed from the start. This was because despite the events that occurred during 1814-15 the economic and social aspects of France outweighed these. It is certain that the election of Louis XVIII was not a very good idea because even though he did make some changes, these did not pacify the people and due to his bad personality he was not well respected as a leader. This will have led to people questioning the future of the Bourbon Monarchy, but it will not have been definitely said that it was doomed for failure."

  • Between 1661 and 1684 French Foreign Policy Was Conducted With Skill and Success.' To What Extent Do You Agree?

    "In conclusion, Wilkinson states that Louis' 'success doomed him.' To an extent this is true. It supports his theory of 'Dragon's teeth' being laid as the success that Louis had in capturing land and attempting to secure his North-Eastern frontier laid the 'Dragon's teeth' and therefore turned many powers on him. Some of these new enemies did turn on him from Louis actions, however some powers turned on him through fear. Although Louis may have caused problems for which he will be accounted for later, he did make a considerable mark on European politics in the years 1661-1684. Alex Lawson 5/2/07 1204"

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