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University Degree: 1700-1799

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    What were the consequences of the agricultural revolution for the rural poor? And how did they respond?

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    the parish, and the rights of use of those lands by private acts of Parliament was a serious blow to the rural poor who relied on the commons for a major part of their livelihood. The gathering of wood and kindling for fuel, the cutting of turfs and peat for the same purpose, along with the natural resources of vegetation and game, plus the grazing rights for what, if any, cattle they may have had were all taken away. It is important to point out that whatever the impact that enclosure had, it was mainly regional in effect, only around

    • Word count: 2175
  2. The role of religion in France in the years before the Terror

    The essay will then discuss the motives of the revolutionary government behind De-Christianization, with a focus on the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, using the Letter in order to display the show the reactions and consequences of the Civil Constitution. Finally, the essay will focus upon how religion in France changed into a militaristic and counterrevolutionary force. In order to do this the essay will consider all the aforementioned evidence, before summarising and concluding as to how the role of religion changed before Terror.

    • Word count: 2215
  3. Depictions of the Boston Massacre 1770. Though the newspaper article and the engraving had similar overall intentions in their construction, these two images of the Massacre differ in their relation of the actual course of events and in their visual impre

    The Boston Massacre was utilized by colonial Patriots and other radicals to fuel the flames of sedition in America against Great Britain and King George III. Several modes of communication, including both textual and visual representations, depicted the event under the influence of Patriotic biases. An article printed in the Boston Gazette, and Country Journal on March 12, 1770, relates a highly subjective version of the confrontation on March 5th, condemning the British soldiers involved. A subsequent engraving of the incident by Paul Revere, called "a Representation of the late horrid Massacre in King St.," was also used to paint the British soldiers in a negative light and encourage colonial dissention against Great Britain.

    • Word count: 2468
  4. To what extent did diplomacy effect the rise of the modern state from 1648-1815?

    After the devastating Thirty Years War nations were pressed for peace and out of this destruction came the Westphalia Treaties that not only concluded the war but ushered in a new period of diplomacy. This period of diplomacy is what is now known as the "classic" period of international diplomacy, and lasted until the Congress of Vienna as a result of the defeat and exile of Napoleon Bonaparte. Diplomacy grew from infancy into a key support for the modern state as we know it today.

    • Word count: 2397
  5. What divided Whigs and Tories in the reigns of William III and Queen Anne (1688-1714)?

    The Whigs accepted William, despite being Dutch, as the rightful King entitled to all the powers of a monarch (Speck, 1970)1. The Tories, however, were adamantly against this - the Tory party had, and still has, a very English influenced jurisdiction aimed to uphold traditions and be conservative in ruling the country; hence the name 'Tory'. A vast majority simply could not accept this new ruler purely for not being native to Britain. This xenophobic attitude, which is a recurring theme throughout Tory policy, created a dislike of William and his Hanoverian successor George I - although George was in

    • Word count: 2161
  6. French Revolution

    According to Bonjour La France (1998), the burden of a heavy and unfair taxation relied on the lower class. The citizens in charge of collecting the taxes tended to overload the figures to their own benefit. Furthermore, the higher class, nobles and the clergy, were exempt from taxation, giving even more reasons for the people to revolt. The American Revolution itself also played a major role. Nosotro (2010) explains that the French, who had been enduring years of amiss government, started to embrace the revolutionary ideas of Enlightenment and Rousseau; and the subversive scenery in America provided them with a clear example of what a real and fair nation should be: a republic.

    • Word count: 2055
  7. The Industrial Revolution

    The negative aspect of the cottage industry was that it was time-consuming and ineffective. Therefore, there was a need to boost the production, thus a series of devices was developed for large-scale manufacturing. Notwithstanding the fact that the early inventions were machines to be used in the cloth industry, it would not take long to spread to the rest of the industries, ergo marking the start of the factory system. Moreover, the aforesaid population growth was another major cause of the Industrial Revolution.

    • Word count: 2328
  8. Free essay

    How did European Powers in America employ concepts of natural law to justify their actions?

    'Only Christian Europeans could offer the Indians a rationalised existence, which the Indians by the Law of Nations were obliged to accept.'4 The desire to civilise those who are seen as barbarous and savage, however, caused debates in the ethics and meanings of natural law. Juan Gin�s de Sep�lveda and Bartolem� de le Casas represented the different sides of the debate: de Sep�lveda claims the natural order of things in the Aristotelian idea of the great chain of being: the coloniser above the uncivilised colonised: It will always be just and in conformity with natural law that such people [the Indians] submit to the rule of more cultured and humane princes and nations.

    • Word count: 2650
  9. The Tsarist Regime Since 1825

    This left the majority of the population; the peasants extremely poor. In the country peasants had to work with land of poor quality and there were often food shortages. In the cities a worker had a normal working day of more than eleven hours, while their wages were very low. To add to that the scarcity of accommodation forced them to live in overcrowded shelters, where in some cases up to ten people would share a room with one bed.

    • Word count: 2036
  10. Stalin's rise to power

    Stalin then set about showing the people of Russia that he was the rightful heir to Lenin's legacy. Stalin started by delivering the speech at his funeral presenting himself as the chief mourner. This contrasts with Trotsky, Stalin's main rival, who failed to even turn up to the funeral giving a frail excuse, that nobody informed him. The Funeral was an 'occasion which demonstrated both the skills of Stalin in Manipulating events and Trotsky's lack of Judgement'. 2 The absence of Trotsky was seen as a sign of betrayal by some Bolsheviks.

    • Word count: 2470
  11. How the Mexican revolution changed attitudes towards the "Indians", looking at race and class.

    When the Spanish colonised Mexico they decided to group all the people that already lived there, and termed them as "Indians". What it meant to be "Indian", was to be exploited and oppressed by the Spanish. Terms like these require analysis, and need to be looked at how they have been created historically. Columbus thought he got to India, and called the people he discovered Indians. This is a great example of historical/social play on race. Some academics believe that ethnic groups are forged, historically and socially usually through exploitation and oppression. The "Indians" are a great example of this.

    • Word count: 2018
  12. What were the social, economic and political consequences of Tsarist economic policies during 1890-1905?

    Yet like the policies of Stalin, (nearly 30 later) this industrialisation had profound effects on Russian society. Industrialisation led to many peasant migrants coming to the cities from the countryside in order to work in the new factories. As a result there was severe overcrowding, especially in the two principal cities, Moscow and St Petersburg. Class consciousness was becoming more evident, with the development of a working class who recognised their poor working conditions and the differences between themselves and the factory owners. As well as the growth of the trade unions, various political groups were becoming increasingly active.

    • Word count: 2034
  13. Moore's Paths to Dictatorship and Democracy.

    Another two factors are the relationship that the agrarian upper class has with both the peasants and the bourgeoisie; it is significant if an alliance is formed with either or neither. The last factor is the degree to which power is decentralized in pre-modern social structure, in other words, the relationship the nobility have with the central authority (423). It is these five variables that Moore argues answers the crucial question of how major areas of the world advanced into the modern one it is today.

    • Word count: 2533
  14. Account For America’s Industrial Growth After 1865.

    was a more likely factor for this interpretation.3 Economic historians in general have tended to downplay the significance of the Civil War. The process of industrialisation was already underway before the war, so by analysing indices of industrial activity before and after, they have concluded that the Civil War actually restricted industry's advance.4 The sudden rise in overall industrial production by 47 % from 1865 to 1870 has been attributed to a sudden release of the growth, which had in effect been dammed up because of the war.5 Whatever affects the war had, after 1865 the overall trend was one of rapid industrialisation, the ferocity of which had hitherto been unseen.

    • Word count: 2446
  15. Can there ever be a justification for revolutionary politics.

    Finally, no matter what revolutionary sentiment or tactics are employed, they will encounter some level of resistance or outright hostility from the established system, and its supporters. Revolutionaries can not help but be perceived as a threat by any conventional system; this will in turn blur any attempt to quantify the rights and wrongs of revolutionary politics. No governmental system can ever hope to satisfy all sections of the society under its authority, which inevitably leads to the appearance of revolutionary ideologies, which then become revolutionary political movements, creating a cycle.

    • Word count: 2813
  16. Critically consider the view that reform is the best means of achieving a socialist society.

    The first major split in the Marxist movement was prompted by Eduard Bernstein. The crux of Bernstein's argument was that Capitalism would develop the means to support its internal contradictions and that therefore there would be no social revolution at the point of capitalist collapse. He proposed the policy of reform and famously stated that to him the end did not matter, the movement was everything. Bernstein's revisionism caused a split in Marxist thinking and in time the pro reform revisionists have become the most prominent socialists. The British Labour Party and The German SPD are two of Europe's leading social democratic parties, both of whom have adopted the policy of reform as opposed to revolution.

    • Word count: 2224
  17. A Discussion of the Differences in the Industrialisation of Belgium and the Netherlands from the 17th Century to the end of the 19th Century.

    The most significant Dutch business was in the buying and selling of raw materials as opposed to manufacturing, although this suffered later on as nearly every European country began, (in an effort to develop their own industries), to impose high import and export taxes on good entering and leaving, making this trade un-economical. Despite attempts at encouraging autarky (the nationalistic reliance on a nation's own resources and industry), the Dutch failed to stimulate an interest. This was partly due to Dutch manufacturer's reluctance to adopt new technologies and methods of production from abroad, meaning their goods were usually significantly less advanced and more expensive than their foreign rival's (and a large business in smuggling made them even more attractive).

    • Word count: 2254
  18. In which ways did the industrial revolution change Britain and the British State and what were the consequences for British citizens?

    so that it would eventually be in shape for production. Land Enclosure Enclosures were the primary stages in rural development that resulted in the confiscation of what had usually been common land so as to prepare it for eventual farming. Enclosures slowly transformed English agriculture from the antiquated system of open fields farmed by the peasants, into a system of state run operations. Enclosures were created for different reasons at different times, although mainly for profit, and the response to the development depended on whether it was affecting valuable arable land or common wastes.

    • Word count: 2406
  19. The Surrealists Had No Practical Political Programme: They Were Nothing More Than Idealists and Dreamers” Do YouThink This Criticism Is Justified? Discuss.

    The surrealist's used methods to explore their New World, the unconscious, the dream the fantastic or the marvellous. Those methods included automatic writing1. They had their own definition of science, which had nothing to do with logic, quite the contrary. All surrealists were trying automatic writing until eventually it became their gateway to the marvellous, the key to the liberation of man's imagination. Surrealists often published accounts of dreams along with automatic poems in La R�volution Surr�aliste2. Breton explained the revolutionary goal of surrealism as being the merging of two opposites into one continuum. "I believe in the future resolution of these two states of dream and reality seemingly so contradictory into a kind of absolute reality, surreality" (Breton).

    • Word count: 2797
  20. Should 'westernisation' be regarded as the distinguishing feature of Peter the Great's reign?

    Such growth continued throughout his reign until by 1725 some 285,000 men had been recruited. Together with the introduction of standard drill manuals for the whole army, Peter's forces were raised into a position where they were a match both in quality and in number for any European adversary. Despite the persistence of old Muscovite practices such as the self-maintenance of some units, and despite the high losses caused by desertion (as was inevitable with a large conscript force), the westernisation of the Russian army was pursued with vigour under Peter.

    • Word count: 2246
  21. How and with what success did Russia industrialise in the late nineteenth century until 1914?

    Overall the government saw that an economic advance would lead to increased wealth, and thus greater potential government revenue. The need for industrialisation was clearly vital for the Russian government; however it did face certain practical difficulties and problems which hindered the acceleration of industrial development. There was an inefficient domestic agricultural system which, coupled with the depression in agricultural prices in 1879 and the move towards protectionism in Europe, led to "a re-think in the Ministry of Finance which...had practised free trade policies". The government, which had elements within "hostile to industrialisation...and afraid of the proletariat"5, was dominated by conservative ruling elite who were "concerned to prevent surplus rural population drifting to towns... [and] keen to preserve Mir".

    • Word count: 2722
  22. How does John Reed's eye-witness account help the historian to understand the Russian Revolution?

    John Reed's Ten Days That Shook the World2 is a detailed account of the November Revolution. Where this book fails, as such, is that the November Revolution is only one aspect of "the Russian Revolution". To use the term Russian Revolution is to suggest that there was just one, whereas the reality is there were several separate government upheavals3 which led to the replacement of the existing political system, as well as many demonstrations and actions involved. While the book purports to offer a picture of the November Revolution its highly superficial acknowledgement of the circumstances that precipitated this change limits the historians' understanding of the Russian Revolution as a process and not an event.

    • Word count: 2374
  23. How did industrialisation affect healthand environment before 1850? Discuss in relation to a geographical area of your choice.

    There have been many debates over standards of living by two groups of historians. The 'optimists' who say that living standards improved during the period of industrial revolution (roughly between 1780 1850) and in contrast, the 'pessimists' who argue against the disadvantages of industrialisation.. These historical perceptions always act as barriers for the focus of disagreements about the effects of industrialisation on environment and health.4 I will be focusing on how industrialisation affected the health and environment of inhabitants and of employees from working in factories to homes.

    • Word count: 2131
  24. In what ways was Britain ripe for revolution between 1783-1832 and if so, why did no revolution take place?

    On reflection, rather than inspiring radical protest, the French Revolution encouraged its suppression, although it did play an important role in the political awakening of the lower classes as the radical ideology of liberty, equality and brotherhood was derived from French example. Throughout this period the industrial revolution was taking place and many of the emerging cities had no MPs. A new wealthy 'middle class' of manufacturers and merchants were frustrated to find the system so biased against them. It created new problems and tensions for industrial workers, and many believed a change in the political system would be the first step towards better conditions.

    • Word count: 2303
  25. Was Italy any closer to unification in 1849 than she had been in 1847?

    These however were only two strong links in a chain that was largely completed with weaker links. The Papal states' political outlook had changed quite markedly pre-1848, for example they had been given a limited freedom of speech and also he appointed a non-clerical council to help run the State, this change was due to the new Pope, Pias IX, coming to leadership in 1846, and with him he brought what appeared to be a largely liberal outlook, shown in his freeing up of the press censorship, and also the means of acting as a catalyst to the large Anti-Austrian feeling at the time.

    • Word count: 2216

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • What was the extent of political participation in eighteenth-century England?

    "We have seen, then, that the range of ways in which the people of eighteenth-century England could take an active role in politics, whether formal or informal, direct or indirect, or local or national, was significantly varied. Despite the fact that the right to direct electoral participation was restricted to male freeholders of above 40 shillings, the door to political participation was closed to no man or woman. Virtually all social strata could participate informally, through publishing or reading political ideas in print, using social contacts to secure patronage or airing their grievances in crowds on the street; that is, voting with their feet."

  • To what extent did the aims and ideals of the French Revolution affect the following century?

    "In conclusion, I would say that the French Revolution did have an impact on the following century as it allowed the Italian Unification to take place as well as the forces for change (liberalism and nationalism) to spread. But should be taken into account that it did not bring about the German unification or most of the 1848 revolutions as it was not needed for what they were trying to achieve. But, on the whole it did have a huge impact on the following century."

  • With reference to The Social Contract, discuss the ways in which Rousseau explores the notion of duty to the state.

    "He disliked conflicting views because of his conviction that there is only one general will, and that anyone who consults their reason in a clearheaded and rational manner will arrive at the same deduction of what is in the best interests of the state. Unfortunately, one of the flaws in Rousseau's argument is that it refutes the concept of people arriving at different conclusions because we are unique and complex individuals with diverse thought patterns and beliefs. Alice Buffini U738198X Page 1 of 2"

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