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University Degree: 1700-1799

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  1. Were the American Revolution and subsequent constitution influenced more by Lockes idea of the social contract or by Montesquieus concept of checks and balances?

    The question at hand is to what extent or greater amount did John Locke's earlier writings of Social Contract Theory play an influential role here? Or was his work succeeded by the rivalling theories of Montesquieu's Checks and Balances? Which of these two theorists can be accredited with giving the modern world its first step towards democratic government, and the demise of absolutist tyrannical rule of a Monarch? From the outset the first response to answering such an argument would be to think of the American Revolution and political outcomes in terms of stages, in the early stages in which

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  2. Why was there a terror in France?

    In addition, the war against the majority of Europe was going badly at the time- reinforcing their thesis. On the other hand, Revisionists such as Fran´┐Żois Furet4 argue that the Terror springs directly from the revolutionary ideology itself. Revisionists, such as Lynn Hunt, argue that the language used in 1789 indicated that the 'Terror mentality' was there5. In addition, Furet points out from Maximillien Robespierre's speech to the Convention on the 5th of February 1794, that he argues that "virtue without terror is fatal" 6- it was necessary. It must be said that to reach a real explanation both theses have to be combined. The ideology was there, but the circumstances were needed for it to become evident.

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  3. THe industrial revolution case study

    This system allowed people to work from home, where the family spent time in the cottage producing and part of it's time in the open fields farming. The traditional system of arable farming that had existed for centuries and during 1750 was the Open Field or Three Field System. The aim of this farming system was to grow enough food for everyone in the village and was largely communal. It was done on three fields which produced wheat for bread and barley for ale and the crops were rotated and land was rested to increase productivity.

    • Word count: 3567
  4. Although the American Civil War started after the Confederate States seceded from the Union and fired upon the American flag, was slavery the true cause of the War? If so, how?

    For this reason, many historians use this to argue that the Civil War was irrepressible. Such a view on the origins of the Civil War may have been accepted by Abraham Lincoln, who said weeks before his death, that he believed 'somehow' that slavery was responsible for the start of the war.3 There is no denying the fact that the issue of slavery played a crucial role in the build up to the Civil War, how much responsibility it held however is a recurring argument amongst historians. Some suggest that the issue of slavery is the principal one lead Southerners to secede from the Union, others suggest that the divisions that already existed between the two sectors were too strong and that Civil War was an inevitable consequence.

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  5. Through examining the historians Georges Lefebvre and Alfred Cobban, what are the underlying factors that shape and affect the historian's writing of the French Revolution

    This rendered the re-structuring of my essay from an initially integrated piece which examined the difference of opinion within a specific area. Overall, throughout the process, I have attempted to sustain the focus of my research as an exploration of factors which contribute and form a historian's interpretation of a historical event. _____________________________________________________________________________________ The French Revolution is a subject of much heated debate for the past two centuries. The fundamental reason for this is that historians are reflective of their individual context, ideology and political stance.

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  6. The Bolsheviks did not seize power in October 1917, it fell into their hands

    Liberal interpretations are scornful of the Marxist view, and see the revolution, as Daniels puts it, as 'a series of lucky developments.'1 Rather than the Revolution being an expression of popular will, Lenin was said to have manipulated the workers and other socialists. Yet this view is so set against the soviet view that it fails to concede to any Marxist point, often degenerating into something even more biased than a soviet interpretation. The libertarian view, although leftist, views the Bolsheviks as counter revolutionary, giving sympathy to the Mensheviks and SRs claiming Lenin hijacked the revolutionary promise of 1917.

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  7. Why did Tsar Nicholas II Abdicate in 1917?

    Bibliography 14 Appendix 15-17 Introduction In 1917 Tsar Nicholas II abdicated the throne of Russia in favor of his Brother Grand Duke Michael Aleksandrovich. This is an extremely puzzling event in Russian history for many reasons. In the period leading up to the revolution no one even foresaw the revolution or such a sudden fall of Tsarism. Actually if the facts are considered as they stand in many textbooks it is strange that the empire did not fall apart earlier in 1905 when the revolts exceeded those of 1917.1 Russia before the revolution upheld very traditional systems of government, legislation and military structure.

    • Word count: 5352
  8. With reference to any major uprising against political authority, assess the relative importance of the reasons why it was either successful or unsuccessful.

    Marxist and many other historians argue that Tsarism was living on borrowed time ever since. The elites believed a new, more efficient Tsar would reconsolidate the monarchy and appease the masses that were protesting. Political parties aimed to be in government, this required elections and/or revolutions. The political parties varied in their aims Bolsheviks aimed to be the government of Russia, creating a Communist society supported by Soviets. The bulk of their support came from the industrial working classes, although Trotsky, Lenin and all other important figures of the party, the only exception perhaps being Stalin, were middle class.

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  9. Industry and Community - View of the Agriculture of Middlesex, 1807.

    This enabled the conversion of land from arable to pasture and endowed landowners with rights of ownership. The second wave expanded the land area by cultivating the marginal lands of the wastes and commons to put land to more profitable use; this was fuelled by the demands of the Napoleonic wars.3 Clearly, parliamentary enclosure benefited the landowner and aimed to boost the economic strength of the nation. Whilst little is documented of John Middleton, his observations in View of the Agriculture of Middlesex formed part of a survey of the agricultural practices of England and Wales.

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  10. How was the Nature and Geography of Rural Class Relations Changed by the 'Agricultural Revolution' in the eighteenth and early nineteenth century England?

    The ways in which the long-established social relations between all members of the rural society were transformed by these processes is described in the first part of this essay, particularly relationships between the powerful and subordinate. Arguably the single most important factor in the agricultural revolution and social relations was the reformulation and reorganization of space, known as enclosure. Enclosure is defined as 'the process by which common rights over an area of land were extinguished and scattered properties consolidated.'i In most cases the rural poor were therefore left with no land and the landowners acquired more.

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  11. "On fait de la politique pour des raisons personnelles, mais en faisant de la politique on vise des fins qui dépassent l'individu." (JEAN BAECHLER) Discuss with reference to at least two of the authors you have studied.

    He is contrasted to Borodine, also a man of action, but a dedicated Communist who engages in revolution with a clear picture what they are fighting to create. Borodine is therefore critical of Garine's motives and lack of serious commitment. The key to understanding Garine's personal motives for being involved in the Chinese revolution lies in his past. His biography shows us that he spent his youth flitting from one revolution to another, looking for adventure and a chance to prove himself.

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  12. Along with women's struggle's for liberation, workers struggle's for unions and many anti-imperialist struggle's in the Third World the history of the Russian Revolution has been stolen from us.

    And last but certainly not least - does the Russian Revolution have any relevance to changing the world today? "Soviets, you know, are ours"2 The Bolsheviks dissolved the Constituent Assembly in January 1918 and it remains to this day one of their most contentious acts. Many consider this act to have officially started the Cold War, as George Kennan notes that this act severed Russia from the West with "an element of finality".3 If not the Cold War in general, at least 'phase 1' as Noam Chomsky believes.4 Chomsky is also quite critical of the Bolsheviks decision to dissolve the

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  13. Was the industrial Revolution a good thing?

    A good thing about the Domestic System was that they could keep all of the profits for themselves because they sold their products at the nearest market town. They were self-employed, so there was no middleman taking the profits away from them, unlike in the factories and mills. All of these facts about the textile industry and the Domestic System before the Industrial Revolution make the Industrial Revolution a bad thing because the Domestic System had a lot of benefits.

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  14. Were The Causes Of The French Revolution Mainly Short Term?

    The peasantry had remained largely passive in their opposition until 1788 and it has been put forward that their uprising acted as the catalyst which sparked the revolution. Strongly related to the discontent of the peasantry was the economic situation in France at the time of the revolution. In the years before 1789 the French Economy was experiencing deterioration and had accumulated enormous debt. However, a decisive turning point was the harvest failure of 1788 and the agricultural crisis which was caused as a result.

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  15. Marxism versus Sectarianism - "The dogs bark: therefore the caravan is moving." (Arab proverb) - An alien method.

    Why were the great Marxists so scrupulous in answering the ideas of their opponents? This was not for sentimental reasons, but because the aim of a polemic is to raise the political level of the cadres, not to score cheap debating points. There is nothing easier than to erect a straw man and then demolish him. That is just what Luis Oviedo has done. He distorts our ideas, which he then triumphantly "answers" (that is to say, he answers what has not been said). Then, like a little boy with new shoes, he struts around proudly telling everybody: "You see how clever I am."

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  16. Is the Cultural Revolution best characterised as a top-level power struggle or a mass movement?

    Mao and his associates were thus trying to re-impose their suzerainty over these areas of society, where they felt that a bourgeoisie comeback was most likely to be staged. Disenchantment following the disasters of the Great Leap was not exclusive to the countryside. Within educational institutions, a dramatic cut in the number of University places available meant that students became fiercely competitive. Diminishing job opportunities in the cities resulted in qualified graduates having to face the prospect of a lifetime working in the countryside3.

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  17. It is true that Comrade Mao Tse-tung made gross mistakes during the 'Cultural Revolution', but his contributions to the Chinese revolution far outweigh his mistakes.'[Resolution on some questions in CCP history, CCP Central Committee, June 1981]Discuss

    (Short 1999:pp19-81) In late 1918, Mao Tse-tung left Changsha for Beijing. He worked as an assistant librarian at the Beijing University which had then become the center of radical Chinese intellectual and political life. Under the influence of radical intellectuals and their activist student followers, Mao became increasingly politicized. Finally He became one of the most activists in the Chinese Communist Party. And he was given higher position as time went by. By 1924, he had already become deeply involved in politics in Canton, a major city in South China (Spence1999: P66).

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  18. To What Extent Was The Destruction Of The Principle Of Privilege The Most Consequence Of The French Revolution For France?

    The reason why the Enlightenment was so effective was that it concerned itself with almost every branch of knowledge from the physical sciences, through history, religion and education, to government, politics & economics. It was also helped by the fact that writers and journalists spread these very ideas to aristocrats, lowly lawyers and even artisans. This was achieved in the form of pamphlets, criticising the monarchy and the privileged. Such criticism did much to undermine the respect for the privileged orders and the monarchy.

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  19. The Enlightenment laid the foundations of the French Revolution

    The Enlightenment caused the intellectuals of France to question the system of government that they were forced to endure, and led them to question whether a better solution might not be found. Author Henri Peyre concurs with this viewpoint of questioning the state of affairs as he writes. "The propaganda of the 'Philosophes' perhaps more than any other factor accounted for the....French Revolution, namely, discontent with the existing state of things" (Henri Peyre 174). Peyre goes onto say, "18th century philosophy taught the Frenchman to find his condition wretched, unjust and illogical and made him disinclined to the patient resignation to his troubles that had long characterized his ancestors" (Peyre 170).

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  20. Intrigue and controversy surround the role of Grigorii Efimovich Rasputin in the final years of the Tsarist Empire and the rule of Nicholas II in particular.

    When Rasputin, a mere peasant, left Siberia in 1893 no one could have anticipated that he would have end up in the confides of the Alexander Palace. After many years of travelling Rasputin arrived into the Imperial Capital, St. Petersburg in 1902. His reputation for saintly powers of healing and clairvoyance, quickly made Rasputin a name and he soon acquired a loyal following among the Russian aristocracy; The Montenegrin sisters, Militsa and Anastasia, who were members of the Imperial family and in the Tsarina's affection1 were early examples.

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  21. Expressions of German Nationalism 1815-1847

    Literature German literature has a very rich historical tradition and the period of Restoration certainly produced many works and authors from whom an assessment of political feeling and direction can be extrapolated. Variations on romantic thought preceded the Restoration but it is the movements known today as Sturm und Drang (Storm and Stress), Biedermeier and Junges Deutschland (Young Germany) that can provide much insight to German politics. But also political movements such as the Burschenschaften which was a network of secret student societies that agitated for diverse aims but primarily the ideas of constitutional reform, unification of the German nation, socialism (at times)

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  22. Why did the Industrial Revolution Occur in Britain First?

    land.1 These improvements created larger farms, maximized the landowners? income, allowed a large number of people to eat better, and increased the available quantity of agricultural commodities.1 The increased production in grain allowed urban areas to grow.1 Also, advances made in farming techniques helped to increase Britain?s agricultural productivity. Some of the improvements introduced to farming practice that helped raise agricultural productivity were Jethro Tull?s new technique of constant tillage, the invention of the seed drill, the development of the Rotherham triangular plough, and various improvements in the design of hand tools.2 These were substantial steps towards a decreased dependence on manual labor in farming.

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Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • What was the extent of political participation in eighteenth-century England?

    "We have seen, then, that the range of ways in which the people of eighteenth-century England could take an active role in politics, whether formal or informal, direct or indirect, or local or national, was significantly varied. Despite the fact that the right to direct electoral participation was restricted to male freeholders of above 40 shillings, the door to political participation was closed to no man or woman. Virtually all social strata could participate informally, through publishing or reading political ideas in print, using social contacts to secure patronage or airing their grievances in crowds on the street; that is, voting with their feet."

  • To what extent did the aims and ideals of the French Revolution affect the following century?

    "In conclusion, I would say that the French Revolution did have an impact on the following century as it allowed the Italian Unification to take place as well as the forces for change (liberalism and nationalism) to spread. But should be taken into account that it did not bring about the German unification or most of the 1848 revolutions as it was not needed for what they were trying to achieve. But, on the whole it did have a huge impact on the following century."

  • With reference to The Social Contract, discuss the ways in which Rousseau explores the notion of duty to the state.

    "He disliked conflicting views because of his conviction that there is only one general will, and that anyone who consults their reason in a clearheaded and rational manner will arrive at the same deduction of what is in the best interests of the state. Unfortunately, one of the flaws in Rousseau's argument is that it refutes the concept of people arriving at different conclusions because we are unique and complex individuals with diverse thought patterns and beliefs. Alice Buffini U738198X Page 1 of 2"

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