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University Degree: 1700-1799

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  1. How was the Nature and Geography of Rural Class Relations Changed by the 'Agricultural Revolution' in the eighteenth and early nineteenth century England?

    The ways in which the long-established social relations between all members of the rural society were transformed by these processes is described in the first part of this essay, particularly relationships between the powerful and subordinate. Arguably the single most important factor in the agricultural revolution and social relations was the reformulation and reorganization of space, known as enclosure. Enclosure is defined as 'the process by which common rights over an area of land were extinguished and scattered properties consolidated.'i In most cases the rural poor were therefore left with no land and the landowners acquired more.

    • Word count: 3751
  2. "On fait de la politique pour des raisons personnelles, mais en faisant de la politique on vise des fins qui dépassent l'individu." (JEAN BAECHLER) Discuss with reference to at least two of the authors you have studied.

    He is contrasted to Borodine, also a man of action, but a dedicated Communist who engages in revolution with a clear picture what they are fighting to create. Borodine is therefore critical of Garine's motives and lack of serious commitment. The key to understanding Garine's personal motives for being involved in the Chinese revolution lies in his past. His biography shows us that he spent his youth flitting from one revolution to another, looking for adventure and a chance to prove himself.

    • Word count: 3156
  3. Moore's Paths to Dictatorship and Democracy.

    Another two factors are the relationship that the agrarian upper class has with both the peasants and the bourgeoisie; it is significant if an alliance is formed with either or neither. The last factor is the degree to which power is decentralized in pre-modern social structure, in other words, the relationship the nobility have with the central authority (423). It is these five variables that Moore argues answers the crucial question of how major areas of the world advanced into the modern one it is today.

    • Word count: 2533
  4. Why did Imperial Russia succumb to Revolution in 1917?

    Defeats occurred even in early 1914, exemplified by Tannenberg. The Tsar's decision to take over as Commander-in-Chief in August 1915 was disastrous, implementing inadequate military strategies contrary to the experienced advice, for example, the halting of General Brusilov's offensive in summer 1916. A total of 3.8 million casualties had increased to 9.8 million by 1917, inevitably leading to disillusionment and mass army desertion. Revisionists however, would argue that Nicholas justifiably took command; he wanted to replace the Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich, because he had become a symbol of Duma criticism.

    • Word count: 1800
  5. During the first half of the 19th century, the United States was transformed by the Industrial Revolution. The revolution was greatly aided; it grew out of a convergence of public approaches and private intesity.

    In Document E, a map is shown to illustrate the canals built by the state governments in the Northeast. In little more than a decade, canals joined together all the major lakes and rivers east of the Mississippi. In Document I, it states that the federal government invested their money in the canals, roads, and manufacturing firms. Updated transportation meant lower food prices in the east, more immigrants settling in the west, and mending economic ties between the two sections. The governments were wise in their decision to not put any restriction on immigration. During the years of 1840-1850, as shown in Document G, the number of immigrants soared.

    • Word count: 660
  6. Trotsky's autobiography, My Life. An Attempt at an Autobiography reveals much about the October revolution from Bolshevik eyes.

    Stalin is therefore seen as having no input or influence in the October revolution and as a result of this, Trotsky would be seen as a more appropriate leader of the Bolsheviks and socialist Russia. Despite the questionable intentions of Trotsky's autobiography it can still very much be taken into account as an accurate depiction of the revolution, "after a close and critical examination I still find Trotsky's My Life as scrupulously truthful as any work of this kind can be".1 Many factors assisted the Bolsheviks in their victory in October and an external factor that played a very important role in this was the growing discontent with the Provisional Government.

    • Word count: 1915
  7. Account For America’s Industrial Growth After 1865.

    was a more likely factor for this interpretation.3 Economic historians in general have tended to downplay the significance of the Civil War. The process of industrialisation was already underway before the war, so by analysing indices of industrial activity before and after, they have concluded that the Civil War actually restricted industry's advance.4 The sudden rise in overall industrial production by 47 % from 1865 to 1870 has been attributed to a sudden release of the growth, which had in effect been dammed up because of the war.5 Whatever affects the war had, after 1865 the overall trend was one of rapid industrialisation, the ferocity of which had hitherto been unseen.

    • Word count: 2446
  8. Can there ever be a justification for revolutionary politics.

    Finally, no matter what revolutionary sentiment or tactics are employed, they will encounter some level of resistance or outright hostility from the established system, and its supporters. Revolutionaries can not help but be perceived as a threat by any conventional system; this will in turn blur any attempt to quantify the rights and wrongs of revolutionary politics. No governmental system can ever hope to satisfy all sections of the society under its authority, which inevitably leads to the appearance of revolutionary ideologies, which then become revolutionary political movements, creating a cycle.

    • Word count: 2813
  9. Along with women's struggle's for liberation, workers struggle's for unions and many anti-imperialist struggle's in the Third World the history of the Russian Revolution has been stolen from us.

    And last but certainly not least - does the Russian Revolution have any relevance to changing the world today? "Soviets, you know, are ours"2 The Bolsheviks dissolved the Constituent Assembly in January 1918 and it remains to this day one of their most contentious acts. Many consider this act to have officially started the Cold War, as George Kennan notes that this act severed Russia from the West with "an element of finality".3 If not the Cold War in general, at least 'phase 1' as Noam Chomsky believes.4 Chomsky is also quite critical of the Bolsheviks decision to dissolve the

    • Word count: 3379
  10. Account for the collapse of the Tsarist regime in February 1917.

    The early Romanov rulers put back into place a system of autocratic government, which included the enserfment of the peasants. When Alexander 1 (1801-1825) died in 1825, he died heirless, thus his youngest brother Nicholas1 became Tsar. Reform was stifled under Nicholas, the course that Russia should take was the subject of considerable if suppressed debate. The arguments of the "Westernisers" and "Slavophiles" clashed, the former wishing Russia to adopt European ideas, the latter promoting what they saw as traditional Russian values.

    • Word count: 1819
  11. Critically consider the view that reform is the best means of achieving a socialist society.

    The first major split in the Marxist movement was prompted by Eduard Bernstein. The crux of Bernstein's argument was that Capitalism would develop the means to support its internal contradictions and that therefore there would be no social revolution at the point of capitalist collapse. He proposed the policy of reform and famously stated that to him the end did not matter, the movement was everything. Bernstein's revisionism caused a split in Marxist thinking and in time the pro reform revisionists have become the most prominent socialists. The British Labour Party and The German SPD are two of Europe's leading social democratic parties, both of whom have adopted the policy of reform as opposed to revolution.

    • Word count: 2224
  12. Why do Historians tend to disagree so much?

    History is difficult, therefore there are going to be different thoughts or answers to different topics. Also, historians know a limited amount about the past therefore what is written by academics is bound to be different and debatable. For example, it is not dates that are debatable (in most cases), no one can deny nor disagree that King Harold was killed at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. However, if one was to ask, "what was the significance of Harold's death?" then a huge debate is open to historians. It is often the question of significance of such events that causes historians to disagree so much.

    • Word count: 1856
  13. A Discussion of the Differences in the Industrialisation of Belgium and the Netherlands from the 17th Century to the end of the 19th Century.

    The most significant Dutch business was in the buying and selling of raw materials as opposed to manufacturing, although this suffered later on as nearly every European country began, (in an effort to develop their own industries), to impose high import and export taxes on good entering and leaving, making this trade un-economical. Despite attempts at encouraging autarky (the nationalistic reliance on a nation's own resources and industry), the Dutch failed to stimulate an interest. This was partly due to Dutch manufacturer's reluctance to adopt new technologies and methods of production from abroad, meaning their goods were usually significantly less advanced and more expensive than their foreign rival's (and a large business in smuggling made them even more attractive).

    • Word count: 2254
  14. What had the Bolsheviks achieved by 1924?

    By ceding over these lands to Germany, this had meant that Russia had lost about one-third of farmlands and being predominantly an agrarian economy, this was a heavy blow to Russia's economy which drew heavy opposition from the Leftist Social Revolutionaries. However, Lenin was not going to compromise not even to opposition by Trotsky nor Bukharin and went further to secure the treaty by threatening to resign if the Bolshevik Central Committee did not agree to it. In this respect, it shoed that Lenin was a realist who was prepared to make compromises for the survival of Russia and his

    • Word count: 1495
  15. Is the term 'Industrial Revolution' an accurate description of the economic changes taking place in the period 1760-1850?

    For the nineteenth century they used an incomes approach, looking at the numbers of people employed in different areas of the economy and multiplying these numbers with the available wage data from that period. In fact they took the data from 1850 and hence calculated backwards. They also took into account available tax assessment and rent data to estimate the amount of profit generated in non-work areas. However the data is not comprehensive by any means, there are numerous gaps which might have led to serious errors and miscalculations.

    • Word count: 1191
  16. Truth About the Noli - Almost all historians agree that the Noli Me Tangere is factual. The characters, events and places mentioned in the novel match that of the nineteenth century Philippines'.

    100) On the other hand, the personage of Ibarra cannot be assumed in real life as Jose Rizal himself; Although, the character's ideals are congruent with that of the author. Yet the most mysterious and romanticized character in the novel is Elias. He seems to possess "all the virtues of the villager: gratitude, abnegation, sacrifice, and devotion to his country." He was crafted with passion by Rizal. (Ozaeta. 1949. p. 74) Perhaps, Elias is real in that he can be compared with different people unlike Capitan Tiago and Tasio who represent particular personalities.

    • Word count: 1076
  17. In which ways did the industrial revolution change Britain and the British State and what were the consequences for British citizens?

    so that it would eventually be in shape for production. Land Enclosure Enclosures were the primary stages in rural development that resulted in the confiscation of what had usually been common land so as to prepare it for eventual farming. Enclosures slowly transformed English agriculture from the antiquated system of open fields farmed by the peasants, into a system of state run operations. Enclosures were created for different reasons at different times, although mainly for profit, and the response to the development depended on whether it was affecting valuable arable land or common wastes.

    • Word count: 2406
  18. The Surrealists Had No Practical Political Programme: They Were Nothing More Than Idealists and Dreamers” Do YouThink This Criticism Is Justified? Discuss.

    The surrealist's used methods to explore their New World, the unconscious, the dream the fantastic or the marvellous. Those methods included automatic writing1. They had their own definition of science, which had nothing to do with logic, quite the contrary. All surrealists were trying automatic writing until eventually it became their gateway to the marvellous, the key to the liberation of man's imagination. Surrealists often published accounts of dreams along with automatic poems in La R�volution Surr�aliste2. Breton explained the revolutionary goal of surrealism as being the merging of two opposites into one continuum. "I believe in the future resolution of these two states of dream and reality seemingly so contradictory into a kind of absolute reality, surreality" (Breton).

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  19. To what extent was perestroika little more than a Soviet form of democratization?

    Production was cut by 50% in the state run factories.3 By 1987 sales of alcoholic spirits were down to 35.7 billion rubles from 51 billion rubles (about 16% of total retail sales) in 1984.4 Whilst it may seem the policy was successful, it deprived retail outlets of billions of rubles and was not a popular policy with the people. The system was destined to fail, and the campaign was abandoned in 1988, prompting alcohol sales to increase by 39% the following year.

    • Word count: 1659
  20. From 1911-14 were the Trade Unions a threat to British society?

    A further reason which historians use to demonstrate the influences of syndicalism, is the sheer scale and seriousness of strikes taking place and certainly there was a noticeable increase in the number of working days lost and the number of strikes after 1910. In 1912, forty-one million working days were lost, when in the preceding five years the average had been just seven million. The maximum number of actual strikes was in 1913, when 1,459 took place, compared to an average of 600 in the preceding six years.

    • Word count: 904
  21. To what extent can forced collectivisation be described as a 'success'?

    Peasants were emphasised to join the collective farm (kolkhoz) voluntarily. Stalin implemented the Ural-Siberian method, "The method, sometimes called Self Taxation, involved the use of social pressure against kulaks".2 This was the start of dekulakisation, this campaign was the crucial weapon in the collectivisation process. Dekulakisation was divided into three classes; category one: kulaks were forced into labour camps or killed; category two: the kulaks were exiled; category three: the least dangerous were removed to a smaller patch. Dekulakisation had at least three functions, ideologically, it was an attack on the enemy; politically, it provided terror in the countryside and peasants were afraid of the consequences; economically, it supplied the state with the suitable foundation for the kolkhoz.

    • Word count: 910
  22. Discuss the ways in which the "middle class" emerged in significance in the period 1780-1840's.

    This traditionalist view of history is often seen as social fact by historians. In reality it is but one conception of an entire selection of possibilities. The existence of the middle class as central to society directly after the industrial revolution is hugely question. Wahrman suggest other equally plausible readings of history. He shows that certain regions within Britian experienced rapid industrial change and others did not challenging the very notion of an Industrial revolution. Citing the cotton industry as one which did experienced rapid change but states that "broader national context, processes of social change were gradual and protracted, and -importantly - experienced unevenly."

    • Word count: 1620
  23. Should 'westernisation' be regarded as the distinguishing feature of Peter the Great's reign?

    Such growth continued throughout his reign until by 1725 some 285,000 men had been recruited. Together with the introduction of standard drill manuals for the whole army, Peter's forces were raised into a position where they were a match both in quality and in number for any European adversary. Despite the persistence of old Muscovite practices such as the self-maintenance of some units, and despite the high losses caused by desertion (as was inevitable with a large conscript force), the westernisation of the Russian army was pursued with vigour under Peter.

    • Word count: 2246
  24. Was the industrial Revolution a good thing?

    A good thing about the Domestic System was that they could keep all of the profits for themselves because they sold their products at the nearest market town. They were self-employed, so there was no middleman taking the profits away from them, unlike in the factories and mills. All of these facts about the textile industry and the Domestic System before the Industrial Revolution make the Industrial Revolution a bad thing because the Domestic System had a lot of benefits.

    • Word count: 5707
  25. Did agricultural prosperity help or hinder British industrialisation?

    They also place greater emphasis on the gradual rather than sudden nature of these developments i.e. many small inventions and innovations where introduced one at a time with each one taking time to diffuse into general use across the country. On the whole though it is clear that agricultural development was not completely aligned with industrialisation, which mainly occurred in the period 1750 to 1850. This would suggest that agricultural developments should have had less of an effect that might otherwise have been expected.

    • Word count: 1178

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