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University Degree: 1700-1799

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  1. What did the Mexican Revolution achieve?

    farmers had no opportunity to participate in politics in order to bring about change as they were excluded by the limited suffrage applying almost exclusively to white males. The alarming rate of Americans emigrating to Mexico and purchasing land meant that prices went up and the native farmers could not afford to purchase land even if there was some available. The elites were not wiling to operate within a democracy as they were benefiting hugely from the foreign investment, and had run the country well for many years, also setting the tone of society with many European influences.

    • Word count: 2236
  2. Is the Cultural Revolution best characterised as a top-level power struggle or a mass movement?

    Mao and his associates were thus trying to re-impose their suzerainty over these areas of society, where they felt that a bourgeoisie comeback was most likely to be staged. Disenchantment following the disasters of the Great Leap was not exclusive to the countryside. Within educational institutions, a dramatic cut in the number of University places available meant that students became fiercely competitive. Diminishing job opportunities in the cities resulted in qualified graduates having to face the prospect of a lifetime working in the countryside3.

    • Word count: 7018
  3. It is true that Comrade Mao Tse-tung made gross mistakes during the 'Cultural Revolution', but his contributions to the Chinese revolution far outweigh his mistakes.'[Resolution on some questions in CCP history, CCP Central Committee, June 1981]Discuss

    (Short 1999:pp19-81) In late 1918, Mao Tse-tung left Changsha for Beijing. He worked as an assistant librarian at the Beijing University which had then become the center of radical Chinese intellectual and political life. Under the influence of radical intellectuals and their activist student followers, Mao became increasingly politicized. Finally He became one of the most activists in the Chinese Communist Party. And he was given higher position as time went by. By 1924, he had already become deeply involved in politics in Canton, a major city in South China (Spence1999: P66).

    • Word count: 5272
  4. 'Account For Varying Speeds And Patterns Of Industrialisation Across Europe'.

    Karl Marx identified the pattern that emerged from these characteristics as one where more developed countries moved towards industrialisation, and the relatively economically backward followed their lead, (as best as cultural differences could allow). The reason for this may be that, "the industrially more developed country presents to the less developed country a picture of the latter's future"1. The fact that by 1870, the UK held 31.8% of European manufacturing ptoduction, closely followed by the other world powers of France (10.3%)

    • Word count: 1947
  5. Why did the first Industrial Revolution take place in Britain and what were its main consequences?

    the Capitalist-worker relationship which was developed. It is extremely difficult to give just one reason for why the Industrial Revolution took place. Some early researchers into the development of the Industrial Revolution were said to have misunderstood why it had taken place. Many people thought that the Industrial Revolution and the reason why it had taken place could be described as a simple transformation from feudalism to capitalism. However, others argued that this was not the case. The reason being was that when the Industrial Revolution had taken place, Britain was already a capitalist society.

    • Word count: 2182
  6. Industrialisation and urbanisation radically changed nineteenth century English society, sometimes for the better, more often for the worse. Discuss.

    The middle class spread wide across the population from small shopkeepers to large factory owners. They made great fortunes during the industrial revolution through mass production, trade and commerce, property and investment in innovation. A good example is Wedgwood Pottery. Wedgwood began to produce and market their goods to the middle class. As they began to live better lifestyles the demand for better quality goods grew. The working class wanted to live the middle class lifestyle and so it was a case of 'keeping up appearances' that stimulated consumerism.

    • Word count: 1811
  7. To What Extent Was The Destruction Of The Principle Of Privilege The Most Consequence Of The French Revolution For France?

    The reason why the Enlightenment was so effective was that it concerned itself with almost every branch of knowledge from the physical sciences, through history, religion and education, to government, politics & economics. It was also helped by the fact that writers and journalists spread these very ideas to aristocrats, lowly lawyers and even artisans. This was achieved in the form of pamphlets, criticising the monarchy and the privileged. Such criticism did much to undermine the respect for the privileged orders and the monarchy.

    • Word count: 3273
  8. How useful is the concept ofproto-industrialisation in discussing the British industrial revolution?

    This is clearly an early capitalist development, with the emergence of industrial production and the commercialisation of trade. Medick theorized an outline of the stages for proto-industrialisation to develop into industrialisation, with the first stage, 'Kaufsystem', referring to the 'rural-peasants' maintenance of control over the production and selling of their output. Entrepreneurs recognised the attractiveness of rural workers, and rural production, as it was uninhibited by 'urban guilds and company restrictions' the way many towns were, whilst many worker's wages could be lower as some still partly had a subsistence base in agriculture.

    • Word count: 1827
  9. The Industrial Revolution - Just a Few Inventions?

    The Industrial Revolution started because of several reasons: there was a high demand for manufactured goods, the population of Britain had increased, therefore the country needed more goods, and there was a rise in living standards. The overseas trade was crucial for industry in Britain. Britain industrialised considerably before the rest of Europe. This was due to many factors. Britain, compared to the rest of Europe had political stability, and it also possessed rich men who could provide capital in new enterprises.

    • Word count: 1174
  10. Assess the causes of The Mexican Revolution.

    Madero kept a close eye on D�az during his dictatorship. He criticized D�az's policies as counterproductive. Shortly before the elections in 1910, Madero was imprisoned in San Luis Potosi when D�az began to feel threatened by Madero's looming presence. At this point, Mexico was on the brink of a revolution, shaken by an unstable and unpredictable political atmosphere. When Madero issued the 'Plan of San Luis', it declared that the elections had been a fraud, and that he would not recognise D�az as the legitimate President of the Republic. Instead, he made a daring move - declaring himself President Pro-Temp until new elections could be held.

    • Word count: 2164
  11. The ancien rgime is the name for the political and social structure in France that was in place from the Middle Ages and largely satisfied the needs of the French people up until the Revolution.

    As the eighteenth century progressed in France, certain signs pointed to the inevitably predetermined Revolution of 1789. Whilst it may be argued that the government did not take suitable precautions to prevent the French Revolution, the system that was in place was blatantly unjust and it was only a matter of time before the people revolted against the clear prejudices presented in France. As time went by with France under the ancien r�gime, the contrast of wealth and power between the Monarchy, First and Second Estates as a whole and the Third Estate as the compared individual became increasingly and painfully apparent.

    • Word count: 1040
  12. The Enlightenment laid the foundations of the French Revolution

    The Enlightenment caused the intellectuals of France to question the system of government that they were forced to endure, and led them to question whether a better solution might not be found. Author Henri Peyre concurs with this viewpoint of questioning the state of affairs as he writes. "The propaganda of the 'Philosophes' perhaps more than any other factor accounted for the....French Revolution, namely, discontent with the existing state of things" (Henri Peyre 174). Peyre goes onto say, "18th century philosophy taught the Frenchman to find his condition wretched, unjust and illogical and made him disinclined to the patient resignation to his troubles that had long characterized his ancestors" (Peyre 170).

    • Word count: 3466
  13. Was the Copernican Revolution truly revolutionary?

    The reason that this revolution was named after Nicolai Copernicus is because he was seen as the first person to essentially disagree with the church with reference to cosmology, as those before him had been too afraid to speak out against the then supreme power. The Copernican Revolution occurred during the Renaissance period, which was from the 14th century to the middle of the 16th century. This period, meaning re-birth, saw a great change in man's attitude towards authority, with the first ideas of liberty and freedom introduced.

    • Word count: 1537
  14. French Revolution

    To help their case, the bourgeoisie wanted every representative to obtain a single vote when the three groups were brought together. From here, they formed the National Assembly, which included all 600 representatives of the bourgeoisie. When the National Assembly was rebuffed, the bourgeoisie acted against the government's decision and captured the Bastille Prison. The peasants and professional people wanted to take their problem under control. Families were not being treated for illnesses, they were starving and drinking water from the filthy ground, and they paid for small crimes with injustice punishments.

    • Word count: 909
  15. Leon Trotsky's role in the October/November Russian Revolution during 1917.

    -By securing the Red Army Trotsky ensured that the Bolsheviks would stay in power. -Economically he took advantage of the starving state of the masses, the Russian economy was getting worse and to promise the people food was cunning. C. Evaluation of Sources -the sources I have chosen so far suit the topic well. -I have included almost all of the plausible perspectives including Trotsky's own from his numerous books, modern historian's and past historians from both the non-partisan, Soviet and Bolshevik viewpoints. These older primary perspectives provide an invaluable addition to my investigation.

    • Word count: 1399
  16. A Plan of investigation - To what degree is the Bois Caiman incident in Haiti at 14th of August 1791 a legend and what are facts?

    B Summary of evidence In a report read at the Harriet Tubman seminar in November 1999, Robin Law at the university of Scotland said the following about the Bois Caiman ceremony "According to the received story, the ceremony was presided over by one of the prospective leaders of the rebellion, Boukman, and involved the slaughter of a black pig, and the drinking of its blood by those assembled, who then swore obedience to Boukman."1 Historian David Geggus points that there were in fact two meetings.

    • Word count: 2157
  17. With reference to the years 1830-1930, why did it take so long for Britain to become a fully democratic country?

    This alliance proved to be a significant threat to Earl Grey and his Whig government. Therefore the Reform Act of 1832 was designed to enfranchise the middle classes and thus, split the alliance. It had the desired effect and as Annette Mayer has attested, the vote "shifted the attitudes and aspirations of the middle classes."2 Also, as would later be demonstrated by the Chartist movement, the working class would never be as powerful whilst lacking the financial and educational influence of the bourgeoisie, and totally unable to threaten revolution.

    • Word count: 1439
  18. To what extent can the Nazi Revolution be described as a "legal revolution"? Discuss in relation to the period January 1933-August 1934.

    It was the result of several meetings between Hitler and Von Papen and several more between Hindenburg and Von Papen. It was not the result of elections, which should have been the case considering the Weimar Republic claimed to be a democracy. At the end of the talks it was decided that Hitler should be appointed Chancellor as Germany needed a strong leader with public support and one who had the ability to crush Communism. As mentioned above, the Nazis did receive a large amount of the vote and was by far the largest party in the Reichstag.

    • Word count: 1263
  19. Intrigue and controversy surround the role of Grigorii Efimovich Rasputin in the final years of the Tsarist Empire and the rule of Nicholas II in particular.

    When Rasputin, a mere peasant, left Siberia in 1893 no one could have anticipated that he would have end up in the confides of the Alexander Palace. After many years of travelling Rasputin arrived into the Imperial Capital, St. Petersburg in 1902. His reputation for saintly powers of healing and clairvoyance, quickly made Rasputin a name and he soon acquired a loyal following among the Russian aristocracy; The Montenegrin sisters, Militsa and Anastasia, who were members of the Imperial family and in the Tsarina's affection1 were early examples.

    • Word count: 4079
  20. Expressions of German Nationalism 1815-1847

    Literature German literature has a very rich historical tradition and the period of Restoration certainly produced many works and authors from whom an assessment of political feeling and direction can be extrapolated. Variations on romantic thought preceded the Restoration but it is the movements known today as Sturm und Drang (Storm and Stress), Biedermeier and Junges Deutschland (Young Germany) that can provide much insight to German politics. But also political movements such as the Burschenschaften which was a network of secret student societies that agitated for diverse aims but primarily the ideas of constitutional reform, unification of the German nation, socialism (at times)

    • Word count: 5947
  21. Does it make sense to use the word ‘Revolution’ to describe the Socio-economic and industrial changes, which occurred in Britain between 1760 and 1830?

    For example there were changes in class, gender, population, the economy, trade, technology and transport. This essay will attempt to come to a conclusion as to whether or not it makes sense for one to use the term revolution when describing the socio-economic and industrial changes brought about by British industrialisation through analysis of arguments for and against. One may refer to the socio-economic and industrial changes of Industrialisation as a Revolution due to the fact that Britain, arguably, saw a major transformation from a pre-industrial to an industrial economy and society.

    • Word count: 1928
  22. Explain the absence of revolution in Britain and Russia before 1890

    into the state which Marx pointed out and the inability of the oppressed classes to make a revolution due to the deficiencies in their organisation and support. Perhaps one of the most important reasons why revolution never occurred in Britain or Russia was the quiescence of the working classes. John Merriman argues that the majority of the working classes in Britain did not want revolution because the socialist vision had not caught on with them; they were happy with the political system.

    • Word count: 1546
  23. The Period of Mongol Domination over Russia 1237-1240.

    Nasonov states that Russians accepted the fact that their land was no longer their own but the Mongol emperor's and the Golden Horde khan's and that it was unacceptable to live on it without submitting to them.ii To understand the changes that occurred in Russia either due, or just during, the Tatar domination, it is necessary to compare Kievan Rus' before the Mongols to Muscovy after them. Kievan Rus' was a loose consolidation of principalities, theoretically under the rule of Grand Prince of Kiev.

    • Word count: 2882
  24. Seeking Path To Save China

    He realized that Confucianism was the giant obstruction for Chinese reform. In his "The Way of Confucius and Modern Life", he illustrated the incompatibilities between Confucianism and modern life through individual independence. He pointed out that, "Confucius lived in a feudal age, the ethics he promoted is the ethics of the feudal age." and it did not match the society that people live in at the time. Chen said in 1915, "The basic task is to import the foundation of western society, that is, the new belief in equality and human rights.

    • Word count: 1228
  25. What was the most important factor in the process of industrialisation?

    One of the crucial factors in the process of industrialization was the availability of cheap capital. This was the result of the progressive lowering of the rate of interest until it reached 3% in the 1750s. In 1757 the 3% Consolidated Stock was introduced, bringing together several issues into one.1 This made borrowing cheaper and encouraged investment in industry. Combined with the development of local banking systems, which made the mobilization of savings more efficient, this enabled many entrepreneurs to purchase the equipment needed to go into business. As the initial outlay in many cases was not great, the careful 'recycling' of profits would soon facilitate expansion.

    • Word count: 2250

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