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University Degree: 1800-1899

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 3
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    One of the most controversial issues of British Economic History is the living standards during the industrial revolution. ''Pessimists'' against ''optimists'' oppose their ideas about whether the standards of living during the industrial revolution impro

    4 star(s)

    For example, could an increase of 20% in real wages,offset a loss of 20% in political rights?In other words,was the significance of real wages in the early 19th and late 18th century the same with nowadays? Real wages One of the most typical and predicted ways to estimate the standards of living, is the evaluation of real wages. Williamson argued strongly that real wages increased especially after 1820 for the workers, as a compensation for the harsh conditions that experienced during the their transition from rural to urban areas.

    • Word count: 2216
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Why did British agriculture decline after 1870?

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    Such an approach would only be taken if the increased productivity would justify this higher expenditure. For this to be the case the inputs required had to be cheap and their applications produce a remarkable rise in yield as well as the prices for produce remaining high. In the first half of the nineteenth century there are indications that this was the case: Limits on an intensification of British agriculture were no longer present.2 British agriculture was undoubtedly in a strong position by 1870 yet in the two decades which followed this a marked decline in agriculture can be seen.

    • Word count: 2243
  3. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent did the idea of a separate sphere(TM) of life for women become eroded in the period 1870-1914?

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    It is only then that definitive factors, such as marriage legislation and employment, can be properly contextualised and understood, and the underlying concept appropriately analysed. The most obvious factor behind 'separate spheres' is difference. Having cross referenced a number of historical texts, there are two texts in particular that stand out, and unsurprisingly they contradict each other. In Ruth Adam's 'A Woman's Place 1910-1975', she interprets this difference in terms of men and women's roles. We can infer from her text that there was no such thing as two different worlds as there was only one world and that was 'a man's world'5.

    • Word count: 2529
  4. Comparing economic change in Britain and China from 1760 to 1914

    Section 4 analyzes the role of the states in structural changes. Section 5 concludes and summarize. 2. Taxes and change Jefferson (1801) suggested that a wise government will not take from what labors have earned. In other words, the state should levy taxes as less as possible in order to pursuing greater economic growth. This is a typical classical liberalism view of government intervention in terms of taxation, which can be seen was enormously influenced by Adam Smith. Beckett and Turner (1990) have a similar opinion as Jefferson. However, according to the historical experience they added "but the economic effects have proved to be very difficult to determine".

    • Word count: 1900
  5. Account for the emergence of first wave feminism in Australasia in the 1880s and 1890s.

    The role of women during the 18th century was very minor having almost no control over their own lives, with their father having full control over their lives until they were married in which it was passed onto their husbands. Women had little rights, they were not allowed to leave there husbands if displeased, they were not allowed to attain higher education and had no rights to their children in the case of the death of their husband. "By Marriage the husband and wife are one person in law, that is the very being or legal existence of women is suspended during marriage"- William Blackstone 17654.

    • Word count: 2129
  6. Colombian History. An analysis of "Myths of Harmony" by Marixa Lasso

    Liberal Spanish deputies of the Spanish parliament opposed the granting of citizenship to the non-whites. In response, a political pamphlet written by a pardo "Political and Moral Reflections" expressed the disappointment of being excluded as a pardo; "When united in society we gave up our liberty...It was to be happy like citizens....for that reasons we bestowed our rights to the king...But what advantages did we get?" (53) He further more calls on the "fellow patriots" and basically argues that pardos should not be excluded from citizenship rights.

    • Word count: 1059
  7. Industrial revolution implies dramatic changes in production techniques , but recent evidence suggests that such changes did not occur in Britain between 1760 and 1850.Hence , ''Industrial Revolution'' should not be used to describe this period in Britis

    How long? How often? How representative? Nowadays , the answers to these questions seem to give an argument for those who support the idea that the growth rate during the industrial revolution was very slow. Indeed , productivity growth improved ,which to some extent occurred because of the new techniques introduced, but this improvement reflected on only some small sectors of the British economy in comparison with manufacturing for example that did not change dramatically before 1830.Thus , this productivity change , would take many years to be felt in the British Economy as a whole , since the slow growing sectors were ''absorbing'' the growth of the modern ones.

    • Word count: 1548
  8. 'It has been claimed that Britains financial institutions were too oriented towards overseas investment between 1870 and 1914 and that this led to the neglect of domestic industry. Discuss

    However,when in 1982 Edelstein examined a sample of 566 home and overseas ,first and second class,equity,preference and debenture securities,he proved that returns from foreign investment were higher. More specifically,for some sub-periods between 1870 and 1913,overseas first and second class investments yielded annually 5.72% while the equivalent percentage for domestic investments was 4.60%.The second reason for investing abroad is represented by J.A. Hobson's work and has to do with the distribution of the national income. What Hobson supports,was that too little of Britain's national income was allocated to wage earners,who did most of the nation's consumption and most of the income was distributed to property owners.

    • Word count: 2467
  9. Motivated primarily by material greed. How accurate is this verdict on the British empire?

    India, know as the 'jewel in the crown' was the most economical colony in the empire due to it's raw materials such as diamonds. Stair Dalrymple's letter to his brother shows how India was annexed primarily for material greed as it states, "I may make a fortune"_ and "live like a gentlemen"_. Thus although many christian missionaries travelled to India in hope of converting the natives to the 'true religion' the main motive for the expansion was material greed. This motive is also shown to be the primary one ahead of religious mission by the actions of the British in

    • Word count: 1677
  10. It has been argued that Britains poor development of industries based on science and technology before 1914 resulted from an education system which was deficient in these areas. Evaluate whether the evidence supports this view

    The latter in combination with the increasing attitude against mass production and standardization did not urge businessmen to modernize their techniques. Because they had rejected mass production and the labour supply was more than satisfactory,they preferred to maintain previous production status quo since they could produce as much as they wanted without paying high wages. For instance, in the early motor car industry,non-standardization and passion for technical perfection,made the products feasible for a socially limited market and the adoption of new techniques was useless and risky.

    • Word count: 2180
  11. Race and Slavery in the Atlantic World: Assignment one, critical primary source analysis of Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave.

    (Garrison, 1986, p35) The purpose of this slave narrative is typical of narratives of the time, it was intended for white audiences to persuade and enlighten them of the poor conditions slaves were living in, and how cruel their masters could be to them, 'whip her upon her naked back till she was literally covered with blood.' (Douglass, 1986, p51) Douglass' slave narrative fits Olney's convention of slave narrative exactly, from the preface written by a white abolitionist friend, Garrison, to the reflections of slavery towards the end of the narrative 'I heard no deep oaths or horrid curses on the laborer.

    • Word count: 1014
  12. In the essays Learning to Read and Write and Coming to the Awareness of Language Frederick Douglass and Malcolm X, respectively, write about the trials and tribulations they faced while attempting to educate themselves and con

    An article in the Western Journal of Black Studies, Najee E. Muhammad noted: At Mason Junior High School, where he was the only student of African descent, he [then known as Malcolm Little] was ranked third in his class academically and elected president of his seventh grade class. When he expressed an interest in becoming a lawyer, his seventh grade teacher suggested that he become a carpenter instead stating: A lawyer that's no realistic goal for a nigger. (Muhammad 240)

    • Word count: 917
  13. Why was there a Scramble for Africa in the late 19th Century? (68/100)

    Even if there had been considerable desire for colonisation Africa at this time was a perilous place and very inhospitable, especially to European colonialists. Although African armies at the time could be easily beaten mosquitoes carrying malaria had a devastating effect on expeditions into the mainland, sometimes killing as many as 60% of a party within a year6. It was not until the 1850s when quinine was first used systematically by Baikie7 that expeditions became less dangerous and deeper penetration into Africa became plausible.

    • Word count: 2036
  14. Victorian moral values applied equally to all. Discuss this statement in relation to the lives of women as described in mid-Victorian texts.

    From the outset, Ruskin states that although no gender superiority exists, men and women are biologically different from one another, and as such, must fulfil distinctively different roles. Unlike a man who is expected to use his power to create, discover and destroy in the outside world, Ruskin maintains that a woman must use hers to ensure that the home is safe, orderly, comfortable and beautiful. According to Ruskin, a woman may extend her domestic duties and responsibilities outside the home, but inside the home is predominantly where she belongs and she is dependent on her husband to protect her from the evils and dangers of the outside world.

    • Word count: 1140
  15. Historical Investigation -- How did the Southern States succession from the Union enable the 37th Congress to act more efficiently and disrupt the balance of powers?

    2 ? The House of Representatives of the 37th Congress was composed of 183 representatives and 7 delegates - of which 108 where republicans and only 44 democrats.* 3 O Legally, the Middle South States had yet to succeed by the beginning of the emergency session of the 37th Congress and therefore their representatives were included in this count. ? The Senate at the start of the emergency session had 21 vacant seats caused by the Deep South succession.4 ?

    • Word count: 2364
  16. Causes of the civil war. The American civil war was a war that was fought between 1861 and 1865 in the United States of America.

    Of all these causes slavery is viewed as the major issue behind the civil war. This paper will look in depth at the causes mentioned and bring to light the factors that qualify them as the major causes of the civil war. Slavery The issue of slavery began in the year 1619 in Virginia, United States. Most of the states at the North had already put a stop to the practice towards the end of the American Revolution2. On the other hand, slavery continued to flourish in the Southern parts of the states due to the plantation business.

    • Word count: 2548
  17. Influences that led to change within the system of nations in the period 1815-1914.

    Introduction Between the years 1815 and 1914 the world underwent more change underwent more change than any period in history up until that time. It began with the defeat of Napoleon and warfare that was fought with muskets, and ended with the beginning of WWI and warfare that was fought with tanks and machine guns. Empires rose and fell, and entire civilizations rose up against themselves. The Industrial Revolution spawned the steam engine and was closely followed by the internal combustion engine.

    • Word count: 2874
  18. Using Internet Resources for Historical Research. Looking for information on the Internet is helpful to understand the opinions of experts or enthusiasts, which will help to eject their own conclusions to answer the question: Napoleon. Villain or Vision

    However, we should not use this website as a main reaserch and we should compare the information with others websites. Reliable and accurate information you can certainly draw on government sites, and research. Studies conducted in America show that one in two respondents considers the Internet as an important source of information (23.7% indications as extremely important, 31.5% very important). One in three respondents (34.4%) average, an important source of information, and only for 3.8% of this is completely not an important source.2 It follows from this that at the present time the information on the servers are leading in terms of intensity of use.

    • Word count: 2015
  19. Why was there so much interest in attempting to communicate with the spirit world during the second half of the nineteenth century?

    which provided the theory of Evolution which is contradictory to the Bible's espoused message of Creationism as told in Genesis. This had an enormous impact on Victorian society and left many people within it bewildered, creating a crisis that pitted religion against science with neither prepared to consolidate with each other, a particular example of which can be provided by the debate on the virtues of evolution between the Bishop of Oxford, Samuel Wilberforce and the Physician, T.H. Huxley. Wilberfoce insulted Huxley, by asking him whether "it was through his grandfather or his grandmother that he claimed descent from a

    • Word count: 3489
  20. Industrial Revolution and Marxism. As the Revolution progressed, the economic changes of the societies were supplemented by drastic changes in social structures and the ultimate breakdown of the family unit. These were the main two social consequences c

    Many large businesses like Standard Oil Trust were established during this time. Rockefeller was effective the most in applying the newest technologies and, furthermore, monopolizing the industry by controlling the supply and prices of oil. This was a significant economic achievement of the United States in times of the Industrial Revolution since it had established the basement for the latter economic prosperity of the U.S and the rise of capitalism. Even though the conditions and the ways of the establishment of the Industrial Revolution were different in all countries, the impact of this Revolution was alike.

    • Word count: 1855
  21. Why was the development of a modern urban mass society seen as a potential threat to the social order, to morality, and to the strength of nations?

    The social order at this time was undergoing a major period of change. The so-called second-wave of urbanisation during this period was seen by many in a pessimistic way and none more so than the upper classes, whom would quickly come to realise that the lower classes would fast become a unified voice. Consequently, the factor of enfranchisement came into play. The government became able to influence people in various other ways by offering more people the right to vote, such as the way that Nationalist sentiment was placed upon the people of Germany at the end of the 19th century.

    • Word count: 2009
  22. An In-depth comparison of two major Confederate Commanders: Robert. E. Lee and Braxton Bragg, during four major battles of the American Civil War.

    In April 1863, at the Battle of Chancellorsville, Lee continued to make a name for himself. Here, Lee faced Union commander Joseph Hooker and the army of Potomac. Hooker's army outnumbered Lee's more than two to one. The campaign at Chancellorsville began with the union army crossing the Rappahannock River. Hooker began implementing his tactics by ordering Maj. Gen Stoneman to raid Lee's supply lines. However this was a disaster as the high water in the streams prevented the charge of Stoneman's cavalry.

    • Word count: 4689
  23. Free essay

    Faraday and Reputation

    his lecturing and the exhibitions of his discoveries where he managed to make a lasting impact, not just on his contemporaries in the scientific world, but on the younger generation who flocked to see his exhibitions on Albemarle-street, "with as much zest as is usually displayed in following lighter amusements", where we really see the unique and special gift of Faraday. Taking a look at the Faraday Cage (figure 4.10, P102, AA100 Book 1, 2008 OU), which looks as if it could be the setting for some extravagant magic trick, it is easy to imagine that a young person of

    • Word count: 656
  24. What was the significance of the Paris Commune of 1871?

    Twenty years before the advent of the Commune, following the defeat of the workers uprising in June 1848, the military coup of 2nd December 1851 brought Emperor Napoleon III to power. Initially, the new Bonapartist regime seemed unshakable. The workers were defeated, their organizations outlawed. By the late 1860's, however, the exhaustion of the economic upswing, combined with the revival of the labour movement, had seriously weakened the regime. It was clear that only a new - and rapidly successful - war would allow it to survive for any length of time.

    • Word count: 1892
  25. The evolving identity of Scottish peoples in New Zealand during the 19th century

    [Lowland] population - females as well as males - was employed in industry by 1881."4 Thus, the Lowlanders, who had embraced modernity and industrialisation by the early 19th century treated their Highland compatriots with considerable derision, as summarised by Trevor-Roper: "In general, the attitude of the Lowlands to the Highlanders was that of the Romanised Britons to the Picts. They relied on a...'Highland line', beyond which the inaccessible barbarians, who were not worth conquering, were left to themselves."5 Forced assimilation came in two clear phases, beginning with the two failed Jacobite Rebellions of the 18th century, which effectively marked the

    • Word count: 5123

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "Critically examine the concept of embourgeisement and assess the extent to which this has take place in modern Britain."

    "I totally agree with Lockwood and Fiona Devine' view that embourgeoisement had not taken place. According to Marxist perspectives of social stratification, there are two major social groups: a ruling class and a subject class. The power of the ruling class comes from its ownership and control of the means of production. The ruling class exploits and oppresses the subject class. The middle class, although they have high wages, they are wage maker. I think that the middle class are still working class, because they do not own the mean of production and I said in last paragraph which the "middle class" is an ideological illusion. The theories of "embourgeoisement"are aimed at concealing the actual proletarianization of the so-called "middle class". The influent workers and "middle class" are becoming heterogeneous, although they have largely different. The process of "embourgeoisement" or proletarianization will make working class more powerful and solidarity. In conclusion, the "embourgeoisement" is taking place rather than taken place."

  • To What Extent Was Bismarck Responsible For The Unification Of Germany In1871

    "Bismarck is undoubtedly a very significant factor in the Unification of Germany in 1871. This is shown by his skill in manipulating incidents such as the wars against France and Austria. However it would be incorrect to say that Bismarck was solely responsible for the unification of Germany because there were other factors that also aided unification, for example the Zollverein. Also Bismarck made no efforts to stop some of the deep rooted divisions which prevented unification such as the In conclusion Despite Bismarck's important role in German unification there were other factors, apart from those created by Bismarck, that were equally important."

  • Discuss the development and popularity of the seaside holiday during the course of the 19th century.

    "To conclude the seaside holiday began at the beginning of the 19th century and were mainly enjoyed by royalty and the aristocracy. Later the middle classes joined in and with the introduction of holiday days from work and low train fares towards the end of the 19th century the working classes started to enjoy the seaside holiday."

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