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University Degree: 1800-1899

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  1. Free essay

    Faraday and Reputation

    his lecturing and the exhibitions of his discoveries where he managed to make a lasting impact, not just on his contemporaries in the scientific world, but on the younger generation who flocked to see his exhibitions on Albemarle-street, "with as much zest as is usually displayed in following lighter amusements", where we really see the unique and special gift of Faraday. Taking a look at the Faraday Cage (figure 4.10, P102, AA100 Book 1, 2008 OU), which looks as if it could be the setting for some extravagant magic trick, it is easy to imagine that a young person of

    • Word count: 656
  2. Native Americans and the Buffalo

    The Indians would utilize every part of the buffalo that they could, and every part had a specific purpose. Teepees and warm clothing could be created using the thick hide of the buffalo. Tools and weapons that Indians used for hunting and protection were made from the horns and teeth of the resourceful creature. Native Americans also found a use for the organs of the buffalo. For example, bags and satchels were created using beef paunches and the membrane around the heart, which helped the Indians gather berries and transport water throughout the community.

    • Word count: 983
  3. Indian Oratory and Philosophy. Red Jacket, Sagoyewatha, and Otetiani; each are names of the great Seneca chief who is considered one of the greatest orators in Native American history. The components of each speech he gave are more than just words.

    After coming across such important pieces of an address to the particular group he was speaking to, conclusions should feel in place with the reason and rhetoric used. Red Jacket's motivation is his own, for ours would most like differ if addressing the topic he had. But keeping it in mind will prove to be beneficial for being able to understand why he uses certain reasons and persuasion in a given speech. (Granville Granter 2007) (Blaisdell 2000) Our orator's first name, given to him at age 10, was Otetiani.

    • Word count: 836
  4. Critical Commentary

    However, it must be said that these guided laws were written by a society which had different views than society has today and they would have been written by men who most likely would have been from an upper class and it would be difficult to say if they would take into consideration the needs of the lower classes. It is also important that the French Revolution would have had an impact on the document produced. We do have to ask ourselves the question did this benefit society at this time?

    • Word count: 858
  5. Problems facing late 19th century farmers

    Whereas early in the century, many farmers were considered "subsistence farmers", meaning they farmed mostly for the existence of themselves and their families, selling only what was necessary for them to get by. As the country moved in a more modern direction, many family farmers were left in the dust by large commercialized farms. These farms afforded specialized equipment for mass production that many family farmers could not afford. Hence, they sold more and more product to local, state and even national buyers that drove down the value of crops, as the competition in the market was now fierce.

    • Word count: 877
  6. Taxation Without Representation

    Overall, Britain emerged victorious, now holding the rights to the majority of the land east of the Mississippi River. However, this victory did not come without a cost, as Britain now had to deal with a substantial war debt and the incurred responsibilities of their new land. "During the Seven Years' War William Pitt brought America, for the first time, fully under British control."1 (Brinkley, 2007) Pitt tried to employ his crude methods, where as the Americans had been accustomed to doing things their own way. It was during this year long reign that Pitt incited much resistance from the American colonists; an attitude that would later establish the trend for American response to British policy.

    • Word count: 698
  7. Free essay

    Native Americans lesson plan

    When thinking of America, most pupils think of the Americans but forget the fact that the Native Americans ( Indians) still exist and have to live in Reservations. With this unit we want the pupils to broaden their horizon and view on different cultures and ways of living. Media used: For our unit we worked with the movie "Smoke Signals", as well as the screenplay that goes with it. Furthermore we want to encourage the pupils to work with the internet for research and write emails to the missionary couple in Idaho for further information.

    • Word count: 710
  8. What were the problems facing the Tsar Nicholas II in 1894?

    This meant that Russia's industry was rather pathetic and minor compared to the sheer size. This illustrates the slow economical development of the country, indicating Russia had not yet experienced major industrial expansion unlike America and Germany. This meant that Russia was perhaps weaker than other countries, displaying the vulnerability of both the country as a whole, and Tsar Nicholas II himself. Meanwhile, economically, the priorities of the government and Tsar Nicholas II were of concern. It was believed that such a colossal country should too have a colossal army. Vast amounts of peasants were sent to join the organisation in efforts to make it of satisfactory size in the eyes or the Tsar.

    • Word count: 753
  9. African American Soldiers of the Civil War

    As the war that began to preserve the Union went on and developed into a campaign to end slavery, many soldiers, White and African American, "die[d] to make men free." (Howe) A few years into the hostile war, the questionable had become the expected- abolition of slavery, a formerly despised cause by some, now justified the motivation of the Civil War. At the end of the Emancipation Proclamation, President Lincoln announced that the freed African Americans "would be received into the armed service of the United States..."

    • Word count: 522
  10. the troppau protocol

    Congresses were held to resolve quarrels. At Aix-la-Chapelle, France was allowed to the Quintuple Alliance that was when the occupation of France ended. Only Austria, Prussia and Russia met at St Petersburg in 1825 the last meeting of the Congress, which was an unsuccessful effort to resolve their problems. It was the loss of the Congress traditional function that identifies nationalism and liberalism as the reasons for its destruction. 2) During October and December 1820, a meeting of the Holy Alliance powers was held at Troppau in Silesia at which the Troppau protocol, a declaration of intention to take collective action against revolution.

    • Word count: 860
  11. how far can you say that napoleon is the son of the revolution

    Yet Napoleon did not keep his power through his home policies alone. He was a master strategist on the battlefield and a master at international consultations. Napoleon repeatedly won both military and political victories. Even though he wasn't that religious, he succeeded in reconciling France and the Catholic Church in the Concordat of 1801. As a child of the Enlightenment and a son of the French Revolution, Napoleon was at the same time a traditional monarch, taking on all the display and paperwork of the monarchic traditions with a revolution bringing wide and long term changes to the regions under his rule.

    • Word count: 590
  12. Did the lives and status of women change as a result of the industrial revolution in the period 1750-1850?

    It was believed that everybody should seek work; otherwise they were of no use to society and became, according to the writer Henry Fielding, "useless Members"�. An example of pre-industrial production was spinning. Spinning wool was a typically female task, and an extremely important component of the poor community's economic life. The great advantage to spinning was the convenience as it could be stopped and started whenever was required; greatly useful to the housewife as she inevitably had a host of other responsibilities, such as caring for young children, running the household, tending animals, and performing agricultural tasks.

  13. How successful was Disraeli's foreign + imperial policies from 1874-1880 in achieving his objectives

    In that year Queen Victoria created him earl of Beaconsfield in recognition of his services. All of these foreign policies showed that he had abandoned the view, popular during the middle years of the century, that colonies were a hindrance to Britain. Interestingly these foreign moves did not involve him in any European affairs but merely in affairs that concerned his colonies. The purchase of the Suez Canal was seen as a major triumph for Disraeli's foreign policy. He opened up a pathway to the 'jewel of the empire' to improve trade and to keep the British colonies in touching distance.

    • Word count: 973
  14. how succesful was Gladstones first administration?

    Gladstone believed that Ireland had three major grievances which was church land and education. Gladstone had introduced three different Irish reform acts in his first administration although it was clear what his intentions were for Ireland furthermore he had good intentions, sadly there are distinct differences between his objectives for Ireland and the impact it had on Ireland. The first reform act was the disestablishment of the church of Ireland, before the act was introduced the official church was catholic although only 12% were Anglican the majority was catholic this clearly discrimination against Catholics, so the disestablishment of the church of Ireland act was a success and was effective.

    • Word count: 928
  15. The Louisiana Purchase.

    Also, without the ownership of this vast expanse of natural resources, western expansion would have been almost impossible. In 1762, France had practically given the land to Spain, but in 1800, the treaty of San Ildefonso allowed the French to reacquire the area. At the time, Napoleon Bonaparte had grand dreams of a French Empire in the New World. He was hoping to use the island of Hispaniola as the center of his domain, with the Mississippi Valley as the main food and trade route from which to support his empire. Unfortunately for him, a slave revolt led by Toussaint L'Ouverture dashed his plans.

    • Word count: 806
  16. To what extent napoleons reforms benefit the majority of French people

    Despite this the code was actually quite repressive in many arias, it set woman out to be second class citizens and gave them next to know rights in marriage, a wife had to yield to her husband at all times and could be sent to prison for disloyalty. In contrast an adulteress male was not reprimanded in any way; in fact the woman was only given rights to file for divorce if the man insisted that she live alongside his mistress. Despite the relinquish of Catholic control over France divorces were still very hard to obtain especially for the woman.

    • Word count: 719
  17. Gladstone's Political Opponents Denounced Him As A Dangerous Radical And Demagogue

    It is fact that Gladstone used speech to enflame emoticons and excite crowds although, by using this effective method (demagogue) it certainly gave him a boost in popularity. He was so immense at doing this that after his tours of areas such as the north in small cities i.e. Gateshead and Manchester he encouraged the working class to become more interested in Politics. This lead to the phrase of him being named the peoples William. During this era of politics Gladstone was one of the first to introduce this new effective method of campaigning.

    • Word count: 824
  18. The Age of Napoleon Napoleon brought an end to the revolution in 1799 called himself the Son of the Revolution

    led to his dictatorship of France * with the coup of 1799, a new form of the Republic was proclaimed with a constitution that established a bicameral legislative assembly elected indirectly to reduce role of elections * Article 42 of the constitution said "the decision of the First Consul shall suffice" * Napoleon directly controlled the entire executive authority of government * Napoleon was made consul for life in 1802 * crowned himself Emperor Napoleon I in 1804 Napoleon

    • Word count: 484
  19. "Cynical Party Politics On the Part of Disraeli." Does this Explain the Passing of the Second Reform Bill

    In addition, the many changes made to the bill before It was passed seem rushed and unplanned. Yet even Blake admits that Disraeli's actions seemed somewhat intentional; "Certainly Disraeli had been through gyrations so extraordinary that a sinister explanation might well seem called for." The reform bill was not even due to be passed until 1868, and the proposition had been pieced together only days before, but Disraeli pledged to the government to have the bill passed immediately, without authority from the cabinet.

    • Word count: 802
  20. How did the Congress of Viennaattempt to solve the problems in Europe which were caused by the French Revolution and Napoleon?

    The First problem and how it was solved. The rise of Napoleon to power and his expansion in Europe brought many problems. The first problem was how to re-map Europe. As Napoleon had conquered many states and destroyed their boundaries, the Powers had to decide how to rebuild the European boundaries. In re-mapping Europe, they had additional problems of rewarding those which had helped to defeat Napoleon. In solving these problems, the Powers applied the Principle of Compensation and Reward. As a result, the map of Europe was rebuilt.

    • Word count: 659
  21. How and Why did Disraeli Pass the Second Reform Act?

    Before the second Reform Act was passed Gladstone had tried to pass a Bill in March 1866. His aim was to give 'the industrious working classes the right to vote', (1) whilst still retaining an aristocratic rule. His proposal was to give �7 householders in towns and �14 tenants in counties the right to vote, as well as some additional franchises for example an additional vote for those who saved �50 at Gladstone's Post Office Saving Scheme. This Bill would have only added 400 000 voters to the register. Gladstone's Bill was unsuccessful because it was not radical enough and immediately faced problems as dissident Whigs did not agree with its terms, for example Robert Lowe believed that because the working classes were uneducated they might not vote wisely.

    • Word count: 650
  22. Was Disraeli a Genuine Supporter of Parliamentary Reform by 1867?

    Speaking in 1865 Disraeli said, "My present opinion is opposed, as it originally was, to any course of the kind," referring to the modification of the franchise to allow more voting. At this point, Disraeli objected to increasing the voting populous because he felt "suffrage should remain a privilege". It is obvious that he was not a supporter of parliamentary reform because he believed it would subsequently change the constitution.

    • Word count: 545
  23. What was Gladstonian about Gladstonian Liberalism and to whom did it appeal?

    Linked to this was his belief that people should be the product of opportunity and not privilege. Favoured Benthamite principles in his early career and always had an eye on modernising society's institutions influenced him. He was never afraid to 'upset the apple cart' and believed in free speech for all as well as a good measure of autonomy and independence. This was, in essence, the character of William Ewart Gladstone. Paragraph 2: Best way to consider Gladstonian Liberalism is to examine main areas of legislation and reform, paralleling this narrative with links to paragraph 1. * Thrift and care with finance: Income tax reductions and free trade budgets as Chancellor of the Exchequer under Aberdeen(?).

    • Word count: 711
  24. The continental system - Why it failed.

    Industries in the North and West of France suffered the most. These were severely in decline and technologically backward, and they were badly hit with a loss of exports. With this decline in overseas trade and increased profits, older industries had little capital, and investors moved their money out of commercial enterprises. Several merchants and banks collapsed due to a lack of business confidence. * One serious and adverse effect of this blockade was from Napoleon's bold attempt to try to enforce it on the whole of Europe i.e.

    • Word count: 570
  25. Which better explains Britain's success in the Napoleonic Wars: military and naval power or gold and diplomacy?

    Arthur Wellesley (Duke of Wellington), was in charge of the British army, he was a great tactician and strategist. When he became the leader he created the opportunity of undertaking offensive operations against Napoleon on a scale that was not before thought possible. Napoleon Bonaparte's army was thought of as being invincible throughout the whole of Europe. However Britain's successful Peninsular campaign proved that this was wrong. The British army however did not fight alone and for most of the earlier years of the wars other armies were paid subsidies to fight for the British. The powerful Prussian and Austrian armies also helped for the British cause.

    • Word count: 874

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "Critically examine the concept of embourgeisement and assess the extent to which this has take place in modern Britain."

    "I totally agree with Lockwood and Fiona Devine' view that embourgeoisement had not taken place. According to Marxist perspectives of social stratification, there are two major social groups: a ruling class and a subject class. The power of the ruling class comes from its ownership and control of the means of production. The ruling class exploits and oppresses the subject class. The middle class, although they have high wages, they are wage maker. I think that the middle class are still working class, because they do not own the mean of production and I said in last paragraph which the "middle class" is an ideological illusion. The theories of "embourgeoisement"are aimed at concealing the actual proletarianization of the so-called "middle class". The influent workers and "middle class" are becoming heterogeneous, although they have largely different. The process of "embourgeoisement" or proletarianization will make working class more powerful and solidarity. In conclusion, the "embourgeoisement" is taking place rather than taken place."

  • To What Extent Was Bismarck Responsible For The Unification Of Germany In1871

    "Bismarck is undoubtedly a very significant factor in the Unification of Germany in 1871. This is shown by his skill in manipulating incidents such as the wars against France and Austria. However it would be incorrect to say that Bismarck was solely responsible for the unification of Germany because there were other factors that also aided unification, for example the Zollverein. Also Bismarck made no efforts to stop some of the deep rooted divisions which prevented unification such as the In conclusion Despite Bismarck's important role in German unification there were other factors, apart from those created by Bismarck, that were equally important."

  • Discuss the development and popularity of the seaside holiday during the course of the 19th century.

    "To conclude the seaside holiday began at the beginning of the 19th century and were mainly enjoyed by royalty and the aristocracy. Later the middle classes joined in and with the introduction of holiday days from work and low train fares towards the end of the 19th century the working classes started to enjoy the seaside holiday."

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