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University Degree: 1800-1899

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  1. Victorian moral values applied equally to all. Discuss this statement in relation to the lives of women as described in mid-Victorian texts.

    From the outset, Ruskin states that although no gender superiority exists, men and women are biologically different from one another, and as such, must fulfil distinctively different roles. Unlike a man who is expected to use his power to create, discover and destroy in the outside world, Ruskin maintains that a woman must use hers to ensure that the home is safe, orderly, comfortable and beautiful. According to Ruskin, a woman may extend her domestic duties and responsibilities outside the home, but inside the home is predominantly where she belongs and she is dependent on her husband to protect her from the evils and dangers of the outside world.

    • Word count: 1140
  2. Industrial Revolution and Marxism. As the Revolution progressed, the economic changes of the societies were supplemented by drastic changes in social structures and the ultimate breakdown of the family unit. These were the main two social consequences c

    Many large businesses like Standard Oil Trust were established during this time. Rockefeller was effective the most in applying the newest technologies and, furthermore, monopolizing the industry by controlling the supply and prices of oil. This was a significant economic achievement of the United States in times of the Industrial Revolution since it had established the basement for the latter economic prosperity of the U.S and the rise of capitalism. Even though the conditions and the ways of the establishment of the Industrial Revolution were different in all countries, the impact of this Revolution was alike.

    • Word count: 1855
  3. What was the significance of the Paris Commune of 1871?

    Twenty years before the advent of the Commune, following the defeat of the workers uprising in June 1848, the military coup of 2nd December 1851 brought Emperor Napoleon III to power. Initially, the new Bonapartist regime seemed unshakable. The workers were defeated, their organizations outlawed. By the late 1860's, however, the exhaustion of the economic upswing, combined with the revival of the labour movement, had seriously weakened the regime. It was clear that only a new - and rapidly successful - war would allow it to survive for any length of time.

    • Word count: 1892
  4. The turno pacfico system, although fraudulent and corrupt, was the best means to ensure political stability in nineteenth-century Spain. Discuss and evaluate critically.

    in 1876, as well as a set of realistic and utterly pragmatic developments by which he hoped to ease the volatile nature of Spanish political society and of society as a whole. His style of governance can be characterised by his willingness to compromise on polemical matters, as opposed to sticking with the party-line, with the intention of achieving concrete results and solving the problems he saw within the system as far as he realistically could when taking into account the fickle nature of Spanish society at this time.

    • Word count: 1856
  5. Why did Chartism Fail?

    George Webber, Halifax weaver, John Skelton, Matthew John, Moses Simpson of Hanley, surfaced to take up the lead in local reform initiatives. These men had never given up the idea of political reform. The idea that militant Chartism had been defeated by the attitudes and values of the middle class is very oversimplified. It is wrong to imply that a working class which spent a quarter of the century building up the trade unions, societies and cooperative stores in the hostility of employers, shopkeepers and the bourgeois press had been defeated by bourgeois ideology.

    • Word count: 1487
  6. What Causes Revolutions

    The speed in which the changes occurred in 1789 is a result of pendulum reaction between the king's government and the people of Paris. Louis XVI tried to win back some ground he had lost to the National Assembly by dismissing his most progressive minister Necker and reconstituting his government. This provoked demonstrations and riots which ended on 14th of June in the fall of Bastille - result of bankruptcy of royal authority. The king tried to keep his power by rejecting some of the reforming legislation put forward by the National Assembly.

    • Word count: 1559
  7. Book review- Harriet Ann Jacobs autobiography "Incidents in the life of a slave girl"

    Persistently, she keeps her hate towards slavery and its consequences and does not forget to mention it. However, she was lucky: she was not treated in the same way as many other African-Americans generally did, as she stated here: "I was never cruelly overworked; I was never lacerated with the whip from head to foot; I was never so beaten and bruised that I could not turn from one side to the other; I never had my heel-strings cut to prevent my running away; I was never chained to a log and forced to drag it about, while I toiled in the fields from morning till night; I was never branded with hot iron, or torn by bloodhounds."

    • Word count: 1641
  8. Civil War Reconstruction

    The Constitution provided no firm guidelines because it had never thought of a division of the country. The power struggle started during the war but carried over into Reconstruction. The President instituted his 10 Percent policy in December 1863. Lincoln tried to weaken the south by making it easy to switch sides. In 1863 he pulled for power by offering full pardon to all southerners who would swear allegiance to the union. Once they had 10 percent of the voting population had declared loyalty the state could set up a loyal government back to the Union. Congress believed the President was exceeding his executive power to save the Union but Lincoln refutes back that it is his duty because the attempt secession does not put them outside of the Union.

    • Word count: 1485
  9. How did economic and social experiences differ between the southern and northern regions of the United States, 1870 - 1914?

    There are a number of key elements which must be present for industrialisation to occur. Firstly, a country must have resources; raw materials, labour, land and capital. It also needs enough resources to provide food and shelter to meet the needs of the urban labour population. Secondly, it needs a good banking system to provide finance and to encourage investment and a good transport system to move raw materials to factories or to transport the finished product to places to be sold.

    • Word count: 1971
  10. Benin art - what can it tell us about cross-cultural encounters?

    He refers to the bronze castings and ivory cups and horns that were created 'after their intercourse with the Portuguese of the 16th century'. This states that the natives could only produce skilful works with European encouragement. Joyce uses the evidence of the decline in bronze-work after the 16th century as argument for this statement. Joyce also states that '... when that intercourse was interrupted, shows that the native craftsman was raised for a moment above his normal level by direct inspiration'.

    • Word count: 1632
  11. To what extent does F.J Turner(TM)s Frontier Thesis(TM) present the landscape and the frontier environment as being central factors in explaining the development of the dominant American cultural values and id

    Equally, the downside of the settlers pursuing their ambition in their landgrab at the expense of the indigenous population through physical strength and a belief in their own superiority is replicated in the individualistic attitude of pursuing personal goals regardless of the consequences upon others. Turner's thesis encapsulates this very idea throughout, with reference early on, to a bulletin of the superintendent of the census report for 1890 agreeing that "up to and including 1880 the country had a frontier of settlement, but at present the unsettled area has been so broken into by isolated bodies of settlement that there

    • Word count: 1536
  12. Analyse Maria Edgeworth

    It is the minor effects in the book that point to political unstableness, and change, including the title itself." Castle Rackrent" This was an abuse that existed for centuries in Ireland. As we can see in the text castle rackrent was totally mismanaged leading to inefficient use of resources. In the text we know that Sir Kit Stopgap was the definition of an absentee landlord, spending most of his time in Bath. It is he who adopts the dreaded "middle men" who were dreaded in Ireland, as they look large farms on long leases, and set the land again in smaller portions to the poor, as under tenants at exorbitant rates.

    • Word count: 1439
  13. The Industrial Revolution: A Complete Shift towards the Growth of the United States

    It affected the lifestyles of people on an international level. Not only did it form a new wave of technological advances to the United States, it also affected a major portion of Europe including Great Britain, Russia France and Germany. This revolution shifted the motives of economic stability and labor towards a more mechanized and industrialized outlook. Industrialization has been the most fundamental force in world history.1 Many inventions were developed which improved not only the labor structure, but the lifestyle of people then and even now if you think about it.

    • Word count: 1878
  14. Discuss the process in which German Jews embraced the concept of "Bildung" and became part of the German "Bildungsbrgertum" (educated bourgeoisie).

    Volkov contends that the B�rgertum was more than simply a class. While the term does contain this meaning; a certain amount of economic well-being was required for entry in the B�rgertum; that is not the whole sense of the word. It also denotes "a culture, widely conceived as a system of norms and values"3, adherence to which was a necessary in order to become a part of the B�rgertum. A Jew in Germany in the nineteenth century could be bourgeois and a member of the B�rgertum, but he could not be a member of the B�rgertum and not bourgeois.

    • Word count: 1383
  15. Book Review The Scramble For Africa, M.E Chamberlain.

    The author, M.E Chamberlain, is professor Emerita, University of Wales, Swansea. Her other works include Decolonisation: The Fall of the European Empires, and Britain and India: The Interaction of Two Peoples. The partition of Africa (scramble) and New Imperialism is an area of history that has been studied in detail. Other academics who have produced work on the subject include J.A Hobson: Imperialism a Study, who popularised the 'surplus capital' Lee Roxburgh theory. D.K Fieldhouse who states that: "Imperialism may best be seen as the extension into the periphery of the political struggle in Europe".1 Ronald Robinson and John Gallagher, who in Africa and the Victorians: The Official Mind of Imperialism emphasise strategic over economic reasons for the partition.

    • Word count: 1317
  16. To what extent can Napoleon be seen as "heir to the revolution" in his domestic reforms in France?

    The first of Napoleon's domestic reforms was the economic management of the country. Napoleon had inherited a disastrous financial situation, with the country's experiments with paper money, its wars, and its coups. So he set about trying to establish a stable currency by eliminating the bad paper currency and refusing to pay for supplies bought on credit. The new currency that was introduced was called the Franc, and on 6th January 1800 the new Bank of France was established with a capital of 30 million Francs.

    • Word count: 1606
  17. what did Gladstone's first administration achieve

    Before this act was introduced, Ireland's official religion was protestant. However this was unjustified for the reason of unfair representation. The majority of the population were Roman Catholics. So this wasn't a fair representation in actual fact only 12% were protestant. Gladstone soon changed this by introducing the disestablishment of the church act, which tackled this unjustified privilege and unfairness. Schools were a key institution of this country. The Education system desperately needed to be improved and certain people needed to be educated. The government introduced the Fosters education act in 1870.The working class had been extended the vote, so they now needed to be educated.

    • Word count: 1006
  18. Why was Gladstone's background a more stereotypical one than Disraeli's in the world of politics

    The family background of theses stereotypical politician would have been wealthy nobles, land owners, the elitist. The reason why a politician or a member of parliament would have had to be wealthy because they received no salary in the 18th century. A stereo typical politician would have had a happy marriage and were expected to have good habits. Gladstone and Disraeli were two contrasting politician not only in parliament but in their background, there origins were also poles apart. On the one hand you have a very stereotypical politician, a man of principles and religion, (Gladstone)

    • Word count: 1129
  19. "Critically examine the concept of embourgeisement and assess the extent to which this has take place in modern Britain."

    Many sociologists consider that the working class or manual workers can be distinguished from the middle class or non-manual workers in a number of different ways. The hand out shows that the non-manual workers enjoy advantages over manual workers in terms of their life chances. They are likely to enjoy higher standards of health, and to live longer; they are less likely to own their own house and a variety of consumer goods. There are also important differences in the market and work situations of manual and non-manual workers.

    • Word count: 1728
  20. To what extent were nineteenth-century state bureaucracies a force for modernization?

    According to Max Weber, "Bureaucratic administration means fundamentally the exercise of control on the basis of knowledge. This is a vital feature which makes it specifically rational. (Max Weber 1947 p339) The above is a brief explanation of the major features of Webers ideal type of bureaucracy, however, not all the above points will be seen in a concrete form of every bureaucracy, and perhaps in some barely been seen at all, real organizations can be more or less bureaucratic according to their degree of proximity to their ideal formulation.

    • Word count: 1543
  21. Why and with what success did Piedmont become the focus of attention in the movement towards Italian unification?

    Cavour was appointed president allowing him to pass his law of "cannubio" (marriage) uniting the left and right wing. Piedmont being set in the far north of the country means it borders with 3 other countries allowing trade routes to be travelled with ease. Its strong army is also able to defend due to this. The formation of the national society meant that the Piedmont also had allies in their race to unify Italy; although he national society had slightly different goals they are both fighting for the same end.

    • Word count: 1207
  22. Did Bismarck become more conservative in the 1880s?

    A certain consistency of approach therefore is apparent throughout the 1870's and 1880's, even if he takes a different view to politics in his later years as premier. Between 1866-78 Bismarck adopted policies which were at undeniably liberal. From his unification of Germany, and his attacking of conservative European powers, through to his policies of industrialization, his refusal to put in place tariffs and his promotion of Kulturkampf, it seems that if one had to compartmentalize the Bismarckian then it would be easiest to call this his liberal period and the years between 1878 and his retirement in the early

    • Word count: 1872
  23. Explain Briefly the reference to the congress of Paris - source based questions

    The source has a lot of information regarding the relationship between Cavour and Napoleon. As it is Napoleon who initiated the meeting he has the upper hand as far as discussion is concerned. Cavour's willingness to participate in the meeting shows Napoleon that Cavour is the one with the most to gain therefore he is unable to risk taking control of the situation. Cavour's main difficulty in the meeting is finding a plausible reason to start war with Austria. Napoleon did not make this easy for Cavour; Cavour suggested ways in which a war with Austria may be sought yet Napoleon is quick to dismiss these plans as "petty".

    • Word count: 1459
  24. In this piece of work I will be answering 2 questions about women in 20th century Britain.

    This is why many women were in unhappy marriages. If a woman was not married, they were seen as a failure. * Also many women relied on financial support from their husbands, as they were not allowed to work, so they had to get married just to have a warm place to live, and food to eat. * In an extract from 'The Whole Woman' by Germaine Greer it says 'while the male hunter-gatherer strolled along burdened with no more than his spear and throwing stick, his female mate trudged along after him carrying their infant, their shelter, their food supplies and her digging stick'.

    • Word count: 1132
  25. "Do you agree with Bismarck's opinion that the period from 1815 to 1848 was a time when nothing happened?"

    People also started taking an interest in the history that surrounded them. Someone in particular who contributed to these new ideas was Hegel, a German writer and philosopher. Having such a Nationalist philosopher present gave people a vision of a United Germany as did many other academics and University lecturers. Cultural Nationalism helped spread pride in Germany and encouraged movement towards unity. Another factor that did this was Economic Nationalism. Economically a lot happened in the German States between 1815 and 1848.

    • Word count: 1028

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "Critically examine the concept of embourgeisement and assess the extent to which this has take place in modern Britain."

    "I totally agree with Lockwood and Fiona Devine' view that embourgeoisement had not taken place. According to Marxist perspectives of social stratification, there are two major social groups: a ruling class and a subject class. The power of the ruling class comes from its ownership and control of the means of production. The ruling class exploits and oppresses the subject class. The middle class, although they have high wages, they are wage maker. I think that the middle class are still working class, because they do not own the mean of production and I said in last paragraph which the "middle class" is an ideological illusion. The theories of "embourgeoisement"are aimed at concealing the actual proletarianization of the so-called "middle class". The influent workers and "middle class" are becoming heterogeneous, although they have largely different. The process of "embourgeoisement" or proletarianization will make working class more powerful and solidarity. In conclusion, the "embourgeoisement" is taking place rather than taken place."

  • To What Extent Was Bismarck Responsible For The Unification Of Germany In1871

    "Bismarck is undoubtedly a very significant factor in the Unification of Germany in 1871. This is shown by his skill in manipulating incidents such as the wars against France and Austria. However it would be incorrect to say that Bismarck was solely responsible for the unification of Germany because there were other factors that also aided unification, for example the Zollverein. Also Bismarck made no efforts to stop some of the deep rooted divisions which prevented unification such as the In conclusion Despite Bismarck's important role in German unification there were other factors, apart from those created by Bismarck, that were equally important."

  • Discuss the development and popularity of the seaside holiday during the course of the 19th century.

    "To conclude the seaside holiday began at the beginning of the 19th century and were mainly enjoyed by royalty and the aristocracy. Later the middle classes joined in and with the introduction of holiday days from work and low train fares towards the end of the 19th century the working classes started to enjoy the seaside holiday."

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