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University Degree: 1800-1899

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 3
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Why did British agriculture decline after 1870?

    4 star(s)

    Such an approach would only be taken if the increased productivity would justify this higher expenditure. For this to be the case the inputs required had to be cheap and their applications produce a remarkable rise in yield as well as the prices for produce remaining high. In the first half of the nineteenth century there are indications that this was the case: Limits on an intensification of British agriculture were no longer present.2 British agriculture was undoubtedly in a strong position by 1870 yet in the two decades which followed this a marked decline in agriculture can be seen.

    • Word count: 2243
  2. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent did the idea of a separate sphere(TM) of life for women become eroded in the period 1870-1914?

    4 star(s)

    It is only then that definitive factors, such as marriage legislation and employment, can be properly contextualised and understood, and the underlying concept appropriately analysed. The most obvious factor behind 'separate spheres' is difference. Having cross referenced a number of historical texts, there are two texts in particular that stand out, and unsurprisingly they contradict each other. In Ruth Adam's 'A Woman's Place 1910-1975', she interprets this difference in terms of men and women's roles. We can infer from her text that there was no such thing as two different worlds as there was only one world and that was 'a man's world'5.

    • Word count: 2529
  3. Why was there a Scramble for Africa in the late 19th Century? (68/100)

    Even if there had been considerable desire for colonisation Africa at this time was a perilous place and very inhospitable, especially to European colonialists. Although African armies at the time could be easily beaten mosquitoes carrying malaria had a devastating effect on expeditions into the mainland, sometimes killing as many as 60% of a party within a year6. It was not until the 1850s when quinine was first used systematically by Baikie7 that expeditions became less dangerous and deeper penetration into Africa became plausible.

    • Word count: 2036
  4. Historical Investigation -- How did the Southern States succession from the Union enable the 37th Congress to act more efficiently and disrupt the balance of powers?

    2 ? The House of Representatives of the 37th Congress was composed of 183 representatives and 7 delegates - of which 108 where republicans and only 44 democrats.* 3 O Legally, the Middle South States had yet to succeed by the beginning of the emergency session of the 37th Congress and therefore their representatives were included in this count. ? The Senate at the start of the emergency session had 21 vacant seats caused by the Deep South succession.4 ?

    • Word count: 2364
  5. Causes of the civil war. The American civil war was a war that was fought between 1861 and 1865 in the United States of America.

    Of all these causes slavery is viewed as the major issue behind the civil war. This paper will look in depth at the causes mentioned and bring to light the factors that qualify them as the major causes of the civil war. Slavery The issue of slavery began in the year 1619 in Virginia, United States. Most of the states at the North had already put a stop to the practice towards the end of the American Revolution2. On the other hand, slavery continued to flourish in the Southern parts of the states due to the plantation business.

    • Word count: 2548
  6. Influences that led to change within the system of nations in the period 1815-1914.

    Introduction Between the years 1815 and 1914 the world underwent more change underwent more change than any period in history up until that time. It began with the defeat of Napoleon and warfare that was fought with muskets, and ended with the beginning of WWI and warfare that was fought with tanks and machine guns. Empires rose and fell, and entire civilizations rose up against themselves. The Industrial Revolution spawned the steam engine and was closely followed by the internal combustion engine.

    • Word count: 2874
  7. Using Internet Resources for Historical Research. Looking for information on the Internet is helpful to understand the opinions of experts or enthusiasts, which will help to eject their own conclusions to answer the question: Napoleon. Villain or Vision

    However, we should not use this website as a main reaserch and we should compare the information with others websites. Reliable and accurate information you can certainly draw on government sites, and research. Studies conducted in America show that one in two respondents considers the Internet as an important source of information (23.7% indications as extremely important, 31.5% very important). One in three respondents (34.4%) average, an important source of information, and only for 3.8% of this is completely not an important source.2 It follows from this that at the present time the information on the servers are leading in terms of intensity of use.

    • Word count: 2015
  8. Why was the development of a modern urban mass society seen as a potential threat to the social order, to morality, and to the strength of nations?

    The social order at this time was undergoing a major period of change. The so-called second-wave of urbanisation during this period was seen by many in a pessimistic way and none more so than the upper classes, whom would quickly come to realise that the lower classes would fast become a unified voice. Consequently, the factor of enfranchisement came into play. The government became able to influence people in various other ways by offering more people the right to vote, such as the way that Nationalist sentiment was placed upon the people of Germany at the end of the 19th century.

    • Word count: 2009
  9. To what extent can Britishness be equated with Protestantism during the long eighteenth century?

    The Hanoverian Monarchy, Germans by blood, were neutral to either Scottish or English bias due to the fact of their German heritage. However they became widely accepted and revered in the second part of the eighteenth century4. The reason for this, indeed the reason why they became monarchs of Britain in the first place, was their Protestant values (admittedly a different strand of Protestantism compared to Anglicanism), akin to those of their subjects. The Phrase 'Cuius Regio, Eius Religio', or whose region, his religion, comes to mind5- the common value that so allowed a German Monarchy to be accepted may not have been blood, but religion.

    • Word count: 2250
  10. Rebelion Estudiantil en Cordoba

    La motivaci�n para iniciar este movimiento fue el deseo de los alumnos de la Universidad de C�rdoba por obtener una autonom�a estudiantil, a parte de los est�ndares del gobierno y de las reglas clericales que les eran impuestas: "(la Universidad de C�rdoba) Se levant� contra un r�gimen administrativo, contra un m�todo docente, contra un concepto de autoridad." Tambi�n deseaban cambiar la forma en que las clases eran dadas, ya que eran anacr�nicas -hab�an permanecido id�nticas desde 1613- y carentes de inter�s en las ciencias, en parte porque esto significar�a volver menos ignorantes a los estudiantes, por lo tanto perder poder

    • Word count: 2641
  11. In what ways has the idea of a European industrial revolution been challenged?

    When analysing the idea of the European Industrial Revolution, one must take both of these definitions in to account. One must analyse the revolutions affect on society, the scale and size of it and the speed in which it happened. The traditional idea is that Britain was the vanguard of Industrial Revolution in Europe and that the continent then proceeded to imitate the British model of bringing about industrial development. However with minimal scrutiny an argument can be formed that this was not the case.

    • Word count: 2339
  12. What interpretations can be made as to the extent of brigandage and also the way in which it was combated throughout the 1860s in Southern Italy?

    The question is how exactly did these people manage to evolve so fervently within the Italian nation? Furthermore I will focus on the various methods and laws that were enforced in order to put an end to such a melancholic period of human condition and human reality. It is only by viewing these historical factors in the wider spectrum of critical analysis that one can truly gain an insight into the Brigand war that raged for almost an entire decade. It is important to appreciate why exactly it is that Brigandage has been a common feature of Italian life over time.

    • Word count: 2984
  13. 'The Republican Party of 1860 bore little resemblance to the Republican Party of 1900'. Discuss.

    Although the Republican candidate for president in 1900, William McKinley, failed to win any of the ex-confederate states on his way to victory, he did manage to obtain an average of 29% of the vote in these eleven states with as much as 45% in North Carolina and Tennessee. 4 Republicans also made significant advances in the legislature, given that in the 56th Congress (1899-1901) there was one Republican Senator from North Carolina and in the House, Republicans held eight seats in districts within the former confederate states.5 The fact that Republicans in 1900 were able to win congressional seats

    • Word count: 2508
  14. Explain why Gender was used for such diverse political purposes in the late 18th Century

    With the outlook that this was the age of discovery and globalisation, it easy to see why European powers began a political, economic and cultural colonization of the rest of the world and why many of the people (particularly in the lower classes) wished to revolutionize the way in which they had been living. What has become clear is that rather than the notions of class and gender change being two separate things; the two have become inevitably linked in explaining the diverse political changes of this period.

    • Word count: 2475
  15. Biography of Thomas Wentworth

    Wentworth's acceptance of this position and apparent reversal of political alliance became known in political circles as his great apostasy, a blemish on his character which many remembered for years to come. Whatever his affiliations during the earliest days of his political career, from his appointment in the North, Wentworth professed his foremost loyalty to the king and repeatedly demonstrated his unflinching dedication to the royal decree.3 For it was here, governing England's more remote and otherlandish counties, that Wentworth developed both a strong-handed reputation and experience in political management that would eventually lead him across the Irish Sea half a decade later.

    • Word count: 2627
  16. Ned Kelly and the Jerilderie Letter

    The content of the Jerilderie Letter contains a chronicle of all the events of Ned's banditry, from Ned's first charge of being in possession of a stolen horse to the shootout at Stringybark Creek, and offers explanations for all of these events. His letter dwells on what he feels to be the ill-treatment of his mother, of whom he affords great reverence, by the authorities and contains many threats to the police and anyone aiding them. He also promises reward for any persons who will assist him in the capture of any police and their supporters.

    • Word count: 2252
  17. Colonial Australia: History of convicts

    Suitable compensation for displaced American Loyalists. 4. To grow crops 5. Exploit New Zealand hemp or flax 6. The trade advantages of a settlement relative to Spanish America in times of peace. 7. Exploration for metals 8. The naval strategic advantages of a settlement relative to Spanish America, Lima, Peru and Bolivia being within 1,600 leagues of Botany Bay. 9. Shelter and refreshment for British ships in the event of war with Spain. 10. A suitable location for the transportation of felons. Why would Civil Servants of the time bother the British Cabinet for attention to all of these points bar the last?

    • Word count: 2719
  18. British transport during the Industrial Revolution

    Speed in getting goods to markets is predominant for this category.1 At the beginning of the industrial revolution water transport, capable of carrying up to 300-400 tons in a coastal vessel, was the bulk carrier and most suitable for the first category. Road transport provided greater speed and was therefore more fitting for the second category. However, innovation and inventions caused this pattern of transport to change. Water transport In the eighteenth century transport of goods depended on two main sources of power: wind and horses.

    • Word count: 2805
  19. Why did the question of whether history was a science become so important in the second half of the nineteenth century?

    For those who supported the importance of history as a science, it was history's reliance on facts and documents that they believed made it scientific. Historians such as Charles Seignobos and Charles-Victor Langlois drew on German scholarship to establish the scientific principles of history.1 On the other side of the debate were Alphonse Aulard, Ferdinand Lot and Henri Pirenne. Theses historians believed that history should be wider and more diverse, extending its influence and study to include social, cultural, linguistic, geographical and economic factors.

    • Word count: 2508
  20. Rockefellers Contribution to America

    So, which was J.D Rockefeller angel or plundering scoundrel (Morris, 2002)? And what did this man contribute to America for America to remember him so well? William Avery Rockefeller married Eliza Davidson in February of 1837 (Chernow1998). Eliza's father very much disfavored the union as William "Big Bill" Rockefeller had a terrible reputation as a philanderer and conman. Eliza, a devout Baptist and normally a stoic young woman, was wooed by his good looks and charm. An uncharacteristic impulsive decision she would live to regret many times over. Big Bill, on the other hand, calculated his affections toward Eliza because of her father, John Davidson's, money and land.

    • Word count: 2124
  21. The Myth and Purpose of Modernity

    The European presence in African affairs, at least initially, was contingent upon African authority. To change this power dynamic, European powers needed to reshape fundamental aspects of the status quo and they did so in the name of modernity. Therefore, modernization was not simply an ideological instrument for justifying European motives, it was a concentrated effort by imperial nations to subvert and undermine the comparable African authority which inhibited the growth of their empires. Undoubtedly, the leadership and governing structures of various African states posed the biggest obstacle to an expeditious take over by European powers.

    • Word count: 2823
  22. Why did the Third Republic survive the Boulangist movement and the Dreyfus Affair?

    If the Third Republic was to survive, it would have to address all these major social and political issues. Sixteen years after the establishment of the Third Republic, it was faced with its first severe crisis, and greatest since 1877; the rise of General Boulanger. Boulanger became popular in the army for his sympathy with the common soldier, and he came to be seen as a strong figure who would stand up to Bismarck. His growth in popularity alarmed politicians and by 1888, Boulanger had been dismissed from the army. A "Boulangist" movement continued to develop and in 1889, Boulanger himself won a series of sensational by-election victories.

    • Word count: 2866
  23. To what extent was the Boer War brought about by the actions and decisions of Milner and Chamberlain?

    year a quarter of the whole world's output.4 This event substantially changed the social and economic pattern of South Africa.5 The continuous non-stop inflow of a large amount of English gold investors (Uitlanders, referred to by the local Boers) not only outnumbered the male Boers6, but also yet more importantly, they represented a new economic power which was in essence above the local Boers. The stagnant agricultural and pastoral communities had to, however reluctant and awkward it was, underwent a major transition to a predominantly industrial urban society.

    • Word count: 2717
  24. Why did so many people admire napoleon Bonaparte

    I wish to show that admiration for Bonaparte is much less due to his personal qualities and achievements. In fact, it could easily have been any other general who took a chance to get to the top of the French political system at a time when the French needed someone to admire. Primarily, when considering Napoleon's admirable accomplishments, it is appropriate to say that any man who was born of an island (Corsica), which was only a recent acquisition of the French, and worked himself up from a minor noble family to then become Emperor of the French is enough to stir admiration in many.

    • Word count: 2746
  25. Late nineteenth century imperialism can best be understood in terms of concerns over national weakness rather than as an assertion of national strength. Discuss.

    aimed not at expanding British territory but at safeguarding Britain's existing world position." One example in which this was evident would be in the example of Egypt. The British took the Suez Canal in 1875, however it took them many years to formalize control over Sudan (1882). It was the local crisis of bankruptcy that pushed the British to formalize control; for fear that the French would take the Suez Canal and threaten British trade interests. From this example, we can see that original British economic and trade interests in the Suez Canal were threatened because of the possibility that economic competitor France would take over formal control of Egypt (this threat was

    • Word count: 2682

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "Critically examine the concept of embourgeisement and assess the extent to which this has take place in modern Britain."

    "I totally agree with Lockwood and Fiona Devine' view that embourgeoisement had not taken place. According to Marxist perspectives of social stratification, there are two major social groups: a ruling class and a subject class. The power of the ruling class comes from its ownership and control of the means of production. The ruling class exploits and oppresses the subject class. The middle class, although they have high wages, they are wage maker. I think that the middle class are still working class, because they do not own the mean of production and I said in last paragraph which the "middle class" is an ideological illusion. The theories of "embourgeoisement"are aimed at concealing the actual proletarianization of the so-called "middle class". The influent workers and "middle class" are becoming heterogeneous, although they have largely different. The process of "embourgeoisement" or proletarianization will make working class more powerful and solidarity. In conclusion, the "embourgeoisement" is taking place rather than taken place."

  • To What Extent Was Bismarck Responsible For The Unification Of Germany In1871

    "Bismarck is undoubtedly a very significant factor in the Unification of Germany in 1871. This is shown by his skill in manipulating incidents such as the wars against France and Austria. However it would be incorrect to say that Bismarck was solely responsible for the unification of Germany because there were other factors that also aided unification, for example the Zollverein. Also Bismarck made no efforts to stop some of the deep rooted divisions which prevented unification such as the In conclusion Despite Bismarck's important role in German unification there were other factors, apart from those created by Bismarck, that were equally important."

  • Discuss the development and popularity of the seaside holiday during the course of the 19th century.

    "To conclude the seaside holiday began at the beginning of the 19th century and were mainly enjoyed by royalty and the aristocracy. Later the middle classes joined in and with the introduction of holiday days from work and low train fares towards the end of the 19th century the working classes started to enjoy the seaside holiday."

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