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University Degree: 1800-1899
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Disraeli possessed neither a coherent social policy nor genuine interest in social problems. Discuss.
As to whether he himself had any genuine interest, there is sufficient evidence to suggest this was not the case. Many of the earlier social reforms, and also some of the most successful did were not proposed or produced by the conservatives, they were the work of the liberals, reborn by the conservatives and this suggests that the conservatives entered office without a specific plan of social reform of their own. The Employers and Workmen Act, which lifted the prohibition on peaceful picketing and the Conspiracy and Protection of Property Act which gave workers a legal right to sue employers
- Word count: 2190
"Discuss the aims of the Congress of Vienna and the Consequences it had on the Major Powers of Europe".
This gathering was known as the 'Congress of Vienna'. The four major powers that attended the congress were Britain, Russia, Austria and Prussia. This was the first time that Europe had assembled together in this manner. Also present were the minor states, including Spain, Portugal and Sweden. At the congress, the European representatives had many factors to consider. They decided that the main goal that they wanted to achieve were to maintain peace and order throughout Europe. The first aim was to establish a balance of power between the major countries to prevent any threat of imperialism.
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In this sense the creation of a positive public image enabled Napoleon to gain the popular support he needed, as Napoleon had actually achieved very little by this time, but people perceived him to be the 'saviour' of France. It was during the formative period that Napoleon learned his craft as a propagandist and honed his skills as a manipulator of public opinion. Napoleon had created a propaganda structure during the Italian campaign of 1796 and then built upon this "through conscious manipulation of dispatches, correspondence, medallions and especially of the press, Napoleon created for himself the image of revolutionary hero5".
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Was Napoleon I an "Unprincipled adventurer whose genius owes more to propaganda than to deeds"? [Quoted in D.G. Wright Napoleon and Europe (1984) p.93]
Hazlitt sees Napoleon as a tyrant but claims there was a kind virtue about this quality. No one would disagree with the idea that Napoleon was tyrannical, but other's would contest the idea of this being a virtue, for example A.D. Harvey suggests that people should view Napoleon "not as general who became a dictator, but as a dictator who became a general"(1). One thing becomes clear about Napoleon is that many historians over the last two centuries have debated his actual character. Most would agree that he was a genius, and that he had a very prosperous career, Goethe goes as far to say, "His life was the stride of a demigod"(1).
- Word count: 2176
Discuss the development and popularity of the seaside holiday during the course of the 19th century.
The hotel was a landmark in the growth of the seaside resorts. Hotels became more and more popular for both short and weekend visits as it was more convenient and it was also cheaper to use servants supplied by the hotel rather than moving an entire household to private accommodation. Previously hotels only provided suites of serviced rooms but the new hotels were attractive due to their wide range of facilities such as public restaurants and smoking rooms. These hotels mainly attracted the new rich.
- Word count: 2098
With the occupation the Italian states were as one, with one custom, language, law and order. The land was redistributed and Italy was finally made into a modern system of government and infrastructure except industry which was suppressed so not to rival France. From this a new middle class began to appear, since the old feudal ties were destroyed. Probably the greatest development which the French occupiers introduced was representative government based on the French system, this beginning of elected assemblies, started a fire that did not go out and caused many of the uprisings/revolutions.
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Each of the four major powers had their own motives in the peace settlements after the Napoleonic Wars.
as the best guarantee of peace and stability ... with principle of "legitimacy"'1 and with this the prevention any aggression in the creation of a 'Balance of power' where 'no single nation was either able or willing to make a bid for dominance'2; therefore a guarantee of peace and stability. Yet which was the main issue? It initially appears that peace and stability dominated the agenda of the great powers, although what about beyond 1815? The creation of the 'Balance of Power' was indeed a method to maintain stability in Europe.
- Word count: 2496
Bismarck had engineered a change in the balance of power so overwhelmingly in favour of Prussia, that the Second Republic felt challenged in its existence. In the context of the seemingly unstoppable drive towards nationalism, it is impossible to charge Bismarck with personal responsibility for the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. In the path leading up to 1870 Bismarck very much followed in the footsteps of the Piedmontese Prime Minister Count Cavour. Imitating Cavour, who had swiftly occupied Italy following the French-Italian victories at Magenta and Solferino in June 1859, Bismarck rapidly annexed the northern members of the German Bund following Prussia's unexpected victories at K�niggr�tz and Sadowa.
- Word count: 2790
But Napoleon's Italian policy did not begin with the landing of the expeditionary force at Civitavecchia in April 1849. He attempted to bring the matter before a Congress and tried to pass responsibility for the intervention to the Sardinians. But the other powers and the Pope would not accept this. Britain saw the matter, in the manner of Castlereagh's State Paper, as "questions of internal governments". Austria had to protect her interests and the Pope, since it was Italian Nationalists who had usurped him, had no intention of entering into the protection of other Italians who had proved equally rebellious in recent months.
- Word count: 2526
Disraeli's aims in terms of his domestic policy can be summated into three main statements: to win over the working classes; to protect the propertied classes from too much change from reform; and to build a stronger nation as a whole, which he would lead into greater prosperity as Prime Minister. Disraeli's aim to win over the working classes was arguably his main aim, especially when one examines his speeches from the early eighteen seventies. This relates to Disraeli's desire to get elected, and as he was aware of the newly-enfranchised working classes (following the 1867 Reform act), he realised that it was important to appeal to them in terms of his policies outlined in his election campaign.
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This meant therefore that women who sought movements towards organised feminism had to contend with males who opposed them gaining equal rights, and females who were content not to witness any change. During the 19th century, women and men were thought to occupy different 'spheres'. Women were considered inferior to men in their roles, fulfilling domestic tasks within the home, whereas men were supposed to go out to work and provide for the family. This was a new structure within the family caused by industrialisation, as whole families were used to working, therefore emphasising the oppression women now suffered.
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Germany straddled both west central and east central Europe, which included Austria and the Balkan states. In this east central area there was later but successful industrialisation, a lack of rural protest, a strong urban resistance to industrialism and a climate open to fascism. Great Britain in 1870 was the powerhouse of Europe. It was nurturing a climate for change with great political advances far ahead of mainland Europe. The 1867 Great Reform Act set in motion the opportunity for suffrage in Britain. The break through of the labour movement in 1819 was instrumental in the social reform that was gaining momentum, however the British government was still dominated by liberal democrats and conservatives until 1918, who traditionally exercised laissez-faire policies in world trade.
- Word count: 2136
William Gladstone was Britain’s first ever liberal prime minister and the founder of classical liberalism.
As he left Eton and joined Oxford, Gladstone became increasingly aware of his religious faith, which he had in the past taken for granted, as a result of the Anglican orthodoxy practised in Oxford. He soon realised that the morals and values taught by religion and very rarely practised in reality, as a result of this Gladstone promised himself that he would live his life on the highest moral plane of which he was capable of. This later in life helped him to found the basis of classical liberalism.
- Word count: 2477
'Gladstone's first government was a "great reforming institution". With reference to Gladstonian liberalism how far do you agree with this statement?
This is where we talk about Gladstone's reform acts and if it agrees with the statement 'Gladstone's first government was a "great reforming institution". The Education Act (1870) was aimed to massively increase the elementary levels of education in Britain in the hope that it would give an equality of opportunity. The present system at the time was a collection of small religious voluntary societies that could not cope with the rapid population increase. These could never fulfil Gladstone's dream of equality in opportunity for all, unless the population had the benefits of some sort of organised elementary education.
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So, as a beginning, we must look at why he was originally a devout Conservative. Paul Adelman says, "as a young MP he opposed practically every reform introduced by the Whig government," so its obvious that he believed in what he was supporting, but what we must ask is, 'why'? Adelman points out that Gladstone himself said, "I was brought up to dislike and distrust liberty," something clearly significant in his life as he was heavily influenced by his father's beliefs from a young age.
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Doctrinal Catholicism had become more fundamental, in reaction to rational criticism over the last half century, with orthodox Papal doctrinal writings such as the Papal Bull of Infallibility and the Syllabus of Errors. In these publications, Pope Pius IX had denounced modern civilisation and in the process appeared to confirm to Bismarck and the German state that the existence of Catholicism was detrimental to the nation's progression. In opposition to the 'culture of progress' which had been rising in Germany with the celebration of industrialisation and political unification, the subservience of German Catholics to the Pope in Rome suggested that Catholics were an intellectually backward, anti-nationalistic group who were dangerous to German security and should be subdued.
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This refers to the high regard that Napoleon had for the principles of justice because during his reign as Emperor his civil codes were keen to stress that crimes would be punished much harder than before. For in the Penal Code of 1810, sentences were generally increased, criminals received draconian punishments such as branding and wearing a ball and chain and the cutting off of the right hand of a person about to be executed. He also increased the punishments on crimes against the person, property and the state which suggests that he held justice in the highest regard.
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Peel built a cabinet of outstanding talent which included dukes, small farmers and tradesmen. Peels moved his party towards liberal policies; he has been described as the pioneer of Gladstonian liberalism. Eric J Evans argues that the conservative party had become better organised thus become more popular. Norman McCord argues the conservative victory was due to new conservative organisation. His liberal ideas were further highlighted by his idea of constructive opposition by supporting oppositions policies which he felt where necessary; as Douglas Hurd mentions, Peel helped Grey retain the Malt Tax and reform local government and therefore try to maintain peace.
- Word count: 2000
The hierarchical society that was present in the American South was deeply rooted in white supremacy, although as I will explore, masters never achieved the total domination that they sought over their slaves.
Masters exercised their control ruthlessly over their slaves. This closely governed slave life shaped its unique identity and the intense relationship also that created this separate culture in the slave south. An examination into these elements can help understand southern distinctiveness. However a brief understanding of the plantation economy will put these facts into perspective. The introduction of the Cotton Gin into the plantations of the southern plantations helped it become the world?s largest exporter of cotton by 1825. By the 1820?s its future seemed limitless, its booming slave economy coupled with Eli Whitney?s revolutionary invention helped it benefit from its greatest cotton crop it ever had in 1860.
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The revolutions would not have occurred without the economic crises that hit Europe in the late 1840s. Discuss
In 1830, Charles X issued the Four Ordinances of St. Cloud. These ordinances abolished the freedom of the press, reduced France?s electorate by 75% and completely dissolved the lower house. The citizenry immediately reacted, revolting against the monarchy during the Three Glorious Days of July 26th - 29th 1830. Charles was forced to abdicate, and Louis Philippe took his place, replacing the old Charter by the Charter of 1830. After the events of February 1848 the Second Republic was introduced, with the poet Alphonse de Lamartine serving as virtual dictator for the next three months. This all goes some way
- Word count: 2144
In this essay I shall consider how all three explanations contributed to Chartisms support and which factor can be seen as the most dominant.
Use primary source 6 to show the heritage of popular radicalism and the public?s want for reform 4. Mention the use and importance of political language 5. Back up this view with Stedman Jones, secondary source 2 Cultural incisiveness: 1. Chartism welcomed those that were excluded from power in every other way - the working class 2. Mention Ellen Yeo, secondary source 3 to support this 3. Ideal of power to the people Conclusion: 1. Evidence for all 3 factors 2. Final reflection ? political movement is most stressed[a] 200 words[b] Part 2 Write the essay, using no more than 800 words.
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Andrew Johnson is considered to be part of a group Brooks D. Simpson calls ?The Reconstruction Presidents? which range from Abraham Lincoln to Rutherford B. Hayes. Each these presidents each approach the reconstruction of the southern states in a different way. Lincoln?s policy was to pardon those who took an oath that they would remain loyal to the Union and excepting emancipation, but high profile Confederates would not be pardoned. In return they would get back their property except for slaves and property that has already been distributed. The policy of Lincoln?s successor, Andrew Johnson, greatly deferred from his policy of reconstruction.
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The result was a huge increase in net output and effectively served to feed the new industrial workforce and the greater foodstuffs allowed for immense population growth. This revolution was caused by mechanisation, selective breeding of livestock, four-field crop rotation and the enclosure movement. Beginning in about 1700, Great Britain led a reorganisation of rural land in a process called Enclosures. Farming now existed in larger, private segments than in the medieval strip farming system used previously (this was largely completed by 1800 and is the way farmland is divided today).
- Word count: 2290