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University Degree: 1800-1899

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  1. To what extent was Bismarck responsible for the unification of Germany?

    The importance of the zolverien cannot be underestimated because it established the leadership of Prussia who benefited from massive growth but it also marginalised the Austrians who refused to join. It is important to point out though that the creation of the Zolverein was not intended to facilitate unification, because Prussia in 1830 was against unification as it would lead to democracy. The increase in population combined with rapid industrialisation served to establish Prussia as the main economic power in Germany.

    • Word count: 1452
  2. What did the major European states have in common in 1815? What were the most important differences between them?

    The course unit, when examining Poggi, claims that the state consists of three basic aspects: i) its internal features as an international apparatus; ii) the relations between that apparatus and the society which it controls/serves; iii) the external relations between states. However, throughout early history, Europe and much of the world beyond, had been dominated by the "divine right" principle in which the monarch was seen as a god-like, all powerful, figure. This had already seen England rent asunder under Charles I, when he attempted to impose his will above that of Parliament over 150 years earlier and had lead Britain towards the type of reforms which Europe had yet to undertake.

    • Word count: 1108
  3. Why did nineteenth-century radicals such as Robert Owen and Alfred Russel Wallace, embrace the philosophy of spiritualism?

    wrote on many social and political topics including his support for women?s suffrage, the wastefulness of militarism and his opposition to eugenics.[3] In the late 60s and 70s, Wallace himself was experiencing financial struggles and was concerned about the financial security of his family.[4] In this respect, it is likely that he had a sense of sympathy for other working-class people ? furthering his socialist perspective. Like Wallace, Owen was also a socialist. He argued for the subordination of machinery and devised his own ideals for a utopian society called New Harmony, composing of communities of around 500 to 3000

    • Word count: 1480
  4. Open University. What evidence is there in the extract above of the three explanations for Chartisms support that you learned about in Block2, Unit 2,

    Economic circumstances were one of the main issues of Chartism. 1839 was a year of economic downturn which mainly affected the poor and working class and it often led to many riots and protests across the country. During times of economic hardship Chartist support was at its height (Rostow?s Graph of social tension, The Open University, 2013, Block2, pg. 36). Quotes from the speech: ?destitution in horrid form?, ?its insufficiency of food? and ?the toll of the death bell-over famished victim of monopoly? highlights the appalling working and living conditions which caused death, starvation and often led to crime.

    • Word count: 935
  5. To what extent did Sir Robert Peel reshape the modern British state, 1841-46?

    Peel built a cabinet of outstanding talent which included dukes, small farmers and tradesmen. Peels moved his party towards liberal policies; he has been described as the pioneer of Gladstonian liberalism.[3] Eric J Evans argues that the conservative party had become better organised thus become more popular.[4] Norman McCord argues the conservative victory was due to new conservative organisation[5]. His liberal ideas were further highlighted by his idea of constructive opposition by supporting oppositions policies which he felt where necessary; as Douglas Hurd mentions, Peel helped Grey retain the Malt Tax and reform local government and therefore try to maintain peace.

    • Word count: 2000
  6. Nationalism and Imperialism in the Late Nineteenth Century

    Britain believed that they were superior over all others and all countries were in need of British rule. This was Britain?s justification for their imperialistic policies. The most common motive for imperialism was economic. This was all about acquiring more raw materials, cheaper labour, finding markets for their surplus goods and to expand their own economy. An example of this would be the British setting up East India Companies along the coast of India to trade materials such as cotton, silk and tea. And lastly some governments just wanted more power. By expanding, governments gained prestige, security and diplomatic advantages.?Imperialism aided Western European countries in securing more troops, as well as naval bases and refuelling points for ships? (European History).

    • Word count: 1052
  7. The hierarchical society that was present in the American South was deeply rooted in white supremacy, although as I will explore, masters never achieved the total domination that they sought over their slaves.

    Masters exercised their control ruthlessly over their slaves. This closely governed slave life shaped its unique identity and the intense relationship also that created this separate culture in the slave south. An examination into these elements can help understand southern distinctiveness. However a brief understanding of the plantation economy will put these facts into perspective. The introduction of the Cotton Gin into the plantations of the southern plantations helped it become the world?s largest exporter of cotton by 1825. By the 1820?s its future seemed limitless, its booming slave economy coupled with Eli Whitney?s revolutionary invention helped it benefit from its greatest cotton crop it ever had in 1860.

    • Word count: 2812
  8. Total War is as much a myth as total victory or total defeat - Discuss

    Although extraordinary war efforts were demanded in some twentieth-century conflicts these often fail to meet all the criteria to substantiate the theory of ?Total War.? The claim is that ?Total war? is a myth does seem a far stronger claim and counter arguments often seem to lack enough foundation to present a solid example of ?Total War,? making them in comparison unable to sustain their standpoint. When looking for a first major example to support the argument that Total Warfare is a myth, there is the French Revolution/Napoleonic Wars.

    • Word count: 3098
  9. Article Review of De Vries' The Industrial Revolution and the Industrious Revolution

    De Vries looks at the the ?new industrious household?[2] and the evolution of a modern market for households. The idea of an industrious revolution, according to De Vries, was an influx of consumerism. He evaluates the idea that supply and demand became intertwined as the birth of a new consumerism sprouted Industrial Revolution. If we read further into De Vries work, we find ?The industrious revolution: consumer behaviour and the household economy, 1650 to the present? which enters into the idea that ?the rise of industriousness, [is] defined as a combination of long hours of market work for adult males, and wide-spread participation in the labor market by women and children?.[3] It can be

    • Word count: 541
  10. The revolutions would not have occurred without the economic crises that hit Europe in the late 1840s. Discuss

    In 1830, Charles X issued the Four Ordinances of St. Cloud. These ordinances abolished the freedom of the press, reduced France?s electorate by 75% and completely dissolved the lower house. The citizenry immediately reacted, revolting against the monarchy during the Three Glorious Days of July 26th - 29th 1830. Charles was forced to abdicate, and Louis Philippe took his place, replacing the old Charter by the Charter of 1830. After the events of February 1848 the Second Republic was introduced, with the poet Alphonse de Lamartine serving as virtual dictator for the next three months.[1] This all goes some way

    • Word count: 2144
  11. The Development of the Telegraph and its Social Impact

    By the 1830s, lines of optical telegraph towers stretched across much of Western Europe. At this time, Morse failed to garner interest in continental Europe in his electromagnetic telegraph and code due in part to the dominance of the optical telegraph. In 1837, Congress was asked to fund cross-country optical telegraph lines between New York and New Orleans, but it refused to do so. The optical telegraphs required skilled operators and were expensive to build. The Chappe system was even adapted for use at night by the use of torches or lanterns on the movable arms.[2] The development of the optical telegraph occurred alongside the attempts to harness electrical current as a means of sending messages.

    • Word count: 1793
  12. Red, White, and Blue: American Influence on Japan and China in the 19th Century

    However, this attracted the attention of adjacent powers, who in turn sought to trade with the island nation. The troubles began with the locally western neighbor of Russia, who began showing up in the Japanese ports of Hokkaido as soon as the 1790s1, and with the growing influence of Great Britain in India and Malaysia, as well as China, the British began exploring Japanese coastal waters soon after.

    • Word count: 636
  13. America emerged as a world power after the Spanish-American war.

    expansion from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Ocean was justifiable and inevitable-American economic growth created a need to find markets for its surplus goods which caused the country to look outward from itself for these things. Expansion outside of America's borders was the ultimate priority on America's agenda. The Spanish-American war helped to facilitate this land expansion outward and abroad. The Treaty of Paris, signed December 10, 1898, resulted in Spain relinquishing control of Cuba, Guam, Puerto Rico and the Philippines to the United States in exchange for a 20 million dollar payment.

    • Word count: 1182
  14. It didnt happen here. Why didnt socialism prosper in the USA in the period from 1865 to 1919?

    During the years 1865-1919, there were two main socialist parties in America. The Socialist Labour Party (SLP) was the first American socialist party [10], established in 1876 as the ?Workingmens Party? , a Marxist party with the goal of ?classless society based on collective ownership and control of the industries and social services... through a Socialist Industrial Union government? [11]. The SLP nominated a candidate, Simon Wing (1827-1911) for Presidential Election in 1892 (despite wishing to abolish the office of President) and he received 21000 votes [12]. However, by 1901 the Socialist Party of America (SPA), formed in part by disaffected members of the SLP [13], had become the dominant socialist party in America and was essentially a ?democratic socialist? party, which advocated change through the ballot box, not revolution.

    • Word count: 3420
  15. In this essay I shall consider how all three explanations contributed to Chartisms support and which factor can be seen as the most dominant.

    Use primary source 6 to show the heritage of popular radicalism and the public?s want for reform 4. Mention the use and importance of political language 5. Back up this view with Stedman Jones, secondary source 2 Cultural incisiveness: 1. Chartism welcomed those that were excluded from power in every other way - the working class 2. Mention Ellen Yeo, secondary source 3 to support this 3. Ideal of power to the people Conclusion: 1. Evidence for all 3 factors 2. Final reflection ? political movement is most stressed[a] 200 words[b] Part 2 Write the essay, using no more than 800 words.

    • Word count: 2074
  16. Compare and contrast the European-indigenous encounter in Australia with that of New Zealand. In what ways can these encounters be considered wars?

    Work retained in a database is anonymous and will not be able to be matched to an individual student; I take full responsibility for the correct submission of this assessment in the appropriate place with the correct cover sheet attached and I have retained a duplicate copy of this assessment This declaration is a summary of the University policy on plagiarism. For the policy in full, please refer to http://www.mq.edu.au/academichonesty or the Student Information in the Handbook. ________________ ASSESSMENT 2: Research Essay.

    • Word count: 3893
  17. Frederick Douglass Vs. Hamilton. Though abolitionists David Walker and Frederick Douglass both identify with the natural laws and principals found at the very core of Thomas Jeffersons Declaration of Independence, their opinions of this text drastically

    due to its contradictory coexistence with slavery, refuses to accept it as having a legitimate impact on himself or his fellow African Americans. In stark contrast to Walker, who wants to spark a revolution amongst blacks, Douglass is interested only in the gentle reshaping of attitudes amongst whites. Even though the messages behind the Walker and Douglass texts are not closely related, the two authors utilize many of the same literary devices and tropes when crafting their work. More specifically, both Walker and Douglass start by examining slavery with the framework of the Declaration of Independence and then add to it by considering the conflicts and hypocrisies that pervaded society in pre-Civil War, post-independence America.

    • Word count: 1407
  18. The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson and the Reconstruction

    Andrew Johnson is considered to be part of a group Brooks D. Simpson calls ?The Reconstruction Presidents? which range from Abraham Lincoln to Rutherford B. Hayes.[1] Each these presidents each approach the reconstruction of the southern states in a different way. Lincoln?s policy was to pardon those who took an oath that they would remain loyal to the Union and excepting emancipation, but high profile Confederates would not be pardoned. In return they would get back their property except for slaves and property that has already been distributed.[2] The policy of Lincoln?s successor, Andrew Johnson, greatly deferred from his policy of reconstruction.

    • Word count: 2577
  19. JOHN D. LEE: A SCAPEGOAT? MYTHS AND FALLACIES CONCERNING THE ROLE OF JOHN D. LEE IN THE MOUNTAIN MEADOWS MASSACRE

    The myth that God (or God?s prophet) sanctified the massacre 1. The Carleton Report and Captain John I. Ginn?s Account 1. The myth in the accounts that John D. Lee held a priesthood leadership role 2. What Elder Penrose and The Massacre at Mountain Meadows say about John D. Lee?s position in the Church 1. John D. Lee?s role in the Massacre 1. What Samuel Knight and Nephi Johnson say of John D. Lee?s involvement in their written testimonies and the myths that are in them.

    • Word count: 8315
  20. Why did Britain industrialise earlier than Germany?

    The result was a huge increase in net output and effectively served to feed the new industrial workforce and the greater foodstuffs allowed for immense population growth. This revolution was caused by mechanisation, selective breeding of livestock, four-field crop rotation and the enclosure movement. Beginning in about 1700, Great Britain led a reorganisation of rural land in a process called Enclosures. Farming now existed in larger, private segments than in the medieval strip farming system used previously (this was largely completed by 1800 and is the way farmland is divided today).

    • Word count: 2290

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