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University Degree: 1800-1899

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  1. Native Americans and the Buffalo

    The Indians would utilize every part of the buffalo that they could, and every part had a specific purpose. Teepees and warm clothing could be created using the thick hide of the buffalo. Tools and weapons that Indians used for hunting and protection were made from the horns and teeth of the resourceful creature. Native Americans also found a use for the organs of the buffalo. For example, bags and satchels were created using beef paunches and the membrane around the heart, which helped the Indians gather berries and transport water throughout the community.

    • Word count: 983
  2. The turno pacfico system, although fraudulent and corrupt, was the best means to ensure political stability in nineteenth-century Spain. Discuss and evaluate critically.

    in 1876, as well as a set of realistic and utterly pragmatic developments by which he hoped to ease the volatile nature of Spanish political society and of society as a whole. His style of governance can be characterised by his willingness to compromise on polemical matters, as opposed to sticking with the party-line, with the intention of achieving concrete results and solving the problems he saw within the system as far as he realistically could when taking into account the fickle nature of Spanish society at this time.

    • Word count: 1856
  3. Indian Oratory and Philosophy. Red Jacket, Sagoyewatha, and Otetiani; each are names of the great Seneca chief who is considered one of the greatest orators in Native American history. The components of each speech he gave are more than just words.

    After coming across such important pieces of an address to the particular group he was speaking to, conclusions should feel in place with the reason and rhetoric used. Red Jacket's motivation is his own, for ours would most like differ if addressing the topic he had. But keeping it in mind will prove to be beneficial for being able to understand why he uses certain reasons and persuasion in a given speech. (Granville Granter 2007) (Blaisdell 2000) Our orator's first name, given to him at age 10, was Otetiani.

    • Word count: 836
  4. US History. The Womens Rights Movement Through the Civil War.

    It was a continuous, seemingly endless, chain of activity. Young suffragists who helped forge the last links of that chain were not born when it began. Old suffragists who forged the first links were dead when it ended... Like all institutional reforms it required an active social movement to give it meaning and make it real. What your about to read is about the begin of the reform that was put into action by these women up till the Civil war. 1Dubois, Ellen Carol. Feminism and Suffrage, The Emergence of an Independent Women's Movement in America.

    • Word count: 3429
  5. To what extent can Britishness be equated with Protestantism during the long eighteenth century?

    The Hanoverian Monarchy, Germans by blood, were neutral to either Scottish or English bias due to the fact of their German heritage. However they became widely accepted and revered in the second part of the eighteenth century4. The reason for this, indeed the reason why they became monarchs of Britain in the first place, was their Protestant values (admittedly a different strand of Protestantism compared to Anglicanism), akin to those of their subjects. The Phrase 'Cuius Regio, Eius Religio', or whose region, his religion, comes to mind5- the common value that so allowed a German Monarchy to be accepted may not have been blood, but religion.

    • Word count: 2250
  6. Rebelion Estudiantil en Cordoba

    La motivaci�n para iniciar este movimiento fue el deseo de los alumnos de la Universidad de C�rdoba por obtener una autonom�a estudiantil, a parte de los est�ndares del gobierno y de las reglas clericales que les eran impuestas: "(la Universidad de C�rdoba) Se levant� contra un r�gimen administrativo, contra un m�todo docente, contra un concepto de autoridad." Tambi�n deseaban cambiar la forma en que las clases eran dadas, ya que eran anacr�nicas -hab�an permanecido id�nticas desde 1613- y carentes de inter�s en las ciencias, en parte porque esto significar�a volver menos ignorantes a los estudiantes, por lo tanto perder poder

    • Word count: 2641
  7. Critical Commentary

    However, it must be said that these guided laws were written by a society which had different views than society has today and they would have been written by men who most likely would have been from an upper class and it would be difficult to say if they would take into consideration the needs of the lower classes. It is also important that the French Revolution would have had an impact on the document produced. We do have to ask ourselves the question did this benefit society at this time?

    • Word count: 858
  8. Why did Chartism Fail?

    George Webber, Halifax weaver, John Skelton, Matthew John, Moses Simpson of Hanley, surfaced to take up the lead in local reform initiatives. These men had never given up the idea of political reform. The idea that militant Chartism had been defeated by the attitudes and values of the middle class is very oversimplified. It is wrong to imply that a working class which spent a quarter of the century building up the trade unions, societies and cooperative stores in the hostility of employers, shopkeepers and the bourgeois press had been defeated by bourgeois ideology.

    • Word count: 1487
  9. What Causes Revolutions

    The speed in which the changes occurred in 1789 is a result of pendulum reaction between the king's government and the people of Paris. Louis XVI tried to win back some ground he had lost to the National Assembly by dismissing his most progressive minister Necker and reconstituting his government. This provoked demonstrations and riots which ended on 14th of June in the fall of Bastille - result of bankruptcy of royal authority. The king tried to keep his power by rejecting some of the reforming legislation put forward by the National Assembly.

    • Word count: 1559
  10. In what ways has the idea of a European industrial revolution been challenged?

    When analysing the idea of the European Industrial Revolution, one must take both of these definitions in to account. One must analyse the revolutions affect on society, the scale and size of it and the speed in which it happened. The traditional idea is that Britain was the vanguard of Industrial Revolution in Europe and that the continent then proceeded to imitate the British model of bringing about industrial development. However with minimal scrutiny an argument can be formed that this was not the case.

    • Word count: 2339
  11. Liberal Divisions and the 1870 Education Act

    It may be claimed that the Act placed the state in a new relationship with the rest of society and, indeed, many historians argue that the increase of state intervention into national education marks the origins of the modern Welfare State. Nonetheless, despite the fact that the Act was the foundation from which the system of state-regulated education has sprung, many who voted for its passage through parliament in 1870 disapproved of the organisation and administration of state education, and instead maintained their faith in the ability of the voluntary schools.

    • Word count: 11073
  12. Book review- Harriet Ann Jacobs autobiography "Incidents in the life of a slave girl"

    Persistently, she keeps her hate towards slavery and its consequences and does not forget to mention it. However, she was lucky: she was not treated in the same way as many other African-Americans generally did, as she stated here: "I was never cruelly overworked; I was never lacerated with the whip from head to foot; I was never so beaten and bruised that I could not turn from one side to the other; I never had my heel-strings cut to prevent my running away; I was never chained to a log and forced to drag it about, while I toiled in the fields from morning till night; I was never branded with hot iron, or torn by bloodhounds."

    • Word count: 1641
  13. Civil War Reconstruction

    The Constitution provided no firm guidelines because it had never thought of a division of the country. The power struggle started during the war but carried over into Reconstruction. The President instituted his 10 Percent policy in December 1863. Lincoln tried to weaken the south by making it easy to switch sides. In 1863 he pulled for power by offering full pardon to all southerners who would swear allegiance to the union. Once they had 10 percent of the voting population had declared loyalty the state could set up a loyal government back to the Union. Congress believed the President was exceeding his executive power to save the Union but Lincoln refutes back that it is his duty because the attempt secession does not put them outside of the Union.

    • Word count: 1485
  14. What interpretations can be made as to the extent of brigandage and also the way in which it was combated throughout the 1860s in Southern Italy?

    The question is how exactly did these people manage to evolve so fervently within the Italian nation? Furthermore I will focus on the various methods and laws that were enforced in order to put an end to such a melancholic period of human condition and human reality. It is only by viewing these historical factors in the wider spectrum of critical analysis that one can truly gain an insight into the Brigand war that raged for almost an entire decade. It is important to appreciate why exactly it is that Brigandage has been a common feature of Italian life over time.

    • Word count: 2984
  15. Did Kaiser Wilhelm II at any time exercise real power?

    It is fair to say that in the first two years following his coronation, he did not exercise any real power. His self-assertiveness and belief in "the divine right"5 caused a direct personality conflict with his then Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, on a number of German policies. Wilhelm I, Kaiser Wilhelm II's Grandad had a good relationship with Bismarck, and left him with much of the administrative duties of the Emperor, and valued his input on many issues whilst in office.

    • Word count: 3458
  16. 'The Republican Party of 1860 bore little resemblance to the Republican Party of 1900'. Discuss.

    Although the Republican candidate for president in 1900, William McKinley, failed to win any of the ex-confederate states on his way to victory, he did manage to obtain an average of 29% of the vote in these eleven states with as much as 45% in North Carolina and Tennessee. 4 Republicans also made significant advances in the legislature, given that in the 56th Congress (1899-1901) there was one Republican Senator from North Carolina and in the House, Republicans held eight seats in districts within the former confederate states.5 The fact that Republicans in 1900 were able to win congressional seats

    • Word count: 2508
  17. Explain why Gender was used for such diverse political purposes in the late 18th Century

    With the outlook that this was the age of discovery and globalisation, it easy to see why European powers began a political, economic and cultural colonization of the rest of the world and why many of the people (particularly in the lower classes) wished to revolutionize the way in which they had been living. What has become clear is that rather than the notions of class and gender change being two separate things; the two have become inevitably linked in explaining the diverse political changes of this period.

    • Word count: 2475
  18. Problems facing late 19th century farmers

    Whereas early in the century, many farmers were considered "subsistence farmers", meaning they farmed mostly for the existence of themselves and their families, selling only what was necessary for them to get by. As the country moved in a more modern direction, many family farmers were left in the dust by large commercialized farms. These farms afforded specialized equipment for mass production that many family farmers could not afford. Hence, they sold more and more product to local, state and even national buyers that drove down the value of crops, as the competition in the market was now fierce.

    • Word count: 877
  19. Taxation Without Representation

    Overall, Britain emerged victorious, now holding the rights to the majority of the land east of the Mississippi River. However, this victory did not come without a cost, as Britain now had to deal with a substantial war debt and the incurred responsibilities of their new land. "During the Seven Years' War William Pitt brought America, for the first time, fully under British control."1 (Brinkley, 2007) Pitt tried to employ his crude methods, where as the Americans had been accustomed to doing things their own way. It was during this year long reign that Pitt incited much resistance from the American colonists; an attitude that would later establish the trend for American response to British policy.

    • Word count: 698
  20. How did economic and social experiences differ between the southern and northern regions of the United States, 1870 - 1914?

    There are a number of key elements which must be present for industrialisation to occur. Firstly, a country must have resources; raw materials, labour, land and capital. It also needs enough resources to provide food and shelter to meet the needs of the urban labour population. Secondly, it needs a good banking system to provide finance and to encourage investment and a good transport system to move raw materials to factories or to transport the finished product to places to be sold.

    • Word count: 1971
  21. Biography of Thomas Wentworth

    Wentworth's acceptance of this position and apparent reversal of political alliance became known in political circles as his great apostasy, a blemish on his character which many remembered for years to come. Whatever his affiliations during the earliest days of his political career, from his appointment in the North, Wentworth professed his foremost loyalty to the king and repeatedly demonstrated his unflinching dedication to the royal decree.3 For it was here, governing England's more remote and otherlandish counties, that Wentworth developed both a strong-handed reputation and experience in political management that would eventually lead him across the Irish Sea half a decade later.

    • Word count: 2627
  22. Ned Kelly and the Jerilderie Letter

    The content of the Jerilderie Letter contains a chronicle of all the events of Ned's banditry, from Ned's first charge of being in possession of a stolen horse to the shootout at Stringybark Creek, and offers explanations for all of these events. His letter dwells on what he feels to be the ill-treatment of his mother, of whom he affords great reverence, by the authorities and contains many threats to the police and anyone aiding them. He also promises reward for any persons who will assist him in the capture of any police and their supporters.

    • Word count: 2252
  23. The great famine was an ecological accident that became a human tradegy. Yhis was due to the level of poverty in rural ireland and not due to the failure of relief. discuss

    At the beginning of the nineteenth century Ireland was considered a very backward country. Thomas Malthus a famous economist even regarded Ireland as a backward country. He informed a Parliamentary committee in 1826 that "If Ireland continued to remain economically backward; an increasing number of Irish would migrate to England to advantage of their more developed opportunities".3 In Ireland by the 1840's approximately two thirds of the labour force were solely dependant on agriculture as a means of survival. As the majority of these people didn't own land themselves they depended on a system of conacre, in which they would trade their labour for a small plot of land.4 The potato is not an indigenous Irish plant; it is believed to have been introduced to Ireland by Sir.

    • Word count: 3010
  24. History of Cafes in Paris

    When Louis XIV tasted coffee in 1664, he was not impressed.3 However, the high society in Paris fell in love with the new, exotic drink that was introduced by the Turkish ambassador at exotic, private parties4 By 1671, the public got a chance to taste the rich caffeinated drink. An Armenian named Pascal introduced coffee to the public for the first time in an annual fair on Saint Germain5, which brought all ranks of society together. Pascal had a small booth in the fair where he advertised the coffee.

    • Word count: 4509
  25. Free essay

    Native Americans lesson plan

    When thinking of America, most pupils think of the Americans but forget the fact that the Native Americans ( Indians) still exist and have to live in Reservations. With this unit we want the pupils to broaden their horizon and view on different cultures and ways of living. Media used: For our unit we worked with the movie "Smoke Signals", as well as the screenplay that goes with it. Furthermore we want to encourage the pupils to work with the internet for research and write emails to the missionary couple in Idaho for further information.

    • Word count: 710

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