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University Degree: 1800-1899

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  1. Benin art - what can it tell us about cross-cultural encounters?

    He refers to the bronze castings and ivory cups and horns that were created 'after their intercourse with the Portuguese of the 16th century'. This states that the natives could only produce skilful works with European encouragement. Joyce uses the evidence of the decline in bronze-work after the 16th century as argument for this statement. Joyce also states that '... when that intercourse was interrupted, shows that the native craftsman was raised for a moment above his normal level by direct inspiration'.

    • Word count: 1632
  2. Colonial Australia: History of convicts

    Suitable compensation for displaced American Loyalists. 4. To grow crops 5. Exploit New Zealand hemp or flax 6. The trade advantages of a settlement relative to Spanish America in times of peace. 7. Exploration for metals 8. The naval strategic advantages of a settlement relative to Spanish America, Lima, Peru and Bolivia being within 1,600 leagues of Botany Bay. 9. Shelter and refreshment for British ships in the event of war with Spain. 10. A suitable location for the transportation of felons. Why would Civil Servants of the time bother the British Cabinet for attention to all of these points bar the last?

    • Word count: 2719
  3. British transport during the Industrial Revolution

    Speed in getting goods to markets is predominant for this category.1 At the beginning of the industrial revolution water transport, capable of carrying up to 300-400 tons in a coastal vessel, was the bulk carrier and most suitable for the first category. Road transport provided greater speed and was therefore more fitting for the second category. However, innovation and inventions caused this pattern of transport to change. Water transport In the eighteenth century transport of goods depended on two main sources of power: wind and horses.

    • Word count: 2805
  4. Critical Review of "Treaty 7"

    According to Louise Big Plume, Treaty 7 'was essential for the survival of Tsuu T'ina. [Even though they] did not understand the treaty - they only understood that they needed to enter into the treaty to survive"2. The True Spirit and Original Intent of Treaty 7 makes it clear that just because the First Nations were in a vulnerable position does not mean that they were willing to accept any condition presented them. They were not willing to surrender their land, under any circumstances. The treaty was perceived as a peace treaty and not a land surrender; "the leaders who accepted Treaty 7 believed that it was first and foremost a peace treaty".

    • Word count: 3959
  5. Bugandan Christian revolution

    Subsequently, he was later deposed by both the Christians and the Muslims in 18883. After a series of violent confrontations between the Muslims and the Christians it culminated in February 1890 when the Muslims were driven out of the capital and the 'Christian Revolution'4 was complete. The historiography surrounding this subject has been severely influenced by Oliver5. Oliver put forward thesis that Buganda had an extremely unusual socio-political formation when it is compared the majority of Eastern Africa6. He goes onto argue that amongst the palace pages there were individuals that were beginning to think independently from others; which was crucial to the Christian idea of sin and redemption7.

    • Word count: 3284
  6. What were the problems facing the Tsar Nicholas II in 1894?

    This meant that Russia's industry was rather pathetic and minor compared to the sheer size. This illustrates the slow economical development of the country, indicating Russia had not yet experienced major industrial expansion unlike America and Germany. This meant that Russia was perhaps weaker than other countries, displaying the vulnerability of both the country as a whole, and Tsar Nicholas II himself. Meanwhile, economically, the priorities of the government and Tsar Nicholas II were of concern. It was believed that such a colossal country should too have a colossal army. Vast amounts of peasants were sent to join the organisation in efforts to make it of satisfactory size in the eyes or the Tsar.

    • Word count: 753
  7. Why did the question of whether history was a science become so important in the second half of the nineteenth century?

    For those who supported the importance of history as a science, it was history's reliance on facts and documents that they believed made it scientific. Historians such as Charles Seignobos and Charles-Victor Langlois drew on German scholarship to establish the scientific principles of history.1 On the other side of the debate were Alphonse Aulard, Ferdinand Lot and Henri Pirenne. Theses historians believed that history should be wider and more diverse, extending its influence and study to include social, cultural, linguistic, geographical and economic factors.

    • Word count: 2508
  8. Rockefellers Contribution to America

    So, which was J.D Rockefeller angel or plundering scoundrel (Morris, 2002)? And what did this man contribute to America for America to remember him so well? William Avery Rockefeller married Eliza Davidson in February of 1837 (Chernow1998). Eliza's father very much disfavored the union as William "Big Bill" Rockefeller had a terrible reputation as a philanderer and conman. Eliza, a devout Baptist and normally a stoic young woman, was wooed by his good looks and charm. An uncharacteristic impulsive decision she would live to regret many times over. Big Bill, on the other hand, calculated his affections toward Eliza because of her father, John Davidson's, money and land.

    • Word count: 2124
  9. Importance of San Jacinto

    1850 James Pearce's proposal in the compromise of 1850 is accepted. 1851 On Jan 1 the slave trade is abolished in the District of Columbia 1854 Kansas-Nebraska act effectively repeals the Missouri Compromise. 1861 Civil war erupts in the US I was wondering what to write about when a friend and I were discussing my great home state of Texas. We were discussing why Texans are so cocky and proud of our state. I went online to WWW.SNOPES.COM to verify if Texas had the right to fly our flag the same height as the American Flag.

    • Word count: 3820
  10. To what extent does F.J Turner(TM)s Frontier Thesis(TM) present the landscape and the frontier environment as being central factors in explaining the development of the dominant American cultural values and id

    Equally, the downside of the settlers pursuing their ambition in their landgrab at the expense of the indigenous population through physical strength and a belief in their own superiority is replicated in the individualistic attitude of pursuing personal goals regardless of the consequences upon others. Turner's thesis encapsulates this very idea throughout, with reference early on, to a bulletin of the superintendent of the census report for 1890 agreeing that "up to and including 1880 the country had a frontier of settlement, but at present the unsettled area has been so broken into by isolated bodies of settlement that there

    • Word count: 1536
  11. African American Soldiers of the Civil War

    As the war that began to preserve the Union went on and developed into a campaign to end slavery, many soldiers, White and African American, "die[d] to make men free." (Howe) A few years into the hostile war, the questionable had become the expected- abolition of slavery, a formerly despised cause by some, now justified the motivation of the Civil War. At the end of the Emancipation Proclamation, President Lincoln announced that the freed African Americans "would be received into the armed service of the United States..."

    • Word count: 522
  12. Analyse Maria Edgeworth

    It is the minor effects in the book that point to political unstableness, and change, including the title itself." Castle Rackrent" This was an abuse that existed for centuries in Ireland. As we can see in the text castle rackrent was totally mismanaged leading to inefficient use of resources. In the text we know that Sir Kit Stopgap was the definition of an absentee landlord, spending most of his time in Bath. It is he who adopts the dreaded "middle men" who were dreaded in Ireland, as they look large farms on long leases, and set the land again in smaller portions to the poor, as under tenants at exorbitant rates.

    • Word count: 1439
  13. Republic of Texas

    This map is the earliest recorded document of Texas history ( Montejano, 34). French Texas In April 1682, French nobleman Ren�-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle arrived at the Gulf of Mexico after traversing the Mississippi River from New France and claimed the entire Mississippi River Valley for France. La Salle believed the Mississippi River was very near the edge of New Spain, and knew that French control of the Mississippi would split Spanish Florida from New Spain. In 1683, he convinced Louis XIV to establish a colony near the Mississippi (Fehrenbach, 43).

    • Word count: 4026
  14. the troppau protocol

    Congresses were held to resolve quarrels. At Aix-la-Chapelle, France was allowed to the Quintuple Alliance that was when the occupation of France ended. Only Austria, Prussia and Russia met at St Petersburg in 1825 the last meeting of the Congress, which was an unsuccessful effort to resolve their problems. It was the loss of the Congress traditional function that identifies nationalism and liberalism as the reasons for its destruction. 2) During October and December 1820, a meeting of the Holy Alliance powers was held at Troppau in Silesia at which the Troppau protocol, a declaration of intention to take collective action against revolution.

    • Word count: 860
  15. how far can you say that napoleon is the son of the revolution

    Yet Napoleon did not keep his power through his home policies alone. He was a master strategist on the battlefield and a master at international consultations. Napoleon repeatedly won both military and political victories. Even though he wasn't that religious, he succeeded in reconciling France and the Catholic Church in the Concordat of 1801. As a child of the Enlightenment and a son of the French Revolution, Napoleon was at the same time a traditional monarch, taking on all the display and paperwork of the monarchic traditions with a revolution bringing wide and long term changes to the regions under his rule.

    • Word count: 590
  16. Did the lives and status of women change as a result of the industrial revolution in the period 1750-1850?

    It was believed that everybody should seek work; otherwise they were of no use to society and became, according to the writer Henry Fielding, "useless Members"�. An example of pre-industrial production was spinning. Spinning wool was a typically female task, and an extremely important component of the poor community's economic life. The great advantage to spinning was the convenience as it could be stopped and started whenever was required; greatly useful to the housewife as she inevitably had a host of other responsibilities, such as caring for young children, running the household, tending animals, and performing agricultural tasks.

  17. The Myth and Purpose of Modernity

    The European presence in African affairs, at least initially, was contingent upon African authority. To change this power dynamic, European powers needed to reshape fundamental aspects of the status quo and they did so in the name of modernity. Therefore, modernization was not simply an ideological instrument for justifying European motives, it was a concentrated effort by imperial nations to subvert and undermine the comparable African authority which inhibited the growth of their empires. Undoubtedly, the leadership and governing structures of various African states posed the biggest obstacle to an expeditious take over by European powers.

    • Word count: 2823
  18. The Industrial Revolution: A Complete Shift towards the Growth of the United States

    It affected the lifestyles of people on an international level. Not only did it form a new wave of technological advances to the United States, it also affected a major portion of Europe including Great Britain, Russia France and Germany. This revolution shifted the motives of economic stability and labor towards a more mechanized and industrialized outlook. Industrialization has been the most fundamental force in world history.1 Many inventions were developed which improved not only the labor structure, but the lifestyle of people then and even now if you think about it.

    • Word count: 1878
  19. Discuss the process in which German Jews embraced the concept of "Bildung" and became part of the German "Bildungsbrgertum" (educated bourgeoisie).

    Volkov contends that the B�rgertum was more than simply a class. While the term does contain this meaning; a certain amount of economic well-being was required for entry in the B�rgertum; that is not the whole sense of the word. It also denotes "a culture, widely conceived as a system of norms and values"3, adherence to which was a necessary in order to become a part of the B�rgertum. A Jew in Germany in the nineteenth century could be bourgeois and a member of the B�rgertum, but he could not be a member of the B�rgertum and not bourgeois.

    • Word count: 1383
  20. Book Review The Scramble For Africa, M.E Chamberlain.

    The author, M.E Chamberlain, is professor Emerita, University of Wales, Swansea. Her other works include Decolonisation: The Fall of the European Empires, and Britain and India: The Interaction of Two Peoples. The partition of Africa (scramble) and New Imperialism is an area of history that has been studied in detail. Other academics who have produced work on the subject include J.A Hobson: Imperialism a Study, who popularised the 'surplus capital' Lee Roxburgh theory. D.K Fieldhouse who states that: "Imperialism may best be seen as the extension into the periphery of the political struggle in Europe".1 Ronald Robinson and John Gallagher, who in Africa and the Victorians: The Official Mind of Imperialism emphasise strategic over economic reasons for the partition.

    • Word count: 1317
  21. Why were Marx's expectations of a proletarian revolution in western Europe never realised?

    It has also been recognised that areas of high religious observance in France were areas in which the left fared badly at the polls. Confessional allegiance not only kept a significant section of the European working class away from radical politics, it also served to divide labour in its struggle against the employer. Thus different kinds of backgrounds and different levels of skill greatly influenced the different styles of working class protest and may well have prevented a unified proletarian revolution.

    • Word count: 3443
  22. Why did the Third Republic survive the Boulangist movement and the Dreyfus Affair?

    If the Third Republic was to survive, it would have to address all these major social and political issues. Sixteen years after the establishment of the Third Republic, it was faced with its first severe crisis, and greatest since 1877; the rise of General Boulanger. Boulanger became popular in the army for his sympathy with the common soldier, and he came to be seen as a strong figure who would stand up to Bismarck. His growth in popularity alarmed politicians and by 1888, Boulanger had been dismissed from the army. A "Boulangist" movement continued to develop and in 1889, Boulanger himself won a series of sensational by-election victories.

    • Word count: 2866
  23. What insights into late Victorian gender and social relations can be gleaned from a study of the press coverage of the 'Jack the Ripper' murders?

    'only by Christian compassion, abolition of the poor law system, the establishment of self help communities...a return to village life...and assisted emigration overseas.'1 It can also be shown that the rapid growth of the newspaper industry in the late 19th century affected the way in which specific social groups were perceived by people of the time. The publication of certain letters by the press, purporting to be from Jack the Ripper, enhanced the notion that women who did not adhere to strict moral codes were at risk of being a victim of 'The Fiend of Whitechapel'.

    • Word count: 3011
  24. Turkish Kurdish Intra-State War

    What is it then, which binds this group together in their demands for an independent country? As McDowall states, it is this people's assertion that they "continue to claim that by race, language, and lifestyle - and perhaps above all by geography -[that] they form a distinct community."v This community of peoples claimed territory occupies a rugged corner of the globe that has long been hostile to foreign governments and any efforts to cultural a assimilation. These people's "fierce independence of spirit, their pride in a distinctive culture...and their resistance to the encroachment of government"vi is not a phenomenon unique to this rugged corner of the globe.

    • Word count: 3637
  25. To what extent was the Boer War brought about by the actions and decisions of Milner and Chamberlain?

    year a quarter of the whole world's output.4 This event substantially changed the social and economic pattern of South Africa.5 The continuous non-stop inflow of a large amount of English gold investors (Uitlanders, referred to by the local Boers) not only outnumbered the male Boers6, but also yet more importantly, they represented a new economic power which was in essence above the local Boers. The stagnant agricultural and pastoral communities had to, however reluctant and awkward it was, underwent a major transition to a predominantly industrial urban society.

    • Word count: 2717

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