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University Degree: 1800-1899
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It stemmed not from "ambition of the prizes of intellectual success" (ibid.), but from a need for money. In a society where a woman's possessions belonged to her husband, and any wage she earned was legally his, higher education meant a way in to a profession, and a ticket to independent earnings. For, if a woman had her own money, she didn't need to depend on her husband. A twist to this viewpoint is outlined by Harrison as he cites the Diary of Beatrice Webb (1894), an English author writing on the subjects of sociology and economics. She wrote that she was troubled to see young girls "putting aside intellectual things", saying that ...deliberately foregoing motherhood seems to me to thwart all the purposes of their nature.
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The first of Napoleon's domestic reforms was the economic management of the country. Napoleon had inherited a disastrous financial situation, with the country's experiments with paper money, its wars, and its coups. So he set about trying to establish a stable currency by eliminating the bad paper currency and refusing to pay for supplies bought on credit. The new currency that was introduced was called the Franc, and on 6th January 1800 the new Bank of France was established with a capital of 30 million Francs.
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How successful was Disraeli's foreign + imperial policies from 1874-1880 in achieving his objectives
In that year Queen Victoria created him earl of Beaconsfield in recognition of his services. All of these foreign policies showed that he had abandoned the view, popular during the middle years of the century, that colonies were a hindrance to Britain. Interestingly these foreign moves did not involve him in any European affairs but merely in affairs that concerned his colonies. The purchase of the Suez Canal was seen as a major triumph for Disraeli's foreign policy. He opened up a pathway to the 'jewel of the empire' to improve trade and to keep the British colonies in touching distance.
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Before this act was introduced, Ireland's official religion was protestant. However this was unjustified for the reason of unfair representation. The majority of the population were Roman Catholics. So this wasn't a fair representation in actual fact only 12% were protestant. Gladstone soon changed this by introducing the disestablishment of the church act, which tackled this unjustified privilege and unfairness. Schools were a key institution of this country. The Education system desperately needed to be improved and certain people needed to be educated. The government introduced the Fosters education act in 1870.The working class had been extended the vote, so they now needed to be educated.
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The family background of theses stereotypical politician would have been wealthy nobles, land owners, the elitist. The reason why a politician or a member of parliament would have had to be wealthy because they received no salary in the 18th century. A stereo typical politician would have had a happy marriage and were expected to have good habits. Gladstone and Disraeli were two contrasting politician not only in parliament but in their background, there origins were also poles apart. On the one hand you have a very stereotypical politician, a man of principles and religion, (Gladstone)
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Gladstone believed that Ireland had three major grievances which was church land and education. Gladstone had introduced three different Irish reform acts in his first administration although it was clear what his intentions were for Ireland furthermore he had good intentions, sadly there are distinct differences between his objectives for Ireland and the impact it had on Ireland. The first reform act was the disestablishment of the church of Ireland, before the act was introduced the official church was catholic although only 12% were Anglican the majority was catholic this clearly discrimination against Catholics, so the disestablishment of the church of Ireland act was a success and was effective.
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"Critically examine the concept of embourgeisement and assess the extent to which this has take place in modern Britain."
Many sociologists consider that the working class or manual workers can be distinguished from the middle class or non-manual workers in a number of different ways. The hand out shows that the non-manual workers enjoy advantages over manual workers in terms of their life chances. They are likely to enjoy higher standards of health, and to live longer; they are less likely to own their own house and a variety of consumer goods. There are also important differences in the market and work situations of manual and non-manual workers.
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I wish to show that admiration for Bonaparte is much less due to his personal qualities and achievements. In fact, it could easily have been any other general who took a chance to get to the top of the French political system at a time when the French needed someone to admire. Primarily, when considering Napoleon's admirable accomplishments, it is appropriate to say that any man who was born of an island (Corsica), which was only a recent acquisition of the French, and worked himself up from a minor noble family to then become Emperor of the French is enough to stir admiration in many.
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Late nineteenth century imperialism can best be understood in terms of concerns over national weakness rather than as an assertion of national strength. Discuss.
aimed not at expanding British territory but at safeguarding Britain's existing world position." One example in which this was evident would be in the example of Egypt. The British took the Suez Canal in 1875, however it took them many years to formalize control over Sudan (1882). It was the local crisis of bankruptcy that pushed the British to formalize control; for fear that the French would take the Suez Canal and threaten British trade interests. From this example, we can see that original British economic and trade interests in the Suez Canal were threatened because of the possibility that economic competitor France would take over formal control of Egypt (this threat was
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Disraeli possessed neither a coherent social policy nor genuine interest in social problems. Discuss.
As to whether he himself had any genuine interest, there is sufficient evidence to suggest this was not the case. Many of the earlier social reforms, and also some of the most successful did were not proposed or produced by the conservatives, they were the work of the liberals, reborn by the conservatives and this suggests that the conservatives entered office without a specific plan of social reform of their own. The Employers and Workmen Act, which lifted the prohibition on peaceful picketing and the Conspiracy and Protection of Property Act which gave workers a legal right to sue employers
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According to Max Weber, "Bureaucratic administration means fundamentally the exercise of control on the basis of knowledge. This is a vital feature which makes it specifically rational. (Max Weber 1947 p339) The above is a brief explanation of the major features of Webers ideal type of bureaucracy, however, not all the above points will be seen in a concrete form of every bureaucracy, and perhaps in some barely been seen at all, real organizations can be more or less bureaucratic according to their degree of proximity to their ideal formulation.
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"Discuss the aims of the Congress of Vienna and the Consequences it had on the Major Powers of Europe".
This gathering was known as the 'Congress of Vienna'. The four major powers that attended the congress were Britain, Russia, Austria and Prussia. This was the first time that Europe had assembled together in this manner. Also present were the minor states, including Spain, Portugal and Sweden. At the congress, the European representatives had many factors to consider. They decided that the main goal that they wanted to achieve were to maintain peace and order throughout Europe. The first aim was to establish a balance of power between the major countries to prevent any threat of imperialism.
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In this sense the creation of a positive public image enabled Napoleon to gain the popular support he needed, as Napoleon had actually achieved very little by this time, but people perceived him to be the 'saviour' of France. It was during the formative period that Napoleon learned his craft as a propagandist and honed his skills as a manipulator of public opinion. Napoleon had created a propaganda structure during the Italian campaign of 1796 and then built upon this "through conscious manipulation of dispatches, correspondence, medallions and especially of the press, Napoleon created for himself the image of revolutionary hero5".
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In particular the essay will examine the events of the 16th June 1815, with the battles at Quatre Bras and Ligney, which brought about the Waterloo battle. The campaign of Waterloo has been made the subject of many historians, examining in detail, every decision made by the men in the forefront of battle. But in the midst of these men were brave soldiers battling it out, at Hougoumont, La Haye Sainte and Papelotte, to gain the advantage needed by their Commanders to win.
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Was Napoleon I an "Unprincipled adventurer whose genius owes more to propaganda than to deeds"? [Quoted in D.G. Wright Napoleon and Europe (1984) p.93]
Hazlitt sees Napoleon as a tyrant but claims there was a kind virtue about this quality. No one would disagree with the idea that Napoleon was tyrannical, but other's would contest the idea of this being a virtue, for example A.D. Harvey suggests that people should view Napoleon "not as general who became a dictator, but as a dictator who became a general"(1). One thing becomes clear about Napoleon is that many historians over the last two centuries have debated his actual character. Most would agree that he was a genius, and that he had a very prosperous career, Goethe goes as far to say, "His life was the stride of a demigod"(1).
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Discuss the development and popularity of the seaside holiday during the course of the 19th century.
The hotel was a landmark in the growth of the seaside resorts. Hotels became more and more popular for both short and weekend visits as it was more convenient and it was also cheaper to use servants supplied by the hotel rather than moving an entire household to private accommodation. Previously hotels only provided suites of serviced rooms but the new hotels were attractive due to their wide range of facilities such as public restaurants and smoking rooms. These hotels mainly attracted the new rich.
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Why and with what success did Piedmont become the focus of attention in the movement towards Italian unification?
Cavour was appointed president allowing him to pass his law of "cannubio" (marriage) uniting the left and right wing. Piedmont being set in the far north of the country means it borders with 3 other countries allowing trade routes to be travelled with ease. Its strong army is also able to defend due to this. The formation of the national society meant that the Piedmont also had allies in their race to unify Italy; although he national society had slightly different goals they are both fighting for the same end.
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A certain consistency of approach therefore is apparent throughout the 1870's and 1880's, even if he takes a different view to politics in his later years as premier. Between 1866-78 Bismarck adopted policies which were at undeniably liberal. From his unification of Germany, and his attacking of conservative European powers, through to his policies of industrialization, his refusal to put in place tariffs and his promotion of Kulturkampf, it seems that if one had to compartmentalize the Bismarckian then it would be easiest to call this his liberal period and the years between 1878 and his retirement in the early
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With the occupation the Italian states were as one, with one custom, language, law and order. The land was redistributed and Italy was finally made into a modern system of government and infrastructure except industry which was suppressed so not to rival France. From this a new middle class began to appear, since the old feudal ties were destroyed. Probably the greatest development which the French occupiers introduced was representative government based on the French system, this beginning of elected assemblies, started a fire that did not go out and caused many of the uprisings/revolutions.
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Also, without the ownership of this vast expanse of natural resources, western expansion would have been almost impossible. In 1762, France had practically given the land to Spain, but in 1800, the treaty of San Ildefonso allowed the French to reacquire the area. At the time, Napoleon Bonaparte had grand dreams of a French Empire in the New World. He was hoping to use the island of Hispaniola as the center of his domain, with the Mississippi Valley as the main food and trade route from which to support his empire. Unfortunately for him, a slave revolt led by Toussaint L'Ouverture dashed his plans.
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The source has a lot of information regarding the relationship between Cavour and Napoleon. As it is Napoleon who initiated the meeting he has the upper hand as far as discussion is concerned. Cavour's willingness to participate in the meeting shows Napoleon that Cavour is the one with the most to gain therefore he is unable to risk taking control of the situation. Cavour's main difficulty in the meeting is finding a plausible reason to start war with Austria. Napoleon did not make this easy for Cavour; Cavour suggested ways in which a war with Austria may be sought yet Napoleon is quick to dismiss these plans as "petty".
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Each of the four major powers had their own motives in the peace settlements after the Napoleonic Wars.
as the best guarantee of peace and stability ... with principle of "legitimacy"'1 and with this the prevention any aggression in the creation of a 'Balance of power' where 'no single nation was either able or willing to make a bid for dominance'2; therefore a guarantee of peace and stability. Yet which was the main issue? It initially appears that peace and stability dominated the agenda of the great powers, although what about beyond 1815? The creation of the 'Balance of Power' was indeed a method to maintain stability in Europe.
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Bismarck had engineered a change in the balance of power so overwhelmingly in favour of Prussia, that the Second Republic felt challenged in its existence. In the context of the seemingly unstoppable drive towards nationalism, it is impossible to charge Bismarck with personal responsibility for the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. In the path leading up to 1870 Bismarck very much followed in the footsteps of the Piedmontese Prime Minister Count Cavour. Imitating Cavour, who had swiftly occupied Italy following the French-Italian victories at Magenta and Solferino in June 1859, Bismarck rapidly annexed the northern members of the German Bund following Prussia's unexpected victories at K�niggr�tz and Sadowa.
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This is why many women were in unhappy marriages. If a woman was not married, they were seen as a failure. * Also many women relied on financial support from their husbands, as they were not allowed to work, so they had to get married just to have a warm place to live, and food to eat. * In an extract from 'The Whole Woman' by Germaine Greer it says 'while the male hunter-gatherer strolled along burdened with no more than his spear and throwing stick, his female mate trudged along after him carrying their infant, their shelter, their food supplies and her digging stick'.
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But Napoleon's Italian policy did not begin with the landing of the expeditionary force at Civitavecchia in April 1849. He attempted to bring the matter before a Congress and tried to pass responsibility for the intervention to the Sardinians. But the other powers and the Pope would not accept this. Britain saw the matter, in the manner of Castlereagh's State Paper, as "questions of internal governments". Austria had to protect her interests and the Pope, since it was Italian Nationalists who had usurped him, had no intention of entering into the protection of other Italians who had proved equally rebellious in recent months.
- Word count: 2526