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University Degree: 1920-1949
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He promised to leave the Catholic church in Germany unharmed if the Catholics abstained from political activity outside the NSDAP. The Vatican agreed, and Hitler's guarantee (which, of course, was merely tactical) reconciled many German Catholics with the regime. The fact that Hitler was willing to negotiate with Vatican is evidence that he tried to maintain order in Germany. By offering something to everyone and by appealing to everyone with something of interest, Hitler could win people over in support of his party.
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To what extent did the Tsarist and Soviet governments control and influence music in the period 1875-1975?
Much of his music has a strong element of fatalism to it, particularly the Isle of the Dead (1909) and The Bells (1913), signified by the use of the haunting plainchant Dies Irae theme. The composer wrote no highly-stylised ballets of the sort which would attract government subsidies, and no patriotic orchestral works glorifying the r�gime. The state had no particular objection to his music and made no attempts to modify his output, but by denying him support strongly restricted his ability to compose.
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"The Great Depression put the American people through many difficult tasks. Millions lost their jobs and couldn't support their families. Without jobs people had to move out of their houses and live outside or in "Hoovervilles". 3And most people were willing to work for food. Many families split apart in search of jobs and food and most of the time they never saw each other again. There were many different causes that started the Great Depression. But Margin buying was a significant cause of the Great Depression. As World War I ended, most Americans were looking for a better life.
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Average people found ways around the law, and the mob presented itself and acted as if it were invincible. Organized crime awakened in the 1920's and profited enormously by defying the law. Wars between mobs for the possession and distribution of the toxic liquid "gold" was damaging for the country and inevitable for the outcome of the Amendment; yet the government commissioned the criminal gangs by providing bribery as long as they were working (Hill 77). Despite the outcomes of the 18th Amendment, people argued the positive effects of the Prohibition and offered statistics to prove their reasoning (Hill 81).
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This report will analyse both the negative and positive impacts of the First World War upon British society, and it will argue that although the First World War caused varieties of serious effects on British society, in terms of social development, the im
In addition, the military spending during the war was huge (Black, 2000), which was one of the heavy prices caused by the war. The First World War affected the British society hugely and deeply. This report will analyse both the negative and positive impacts of the First World War upon British society, and it will argue that although the First World War caused varieties of serious effects on British society, in terms of social development, the impacts of the war is relatively positive.
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The Moyne Commission was a waste of time. Critically discuss the view. The Moyne Commission started August 3rd 1938 and ended on February 20th 1939 which was appointed by the British Government to investigate social and economic conditions in Barbados, th
And seeing that it was successful this therefore represented a means of accommodating the demands of a segment of the population for greater representation. Back in the late 1930s up to the 1950s, the number of political parties in the country had grown fast, putting into motion more working and middle-class West Indians into the political arena which is the central part of an ancient Roman amphitheater for gladiatorial contests. However, though any impression of an overwhelming victory for the national and imperial bourgeoisie which is a social order dominated by bourgeois.
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Critical Analysis: Walking Since Daybreak. As a text rich with examples of postmodern and post-colonial writing, Modris Eksteins' Walking Since Daybreak is a wonderfully layered account with which one can attempt to prove Kellner's main point.
Given the vast horror and the destructive journey Europe took to get there, "Nineteen Forty-Five is not our victory, as we often like to think; 1945 is our problem."3 In this postmodern age, one must write about history that does not dictate meaning and significance but rather "provokes" it with "layers of suggestion". To accomplish this, it must be told from the borders of society- from the point of view of the exiled and the displaced- and not from the centre. It must reflect the familiarity and involvement of experience, as well as the gradual 'de-centering' and loss of authority.
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With the Treaty of Versailles leaving a massive scar on Germany it is possible that Hitler wanted to get revenge, if not a little more than payback. Hitler envisioned a union of all German-speaking peoples across Europe; he aimed to create a "Greater Germany" made up of 100 million Germans. "We National Socialists must hold unflinchingly to our aim in foreign policy, namely, to secure for the German people the land and soil to which they are entitled on this earth"1 his foreign policy was very aggressive, especially with the treaty of Versailles' restrictions on German land and army.
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Whilst the argument that Fascism can be explained by a single factor is usually exemplified with reference to World War I, such a view doesnt do justice to a series of interrelating and often contingent factors that contribute greatly to the rise of Fascism. Although World War I is undoubtedly a crucial short term factor, there are a number of long term factors preceding World War I which are of significant importance. Consequently the emergence of fascism should be seen as a process that cannot be explained by any single factor.
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By November, the majority of people, Chinese as well as foreigners, had already left the city. The Fear of the Chinese people increased due to various things: the government was moved to Chongqing2, the rumours about the Japanese cruelty the people heard of, the intimidating propaganda from the Japanese military and the large number of fleeing foreigners. Due to the dramatically decreasing population, there were only a few people seen on the streets and many houses were empty. Resulting out of that was that the many landlords stopped collecting rents from the tenants. Also, the goods exceeded demand, which means that the prices dropped which resulted in the closing down of many shops.
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Spain was a has-been empire that had long ago fallen from a 'great power' status. Germany had only recently united into a full-fledged nation under Otto von Bismarck a mere 29 years before, and nobody foresaw the wholesale destruction that the Germans would soon bring to the world. The 'Scramble for Africa' was in full swing, as the Europeans sought expansion of their empires and their markets. The Chinese were no longer a serious contender in world affairs, and in fact the Boxer Rebellion was being put down by the Eight-Nation Alliance and not the Chinese themselves.
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What factors make the 20th century the Age of Extremes? What lasting impact do they have on international politics in the 21st century?
Deeper systemic causes lay in European regional and international events, including a shifting balance of power among the European Great Powers and a race for influence abroad in the form of Imperialism and colonisation. The war ended in armistice in June 1918, but its impact lasted for decades to come. Many states experienced a revolution in government with a shift towards democracy. Prior to World War I, Europe had nineteen monarchies and three republic governments; afterwards, there were thirteen monarchies, fourteen republics and two regency governments.
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As previously mentioned the Popular Front government was a coalition of left wing parties, intended to counter the perceived threat of fascism. As such it would be logical to assume that fear of fascism would be a major factor when accounting for the rise of the Popular Front. David A. L. Levy for example argues that the Popular Front originated as a result of the events of 6 February 1934; when the right wing Croix de Feu organisation staged a demonstration which ended in a bloody and murderous riot, in which fifteen died and more than two thousand were injured.6
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to commit suicide.2 The Wall Street Crash of 1929 was an event that virtually crippled the American economy sending it into a state of panic and impoverishment. Before one can construct an answer to "the causes of the Depression and Crash," it is vital to acknowledge the relationship each has to one and other. The common interpretation that the stock market crash led to the Great Depression is in need of modification. Harold Evans (1998), states that "The crash did have a bearing on events in America, but it was certainly not the single trigger so often described."3 Therefore, although
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to a limited defenseless state; territories which had to be separated from Germany, such as the Sudetenland or demands relating to Poland, was unacceptable; most importantly the article 231, which was accepting the war guilt. Any treaty which implied defeat would have been hard to accept (Lamb and Tarling 2001, p. 28) According to Hobsbawm, every party in Germany from the communists on the extreme left to Hitler's national socialists on the extreme right concurred in condemning the Versailles treaty as unjust and unacceptable (1994, p.36).
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In general, fans believed the owners were more concerned about generating money for themselves rather than actually attempting to appeal to their consumers. Franklin Lewis, a writer for the Cleveland Press, explained that this attitude created widespread resentment of Cleveland's ownership and "... it annoyed most fans like a perpetual stone in their shoe."5 For example, by 1946 the owners still had yet to allow any Tribe6 games to be broadcast on the radio. They feared that fans would rather listen to a game for free on the radio rather than buy a ticket and watch it for themselves, and
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President Roosevelt, with the help of government aid, bailed out the majority of American banks using government funds. He also placed new policies for banks in the way which they could be operated. Many banks adopted the policy of FDIC, which insured bank investments up to a certain amount of money. Because of this, investors became more confident in putting their savings in the hands of federally assisted banks. Also, as people began to invest in banks, banks were able to give out loans. These consisted of loans for farm mortgages, home mortgages, railroad and home insurance and loans for home owners as a whole.
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In considering the process of change in the German Government 1890-1991, how far can the defeat in WWI be seen as a turning point?
Weltpolitik actually damaged German interests rather than bolster them by causing offence and the destruction of Bismarckian Europe, a sentiment reinforced by Schmidt that "To pursue all courses was the worst possible policy, for it kept alive the distrust of entente powers", however this fails to take into account the social issues which plagued Germany and forced this expansion. When coupled with European events and a web of alliances, WWI was inevitable. Thus the ascension was the key turning point as the desire for power put Germany on a crash course, ending in WWI.
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The election campaigns of each party were central in shaping public opinion and must be scrutinised. The chasm between the styles of Churchill and Attlee is vital for a thorough understanding of voting patterns in 1945. The growth of middle-class support for Labour is often understood to come from it becoming a 'classless' party during the election campaign. The 'shift to the left' which occurred during the Second World War explains the increase in Labour Party support; however, historians are divided over what caused this change. The popularity of the Beveridge Report, the Soviet Union and state-run industry all contributed to the increase in left-wing feeling.
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The construction of 'invented tradition' involves the use of ancient materials, such as symbolism. New tradition could be based on existing ones, which could be devised by borrowing from official rituals, religion or folklore. Laurence (2008, p. 157) states that 'what we see of the historic past around us is the product of both conscious and unconscious ideas about the past.' The decisions about what to preserve, reconstruct and adapt, are made on deeply felt ideas about which aspects of the past should be represented.
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as "he demanded the formation of the consolidated Moslem state in the best interests of India and of Islam"9 and "he would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind, and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single state".10 However, although these provinces mentioned contained a majority of Muslims, the Muslims in these provinces did not totally agree with this idea of a separate state and therefore Iqbal's suggestion ironically appealed more to the Muslims in other provinces of India, who were in a minority.
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The Stolen Generation The land mark event I have chosen to focus on for this section of the Assessment Event is the removal of Aboriginal children, 'The Stolen Generation/s', from their traditional homes and their parents.
They surely would have felt and indeed would still be feeling, confused, angry, bewildered and resentful. The European societies, and particularly the 'zealous missionaries whose initial goal was to Christianise the heathen savages' children' (Sociology of Education: p198) viewed the Aboriginal societies as savage. However, when one considers what the Aboriginal people were actually suffering as a result of these policies and actions, one must wonder who really were the savages. The forced removal of children from their families took place under the regulations and guidelines of this Policy, 'The `protectionist' legislation was generally used in preference to the general child welfare legislation to remove Aboriginal children.
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Yet I have a Land Army girl doing just the same work for me, who can secure rubber boots, pullovers and breaches, and a good strong waterproof (so she tells me) the first time of asking: while we have been filling up forms and writing letters for weeks and have not yet been able to secure sufficient Wellingtons. This seems most unfair.1 Hebditch's remark on the treatment of his own daughters is significant because it demonstrates that there was a genuine inequality between women who worked on the land, and that therefore social change was not experienced by all women.
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Do Historical Films help or hinder our understanding of the past? Discuss with reference to one or more films.
of the past as although the use of black-and-white cinematography reminds us of commemoration and memory, this also distorts public memory as the film tries to be too realistic4 as a feature film. The critic Bratu Hansen furthermore supports this as he suggests that "by posing as the 'real thing' the film usurps the place of the actual event."5 Furthermore Schindler's List hinders understanding of past events as there is a scene in the film illustrating Oskar Schindler's preference for Jewish workers to work for his company rather than polish workers.6 It must be remembered that the Holocaust was universal and that other ethnic minorities such as gypsies, poles, homosexuals and Slavs had suffered due to Nazi policies.
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Blinkhorn's historical judgement is conveyed in a well-structured manner because the chapters are divided into sub-sections. This is useful because it allows the reader to understand this very complex subject. The introductions that are included for each chapter also help to set its background. In his Introduction, Blinkhorn propounds the book's central argument that "Fascism needs to be understood in terms of its metamorphosis as it moves (sometimes) from theory to movement and then (more rarely) from movement to regime".7 However, before Blinkhorn explores the movement of fascism within inter-war Europe, he sets within his first two chapters "Foretastes of fascism"8 and "Inter-war Europe in Crisis"9, the historical context that 'fascism' emerged within.
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