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University Degree: 1950-1999

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 3
  1. Why did the USSR collapse?

    The prices on food started to go up and salaries went to down, the curfew was established. And government opened the State Committee on State of Emergency in the USSR. This committee declared their own problem to overcome economic and political crisis, international and civil confrontation and anarchy. But what the population of the USSR thought about government and their actions at that time? People were really shocked what was happening in the country, they did not know whom they could believe, what they could do and what to expect from government. They lost any hope for the future.

    • Word count: 848
  2. Out of this furnace

    This story still stands as a fresh and extraordinary accomplishment. The reader follows the family as they make their way in America. The story begins in the 1880s with the ingenuous career of Djuro Kracha, the first generation immigrant of the family from Austria-Hungary, who sails to the US to find work and start a new life. He began as a worker in a steel mill - at ten cents an hour. George truly was full of the hope and promise that America's freedom and riches represented to immigrants from around the world.

    • Word count: 880
  3. Three Lives of Mississippi

    It relates the story of an atrocity committed on our doorstep." In the civil rights movement, 1964 was the year of Freedom Summer. On June 21, Mississippi, one of the last bastions of segregation in America and a bloody battleground in the fight for civil rights, reached the low point in its history. Three young civil rights workers-a 21-year-old black Mississippian, James Chaney, and two white New Yorkers, Andrew Goodman, 20, and Michael Schwerner, 24-were murdered near Philadelphia, in Nashoba County, Mississippi.

    • Word count: 524
  4. How can the Cuban Missile Crisis be seen as a defeat for the United States?

    Indeed, Kennedy did react well to the Crisis, turning to negotiations rather than war and his rational approach to the Crisis certainly deserves credit. US media presented the resolution to tCHNKWKS ���TEXTTEXT�wFDPPFDPPzFDPCFDPC|FDPCFDPC~FDPCFDPC�STSHSTSH�hSTSHSTSHh��SYIDSYID �SGP SGP "�INK INK &�BTEPPLC *�BTECPLC B�(FONTFONTj�pFTN FTN Ú>FTN FTN `�>TOKNPLC �4STRSPLC ��HPRNTWNPR�<FRAMFRAM"��the Crisis aHow can the Cuban Missile Crisis be seen as a defeat for the United States? This essay will seek to offer an explanation as to how the Cuban Missile Crisis can be seen as a defeat for the US.

  5. "Khrushchev's leadership was a failure," Do you agree?

    The Virgin Land scheme was a good idea for Khrushchev, but made a big mistake, after a good first season the failure to rotate crops and use fertilisers to feed the earth which caused soil erosion. Windstorms were partly to blame for this, but rightly Khrushchev was heavily blamed. Harvests in 1963 were so bad the USSR had to buy large amounts of grain from the US and Canada. Khrushchev made big steps into the unknown which was space. A race with the US to get into space first was won by the USSR.

    • Word count: 594
  6. Why Did Senator Joseph McCarthy Have Sucha Big Impact on American Politics and Society in the 1950's?

    Americans were already terrified of America being taken over by communists and there were quite a few reasons why. One of the biggest reasons was that, in 1949, Chinese communists took power in China. This frightened the Americans because it showed them that communism was spreading and it made them think that if communists could take over such a big, powerful country as China then they could easily take over a big, powerful country like America. Virtually the same thing happened in 1950 when communist North Korea invaded pro-American South Korea. This also meant that communism was spreading and becoming a much bigger threat to America.

    • Word count: 963
  7. The New Rationality.

    War was inadmissible." Though both sides tried to reduce arms budget, there was still an increasing amount of arms, as well as tension. As confrontations grew, West Germany, Korea and Yugoslavia each side rearmed worrying that the other would start war. Yet with the change of leaders, policies changed and greater measures were taken to limit spending and the dependence on nuclear weapons, as both worried about the strain on their economies. Having made such weapons a constant question was just what good it actually was.

    • Word count: 760
  8. Why is Joseph Stalin significant in history?

    His real name is not Stalin, he changed his name to Stalin, which means 'man of steel' in 1910. Both his parents were peasants whom neither could speak Russian. Whilst training for priesthood, he read Karl Marx's Das Kapital which inspired him to think about the ideas portrayed in the work. After reading Marx's work, he quit the priesthood and began his long political career, first as a revolutionary. He began his career in 1899 as a propagandist for the social democratic party. He was arrested, however in 1902 and put into prison. He escaped in 1904 from the Siberian prison and married.

    • Word count: 814
  9. The World Since 1945 - The End of the Stalin Era.

    The governments of the region were to remain under the control of a communist ruling elite whose authority was based on its monopoly of state power and whose interest were not always compatible with those of the people at large. Shortly after Stalin's death a system of collective leadership was announced in Moscow: Malenkov - regarded as the heir apparent. Only fifty-one, he immediately took Stalin's place, becoming head of the Council of Ministers and general secretary of the communist party.

    • Word count: 824
  10. US The diplomatic Failure Afghanistan. Vietnam. Middle East. Somalia. Bosnia. What do these share in common? US great crusades to uphold justice and protect the innocent. Uphold justice? Protect the innocent? Yeah, right

    It has been very much an isolationist to the rest of the world all throughout much of its history. Examples: World War II and Middle East affairs. It will only get involved whenever its interests are involved or if it stands to profit from intervention. Even the majority of people in the US know nothing more than what's happening in their own backyard - understandably so, since their country spans almost a whole continent and comprises of so many states. Local news covers almost every time slot of the news and current affairs programs and talk shows. Seldom is anything being reported or talked about that is beyond their own shores.

    • Word count: 905
  11. Differences Between The South and the North Which Led to the American Civil War.

    The main issue, which most people believe caused the civil war, was the question of slavery. Since the beginning of the 1800's the North and South had been discussing the issue of slavery. The North wished to abolish all slavery in the United States. In the Northern states they felt that they had no need for slaves. Their farms were smaller than in the south and the climate was cooler. Northern farmers did not need slaves to work on their farms for them.

    • Word count: 947
  12. Why do you think that Khrushchev put missiles on Cuba? Was he justified in his actions?

    Despite being geographically close to America, Castro (leader of Cuba) chose to ally himself with America's enemy, the USSR. Western Europe was as opposed to communism as America was, and so European countries were very willing to do all they could to aid America. The United States had missiles positioned in Turkey and European nations also had weapons ready to be fired at the Soviets. The Russians felt rightly threatened and desperately wanted an ally closer to America. When America cut off aid to Cuba, the Soviets saw their opportunity. In 1960 the USSR signed an agreement to buy 1,000,000 tonnes of Cuban sugar every year.

    • Word count: 749
  13. How did life in the Soviet Union change in the period 1953 to 1985?

    Millions of people were released from prisons and camps and spread the word of the evil regime of Stalin. This later won the leadership for Khrushchev to lead in power. Khrushchev introduced many new different schemes for agriculture and industry. There were the Virgin Land Schemes, 13 million hectares in the West would be ploughed up and 20 million tonnes of grain would be produced. Collective farms were reduced in numbers, and tractor farms were closed down, instead tractors were produced for the farms.

    • Word count: 531
  14. Why Was There A Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962?

    Fidel Castro, however, led a successful revolution against Batista and took control over Cuba in 1939. The US government had suspicions that Castro was a communist, these suspicions grew as Castro began a thorough programme of reform of Cuba's economy and society, for example the government began to nationalise industries and to take over land and redistribute among the peasants. Castro was aware of the danger of falling out with the US government but was determined to carry out reforms.

    • Word count: 735
  15. Fidel Castro emerged from the foothills of the Sierra Mountains as a symbol of freedom and equality, mottos of the long awaited Cuban revolution. This was in 1959, Fidel Castro has managed to maintain his absolute power for over 44 years.

    Fidel Castro's social reform was also responsible for introducing more women into the education system as well as the work force. With education now more accessible, women accounted for 50% of university students and comprised 35% of the work force by the early 1980's. Women also became increasingly involved in leadership positions. By mid 1970's women accounted for 13% party membership along with 7% national trade union membership. Then, by early 1980's, women accounted for 32.4% of party memberships along with 40% of national union trade membership.

    • Word count: 896
  16. How doesWinthrop Sargeants newspaper review help us to understand the singing qualities of an operatic diva such as Callas?

    Callas? struggle with high notes is further mentioned by Robert Phillips in the AA100 Reputations book: ?Callas sometimes struggle?s to control a rather aggressive wobble in her top register, particularly when she is singing loudly? -Phillips, R; (2009), AA100 Reputations, Milton Keynes, The Open University An example of this is from the recording of the ?Ah! Fors?e lui? aria at 1.29 we hear Callas hit very high notes and an example of the wobble in her voice can be heard here. Winthrop Sargeant however was picking up on what was by now, a very common flaw in Maria Callas?s voice.

    • Word count: 823
  17. Comment on the following extract: Extract from the Kennedy Tapes, Off-The-record Meeting on Cuba, October 16, 1962, 6:30 P.M. - 7:55 P.M.

    Apart from JFK, they were unaware that this conversation was being taped and therefore this document itself was not meant for public hearing. This gives to historians a rare insight to the personal conversations and decision making processes that occurred within the walls of the white house. It shows the wariness of the President himself to make a decision concerning the Cuban missile crisis, the changing responses and attitudes to attacking Cuba and the importance of the perception from the American people.

    • Word count: 683
  18. Research Proposal When Mao died his only legacy was the political and economic devastation of China.

    While the Marxist theory of communism focused more on a working class party, Mao was able to take the men and women of China?s farming class and bring about a far-reaching revolutionary change. The beginnings of Mao?s leadership lent great promise but his actions after the revolution in regards to the ?Great Leap Forwards? resulted in seeing millions of his countrymen die, than a change for the better. During Chairman Mao?s Great Leap Forward campaign, it seemed to be his genuine intention to bring China into a new age and ?walk on two legs?, as he like to refer to it.

    • Word count: 696

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Evaluate Ernesto "Ché" Guevara's impact on the success of the Cuban Revolution.

    "E Conclusion Ch� Guevara's importance and relevance in the Cuban Revolution was crucial. He provided a type of leadership which was lacking in Latin American movements of the sort. His style of leading by example and self-sacrifice was not even present in the likes of Fidel himself or his brother. This contribution undoubtedly makes him a unique addition to the forces and was important in controlling the revolution, making sure that it served its initial aims. His close relationship as friend and confidante of Castro was also important in the leanings of the tactics to guerrilla warfare and even more so after the war would end."

  • Do Great Men change the course of history? Discuss with reference to either Lenin or Stalin or Gorbachev

    "Conclusion How then are we to judge Stalin? Looking at him purely from a historical and a narcissistic point of view he was definitely one of if not the key person in 20th century history. . Born in obscurity, he rose to historic significance, a fallible human being of extraordinary qualities. He supervised the near-chaotic transformation of peasant Eurasia into an urban, industrialised superpower under unprecedented adversities. Though his achievements were at the cost of exorbitant sacrifice of human beings and natural resources, they were on a scale commensurate with the cruelty of two world wars. 1 Chris ward Stalins Russia pg23 2 www.janus.umd.edu/issues/sp07/Szpakowski_SocialisminOneCountry 3 Chris ward Stalins Russia pg35 4 Geoffrey Hosking A history of the soviet union pg150 5 L.Deutscher Stalin pg324 6 L.Deutscher Stalin pg466 7 L.Deutscher Stalin pg468 8 8 L.Deutscher Stalin pg468 9 L.Deutscher Stalin pg483"

  • "War in the trenches"? To what extent were Church and State opposed in the GDR?

    "In conclusion, I would agree with Althausen's depiction of the relationship between Church and State in the DDR as "war in the trenches". Neither side could reach an authentic compromise with the other on ideological grounds, but for political and pragmatic reasons neither could they maintain complete separation. The church could not go into "internal exile" without renouncing a key part of its mission to witness to society; neither could the SED eliminate a deeply-rooted institution so quickly, or do without the welfare services provided by the Church. Communism and Christianity made for uneasy bedfellows in the DDR, but the example is an instructive one for political theology, even if the SED state has now collapsed and the East German church is now decidedly a minority group. (1,635 words)"

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