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University Degree: 1950-1999
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The Wolfenden committee is vital because it was the official political response to the perceived problem of "vice" in the capital. Its background and the evidence the committee considered before publication of the official report are significant because it detailed much of the growing public anxiety in 1950s London. "Vice" and public space The invasion of prostitution and male homosexuality into London's communal space was of great concern to the public in the 1950s. The 'sexual geography' of London was mapped extensively in the post-war period; the spread of "vice" was perceived as an abhorrent disease, of which a cure was immediately necessary.
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A critical examination of the failure of Joint Anglo American Covert Paramilitary Operations in Cold War Albania
4 First, subverting a target regime; second bolstering a friendly government and lastly; as ancillary support for a larger war effort. In the case of OVF the operation was directed toward the first and last objectives. OVF was at its heart a paramilitary operation to destabilise the Soviet satellite state of Albania, rather than an intelligence operation designed to gain information about Albania. It is "the only occasion when direct paramilitary intervention was applied to overthrown a Soviet Satellite". 5 In the early stages of the Cold War the USSR was a battle space where the intelligence services could not secure sources or methods of orthodox intelligence gathering.
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How relevant was the legacy or intrusion of the British Colonial Government in the Nigerian civil war between July 1967- January 1970? The investigation focuses on the developments from three main time periods: the pre-colonial era, the colonial era and t
These three main groups had a pre-colonial history of tribal and religious conflicts. This was compounded by intra-regional rivalry between the major ethnic groups in each region on one side and the minority groups who were against the ascendancy of the major ethic groups. The islamic Fulani had established their authority over a medley of states creating the empire of Usuman dan Fodio and his descendents. Consequently, the north was made of states that had Islam as the predominant religion.
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We must also use a comparative justice approach on the matter in order to further prove a war as just. While there are clearly rights and wrongs on all sides of a conflict, in order to override the supposition against the use of force, the injustice that has been suffered by one party must drastically outweigh that suffered by the opposing party. There have been some theorists, such as Brian Orend, who have omitted this term by deeming it as fertile ground for exploitation by pugnacious regimes.
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and his gaining of acceptance. A personal account shall also be included to discuss the impact Cunningham has created. To now evaluate the authenticity of the aforementioned sources, they have all been found to be of a reliable nature, with consistent information. All of the sources were found in Middlesex University Learning Resource Centre in Trent Park and through research, it has been found that there is a vast amount of information available on Cunningham. Every source used, except Bremser's Fifty Contemporary Choreographers, had a contents page and index, allowing ease of accessing information inside.
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This initial success was short lived though. For the next few years the Communist Party struggled in China. A failed labor union movement and a weak relationship with their nationalist allies left the Communist party poor. For a time Mao was disheartened though his interests were rekindled after the 1925 uprising in Shanghai. With his political ambitions renewed Mao moved to Guangdong to prepare for the Communist National Congress (Ch'en, 51). During that congress and in a Communist Party meeting in early 1927 Mao convinced many with his theory of violent revolution.
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Containment was the doctrine which was to define and form the basis of American foreign policy. Harry Truman, president of the United States, could either try to 'rollback' Communism, which meant going onto the offensive to throw Stalin out of eastern Europe, or he could attempt to halt the flow of Communism into western Europe or into other areas of the world. As Truman possessed the atomic bomb and America was militarily superior to the USSR at the end of the war, the first option, 'rollback'. had supporters in some sections of Truman's administration; however, it would mean almost certain conflict and the possession of the A-bomb did not necessarily mean that its use would 'rollback' Communism - obliterating Eastern European cities, full of potential converts to American democracy, made no political sense.
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In this era Khrushchev also attempted to develop the soviet standing in the newly liberated third world, however I will focus on relations with the West, the US and China in answering this question. In order to contemplate the success of Khrushchev's foreign policy, it is first important to determine his personal views and his ideological outlook which coloured his policies. Khrushchev has been described in many ways, from a 'colourful, impulsive individualist... the bold iconoclastic reformer... the ambitious adventurer'3 to a 'hare-brained schemer'4.
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How can we best explain the failure of Kennedy administration in the Bay of pigs fiasco but its successes in the Cuban missile Crisis?
Meanwhile, John F Kennedy, because of his assassination thirty years ago, has gone down in history. However, in the early months of his administration, Kennedy found it necessary take total responsibility for an embarrassing failure in United States foreign policy. Kennedy's reaction to the disaster at the Bay of Pigs was to ask "How could I have been so stupid to let them go ahead?" (1). 1. Welch,R.E, (1985) Response to Revolution: United States and the Cuban Revolution, University of North Carolina: Paperback.
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Why were those who believed in genuinely democratic market socialism unable to prevent the collapse of the Soviet state and the Soviet system?
However, in the context of the first four years of Gorbachev's leadership of the USSR it was necessary that such a task should be neither contradictory nor impossible. By the mid-eighties the need for reform in some measure was plain to all involved in Soviet politics, including those who had appointed Gorbachev in March 1985. Soviet economist Abel Aganbegyan argued that effectively been 'a zero growth rate' since 1981, and even official figures showed small and slowing growth. Initially Gorbachev saw a return to steady economic growth as the holy grail of reform; the "key to all our problems, immediate and long term"3 as he told the 27th Party Congress.
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Upon taking power, Arbenz began to make major reforms, many of which threatened the United Fruit Company of Boston, MA. CIA documents from this period refer to Arbenz's reforms during his early presidency as "an intensely nationalistic program of progress colored by the touchy, anti-foreign inferiority complex of the 'Banana Republic ( Guatemala 1954 http://history.acusd.edu/gen/20th/guatemala.html)." Land distribution was the major focus of Arbenz's reforms. These land reforms consisted of nationalizing 178,000 acres of land used by the UFC in their business operations, with the government offering compensation in twenty-five year bonds.
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Deterrence, as already stated, can concern itself with any form of threatened counter-attack, however, for this essay, I shall be concentrating on Nuclear deterrence, using examples from the cold war, therefore, when the word 'deterrence' is used, it should be taken as 'nuclear deterrence'. Hedley Bull describes deterrence as follows: "To say that country A deters country B from doing something is to imply the following: (i) That Country A conveys to Country B a threat to inflict punishment or deprivation of values if it embarks on a certain course of action; (ii)
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The situation was awkward in West Berlin because it was surrounded on all sides by East Germany. It was an island of democracy that Stalin wanted removed. In June of 1948, Josef Stalin ordered the blockade of West Berlin's roads and railways. There was no way of traveling by land into the city. The only access to West Berlin was through a 20-mile wide air corridor. A siege of Berlin had begun. America decided that it did not want to give up West Berlin. As a part of the Marshall Plan, the Berlin Airlift moved enough goods into West Berlin over 320 days to entirely support the economy of the city.
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This period was characterized in particular by superpower control of two opposing military and political blocs. Direct military conflict did not occur between the two superpowers, but intense economic and diplomatic struggles erupted. Different interests led to mutual doubt and hostility in a rising philosophy. The United States played a major role in the ending of the cold war. It has been said that President Ronald Reagan ended the cold war with his strategic defense policies. As well as, the Cold War can be said ended with the reunification of Germany in 1990.
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In the spring of 1962, the Soviet Union's political, domestic, and military positions changed dramatically. Difficulties arose when dealing with underdeveloped countries. The Soviet Union did not have the financial means necessary to provide foreign aid, the patience to deal with extreme nationalism, or the time to train inexperienced political leaders: in short the Soviet Union overstretched themselves and could not support the unstable nations that they took under their Communist wing. Domestically, the government could not meet the demands it had established with the twenty-year plan.
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Fidel Castro led the overthrow of the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959 to become the leader of the first communist nation in the Western Hemisphere.
In the late 1970s, he had authorized the use of approximately 40,000 Cuban troops in two-dozen countries. Cubans fought alongside the Soviets in the 1975 Angolan Civil War. In 1978, Cuban soldiers helped Ethiopia fend off an invasion from Somalia. Cuba also aided guerrilla movements in South and Central America, including the Sandinistas in Nicaragua. Under Castro, Cuba's economy was transformed from a capitalist, which was extremely dependent on US investment, to a socialist economy. The Cuban state not only owns most enterprises, but also sets economic plans for all sectors of the economy.
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Assess the impact of domestic policy considerations on foreign policy decision making with special reference to the CMC.
To answer this question a number of factors need to be examined. First is the need to understand the two schools of thought that have evolved on the subject of Kennedy's domestic policy considerations during the Cuban Missile Crisis and the main points of their debate. Second, an analysis of these 'main points' of the Cuban Missile Crisis with reference to domestic policy considerations will be undertaken. Third, the effect of the Cuban Missile Crisis on the November congressional elections with analysis of the results of the election will be examined. Finally other aspects effecting decision making apart from domestic policy considerations will be evaluated from which conclusions will be drawn.
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In contrast to this, in January 1918, the US president Woodrow Wilson issued his Fourteen Points based on the ideals of democracy and capitalism. He promoted the principles of self-determination, open markets and collective security. The differing ideologies were already set in place. Wilson and Lenin highlighted their countries policies and how each country should maintain their superior set of principles. The importance of a country's ideology can be witnessed here as already, years before the outbreak of the Cold War, the policies of capitalism and the policies of communism stand in direct contrast to each other.
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US leaders repeatedly presented the rivalry with the Soviet Union as a moral struggle (Hess 1979: 171). On the eve of the Vietnam War, President Truman had refused to recognize Ho Chi Minh's Democratic Republic of Vietnam since he viewed it as a Soviet proxy (Herring 1979: 8). The Soviet Union provided enormous support to the North Vietnamese, although the Soviet troops did not involve. To prevent further aggression of Soviet Union, the American leaders assumed that if they had to involve in the war in Vietnam, otherwise the Soviet Union would expand its sphere of influence into South East Asia.
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According to Frunze, the military doctrine outlined above could only be implemented in the state where 'the power belongs to labour' and where 'the working class has the leading role.' He also emphasized the inevitability of war as the soviet state was the only stronghold of socialism, and therefore, soviet military doctrine must be shaped accordingly. The strategy of the red army was a remaining ambiguity: defensive or offensive. In 1923 I. I. Vatsetis commander in chief of the red army forces and professor of the red army academy expanded the issue of the military doctrine further by stating that the war cannot be won by engagements and battles but by winning a campaign.
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A study into how much John F. Kennedy was responsible for the failure of the Bay of Pigs and the influence it had on him in future crises.
Along with pre-set expectations, the chapter also argues that Kennedy himself had done himself no favours by proclaiming action should be taken to remove Castro throughout his own election campaign. The second chapter analyses the incoherent decision making process Kennedy went through in how best to utilise the military for the planned invasion of Cuba. It also builds an argument that Kennedy lacked the necessary leadership skills and experience to carry out an operation of this scale as his first major foray into foreign policy.
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The war ended in 1945 and is often viewed as the start of the contemporary world. The notion that war in the contemporary world is seemingly more justifiable and of lesser impact is greatly misleading and unfounded. In fact quite the contrary is the case. Nobel Laureate Richard E. Smalley, in 2003 determined war as the sixth, out of ten, biggest problems facing the society for the next fifty years.  This in no small part can be attributed to the type of war that is predominant in modern era and the normalisation of it.
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Critically evaluate the revisionist position that it was the expansion of US power that led to the outbreak of the Cold War.
Through intensive reading and research of the three different theses, a critical evaluation has been made and criticisms of the revisionist thesis have been drawn out. The criticisms that shall be addressed are, the lack of cohesion within the revisionist analysis, its over-simplified assumptions (especially in terms of the aims of American foreign policy), lack of use of balanced sources, influence of political preferences within the thesis in which effects the objectivity, and lastly the context in which the revisionist thesis arose in.
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Described by Bozzoli as a ?patchwork quilt of patriarchies,? gender relations in South Africa varied between different communities, with the extent of women?s oppression depending on the colour of their skin. While white women were undoubtedly in an advantageous position, the benefit of white supremacy was unable to lift the hardship of living in a strongly sexist and male dominated society. Those who made the decision to venture beyond their prescribed role of domesticity were to find that the wider world was as closed to the white woman as it was to the black, with a long established tradition of male privilege dominating and protecting almost all avenues of labour.
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In what ways do the themes of consumption and the informal economy, living standards and social welfare shed light on the nature of the socialist regime in Poland and the extent of its impact on the lives of ordinary people?
fact that most people could still access alcohol is important in shedding light on the regime?s progression, as it demonstrates that despite times of economic hardship, the country did not represent complete stagnation, as people could still at least access certain goods. However, despite these small hints of progression, consumption nevertheless reveals the regime was predominantly corrupt, unpopular and backward in nature. Consumption reveals the corrupt nature of the regime by the way that certain consumer goods were reserved only for communist party members, and not for the masses. This was particularly illustrated by Krystyna Bialek, a 65 year old
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