Philosopher comparison chart
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THINKER Burke Marx MLK Malcolm X De Gouges WollstoneCraft Mill CLASSIFICATION Conservative Socialist Radical Radical Liberal Liberal Liberal HISTORICAL TIME PERIOD 18th century 19th century 20th century 20th century 18th century 18th century 19th century HISTORICAL CONTEXT -French Revolution -End of enlightenment - Books: "reflections on the revolution in Fr" -England -Industrial Revolution -Rise of factories -Decline of agrarian economy -Class divisions between owners of factories (bourgeoisie) and wage earners (proletariat) -American civil rights movement -letter from Birmingham jail - reasons for why this happened in 1950s: 1. migration of blacks country --> city 2. WWII against racism 3. TV showed the reality of the situation Same as MLK Besides his work is called -The ballet or the bullet - her book: Declaration the Rights of Women and Citizens -reasons for why it happened now: -Spirit of the age econ dev. Indust rev. (rise of factories) no sexual division of labor -right after fr.
-christ notion of universal love -non-violent resistance -all Christians, black and white are capable of universal love - -separatist (races have to be separate) -emphasizes that blacks can do civil rights movement themselves -All humans, whether men or women are rational -Reject ideas of previous thinkers that women are weak by nature (intellectually) -there is an inequality physically, but not mentally -All humans, whether men or women are rational -Reject ideas of previous thinkers that women are weak by nature (intellectually) -there is an inequality physically, but not mentally -idea of women being mentally weak comes from socialization, not from actual truth -ppl have natural rights -discusses issue of authenticity -all human beings are rational but we are also fallible (386) PURPOSE OF STATE -keep order -restrain and suppress individual passion because people are irrational -basis of government not based on abstract ideas, metaphysical rights but on experience of past (353)
women -both sexes can rule -to have legitimacy, the govt must include the people -popular sovereignty--> the people decide who should rule--> monarchs, nobles + clergy are agents of tyranny -mill supports limited democracy with safeguards that prevent the majority from infringing on nights of minority (379-380) INDIVIDUAL VS. COMMUNITY -people do not have natural rights --> do not exist -natural rights are abstract ideas made by intellectuals -people cannot choose gov. -community over individual -community has a sense of history -community: favors the happiness and equality of the community over individual wealth and happiness -individual rights of women and men should be the same -women educated -individual rights of women--> some rights as men -women educated -community--> everyone should have free education where both sexes have education together -support for individual rights -harm principle --> the community can only infringe upon the individuals rights if the individual causes physical or economic harm -sanctity of the individual-no one can tell the individual what to do-but you can argue and persuade him
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