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University Degree: Christianity

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  1. The root of the Mass is the Last Supper, a Passover meal.

    In all, the Mass flows as one action. The Introductory Rites have a definite objective, namely "to make the assembled people a unified community and to prepare them properly to listen to God's word and celebrate the Eucharist". Since the earliest times of the Church, the people gathered as an assembly on the Lord's Day. As they were gathering, oftentimes psalms were recited in preparation for the Mass. To give the Mass a definite starting action, at a very early age, an entrance ritual evolved whereby the priest passed into the community to recite the first prayer.

    • Word count: 4287
  2. Christian Beliefs About The Trinity and Creation

    However, there are different ways in which the oneness of God can be explained. The first type of monotheism is that of Judaic and Islamic monad monotheism. This understanding views God as a single entity. A second form of monotheism is that known as monistic monotheism. This understanding of God views everything to be included in a singular and unitary God that is expressed in the whole universe. Some have attempted to express Christian teaching as a monistic monotheism, misusing such verses as (Isa 45:5-6) "I am the Lord and there is none else," to indicate that there is nothing else but God, and therefore people can be God.

    • Word count: 2301
  3. Ever since its discovery in 1873 and its publication ten years later, the Didache has been one of the most disputed early Christian texts.

    ` The Didache still holds importance in the world today. It represents the first attempt to adapt the way of Jesus to the needs of everyday life; something which Paul and the twelve apostles also did. However, unlike any other Scriptures, the Didache offers a full blown account of how the early Christians saw themselves and how they lived their everyday lives. This gives modern-day Christians a great insight into how the early Church functioned. There are no theological statements contained in the Didache, and a Christianity which focuses mainly on lifestyle is shown.

    • Word count: 1016
  4. The serpent serves several functions in The Book of Genesis. It functions as a symbol of temptation, free choice, knowledge, and good vs. evil, as well as deception.

    The serpent paraphrases Gods' words and asked her: "Did God say, 'You shall not eat from any tree in the garden'?" The woman said to the serpent, "We may eat of the fruit of the trees in the garden; but God said, 'you shall not eat of the fruit of the tree that is in the middle of the garden, nor shall you touch it, or you shall die.' " But the serpent said to the woman, "You will not die; for God knows that when you eat of it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil."

    • Word count: 1197
  5. Free essay

    In what way would it be fair to describe Martin Luther as a revolutionary(TM)?

    Indulgences were sold to the people, absolving their sins and releasing them from time spent in purgatory, all this with a word from the pope. These indulgences were not cheap and not available to many except the rich who could afford them. This did not please the ordinary man, believing it was unfair that they would have to spend more time in purgatory just for being materially less well off. This is where people began to be disillusioned with the church.

    • Word count: 1685
  6. church leadership

    Th?y were Div?ne Legates, vicars of Chr?st, if you will. Th?s ?s seen ?n Acts 6:1-7, when th? apostles took charge to settle th? first d?spute ?n th? ?hur?h at Jerusalem, ?nd throughout th? ep?stles ?n th?ir b?nd?ng ?nd authoritative comm?nds to th? ?hur?hes. Table of Contents Abstract 1 Chapter 1: ?ntroduction 4 Outl?ne 4 Overview 4 Rationale 4 L?adership ?n th? ?hur?h 4 Apostles 5 Prophets 7 Ev?ngel?sts 9 P?stors 11 Teachers 12 B?shops 15 Elders 17 Deacons 19 Summary 20 Purpose of th? Study 22 Signific?nce of th?

    • Word count: 38012
  7. Identify the distinctive content of Luke's gospel and discuss what is revealed there about the writer's theological perspectiv

    The exact nature of this relationship was the subject of many theories and is know as the 'synoptic problem'. The most widely accepted theory that solves most of the problems presented by other theories is the four-source theory. This argues that Mark had priority over the other two and that Matthew and Luke used Mark independently and they used another source know as 'Q' independently. As well as mark and 'Q' it also claims that Matthew and Luke had source that were unique to them known as 'M' and 'L'.

    • Word count: 3497
  8. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the two-source hypothesis? 'The likenesses and differences between the three Gospels present a problem of almost infinite complexity'

    These are important questions for a reader of the New Testament and indeed of the Bible to consider. To answer these questions one must examine the various suggested solutions and theories about the synoptic problem and synoptic relationships. There are many theories, some of which are very complex. For the purposes of this essay it is necessary only to establish a basic knowledge of the core theories and hypotheses. The most basic theory if that the 'oral' theory; such a theory would hold that Matthew, Mark, and Luke had one source effectively - the direct and indirect oral transgression of Jesus' sermons and teachings - and were written without any interaction between the evangelists themselves.

    • Word count: 2674
  9. Compare the Gospels of Matthew and Mark in areas regarding source, style, situation and interest.

    The sources that the author of the Gospel of Matthew used are not totally agreed upon by scholars, yet many hypotheses exist regarding the issue. One hypothesis believes that Matthew used both the Gospels of Mark and the 'Q Source' when formulating his own rendition. Other hypotheses believe that Matthew also 'borrowed' a few ideas from the author of the Gospel of Luke. When one compares the pericope of the 'Parable of the Sower' vertically, it becomes clear that Matthew builds upon the version that Mark has created.

    • Word count: 1806
  10. Discuss the historicity of the bodily resurrection of Jesus

    seeks to instill a sympathetic approach to the resurrection, as it is better to come with an attitude that maintains that such miracles might be possible, and that with reliable witnesses we may be convinced that something supernatural has taken place. But what of the accuracy and the historical reliability of the Gospel accounts? Copying errors and mistakes in the replication of the gospels are often assumed to be widespread and at the cost of historical reliability. However according to Old Testament scholar Gleason Archer, this is not the case.

    • Word count: 3209
  11. Compare the strengths and weaknesses of two texts relating to the historical Jesus.

    He claims that details are dramatically different in both Gospels and that the idea of Jesus' divine conception simply did not occur. He uses a methodological approach to arrive at his controversial conclusions regarding the 'historical' Jesus. Crossan shifts his attention toward the apocalyptical prophet, John the Baptist. He never denies that John did not baptize Jesus, but arrives at a conclusion that Jesus "became the exact opposite of the Baptist." (Crossan, p. 48) The author then begins to look at Jesus' teachings and practices; something which he calls "open commensality".

    • Word count: 2535
  12. In what ways did Augustine and Pelagius' view of man, sin and grace differ? What were the theological consequences of these differences?

    Pelagius rejected the idea that grace is necessary to perform what God commands, as for Pelagius, responsibility implies ability. If man has the moral responsibility to obey the law of God, he must also have the moral ability to do it. The moral negligence of the people of Rome also affected him. Pelagius wanted a moral world, but saw a contradiction between man's action and the moral perfection required and embodied in God - he did not want God to be blamed for man's sin.

    • Word count: 2234
  13. Outline Luther's theological principle of sola scriptura (by the Bible alone), and assess its theological importance

    Contrastingly, Luther taught, "Scripture alone is the true Lord and master of all writings and doctrine on earth"2. This is Luther's theological principle of sola scriptura, by the Bible alone, making it the sole authority of Christian doctrine and practice. Through this principle Luther "sought to free it from arbitrary interpretation through fixed morns"3 in teaching that the individual could reach an understanding of the Bible not through the aid of the Church but through inspiration from the Holy Spirit when reading the Bible. Whilst this theological principle of sola scriptura may appear simple such a sweeping statement would be incorrect due to the principle's vast consequences.

    • Word count: 2404
  14. Jesus of Nazareth.

    If one is interested in learning about her past, one must turn to the non-canonical Infancy Gospel of James. This Gospel begins by explaining Mary's birth to Anna and Joachim in their old age. Anna becomes pregnant after she prays to God and dedicates Mary to the service of God in the temple. Afterwards, she is pledged to Joseph at the age of twelve by her guardian, Zechariah. The author of the Gospel says that she remains completely pure of heart and free from sin. Thereafter, the angelic annunciation takes place and the narrative continues similar to that of Matthew and Luke, with a few "exaggerations" along the way.

    • Word count: 3200
  15. Describe and explain the use of Old Testament Prophesies and allusions in Marks Passion Narrative.

    This passage is also a passion prediction. The narrative then moves on to the Last Supper. Jesus foretells his own betrayal (Mk 14:17-18) as predicted in Ps 49:1. This link with Old Testament scripture shows that Jesus knows his fate and even expects Judas to betray him. Jesus even quotes Old Testament himself (Mk 14:21).The additional detail about eating with the one who betrays him ("one who is eating with me") makes the treachery even worse and emphasises the Old Testament Link.

    • Word count: 1232
  16. Live in the Then!

    Too often, theologians who 'live in the now' misinterpret ancient writings. If we are going to determine how Jews and Christians relate and unearth the genesis of Anti-Judaism, we need to live in the then. The authors of Jesus, Judaism and Christian Anti-Judaism send a powerful message to their colleagues and students that, when attempting exegesis, they should NOT live in the now. E.P. Sanders asserts that some of his colleagues who have interpreted the Synoptic Gospels' Jesus to be anti-Jewish are in reality only displaying their own anti-ancient characteristics. In effect, they live in and love 'the now' so much that they read their (somewhat scornful)

    • Word count: 972
  17. One of the oldest and most unsettled theological debates is the existence of evil and sin

    Immediately, Dante opens his Divine Comedy with carefully chosen words to indicate something special regarding his future journey. "Midway this way of life we're bound upon, I woke to find myself in a dark wood, where the right road was wholly lost and gone" (Inferno I, 1-3). Dante finds himself in a moment of crisis as, at the midpoint of his life, he is now venturing on a journey which will undoubtedly include both good aspects, and it's opposite. He faces the moment in which one must choose the good and reject its alternative. Interestingly, it is exactly half way along Dante's ascent up Mount Purgatory that he turns to Virgil, who is asked to explain the nature of Purgatory.

    • Word count: 1800
  18. St. Paul has, throughout history, been considered and revered as an important contributor to the mechanisms within the early Christian church.

    Paul interpreted the Christian baptism as the believer's participation with Christ through the process of His death and resurrection. Colossians 2:12 significantly holds this view of baptism and the letter to the Ephesians discusses a unity with Christ, prominently in chapter 2 and 4. Indeed, the entire scope of the Pauline letters lends itself to a proclamation of the Christian being one with Christ in both His death and His raising to life. The dichotomy Paul presents is continually evident. The death and the resurrection of the Saviour are both vital in the act of salvation God set out for the Messiah.

    • Word count: 1501
  19. The Theme of Suffering in the Gospel of Mark.

    Surely our griefs He Himself bore, and our sorrows He carried; Yet we ourselves esteemed Him stricken, smitten of God and afflicted. But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; the chastening for our well-being fell upon Him, and by His scourging we are healed...But the Lord has caused the iniquity of us all to fall on Him" (Isaiah 53:3-6). The Psalm of David although written by David and presumably about himself alludes to the future Messiah not only in his speech but also in the suffering David depicts in his writing.

    • Word count: 3093
  20. Accidental pregnancy.

    Among the 42% of women who do not use any types of contraceptive methods when they become pregnant, three-quarters have used one at some point; the majority of these had most recently relied on either the pill or the condom. Fifty-three percent of prior pill users and 76% of prior condom users became pregnant within three months of stopping use. The proportion of abortion patients who have never used any contraceptive method is highest among women who are younger than 18, single women, Catholic women, unemployed women, minority women, those with no religious affiliation, and those with low education and income levels.

    • Word count: 813
  21. The New Testament.

    and attributed it to Saint Matthew, one of the 12 apostles. They believed that he wrote the Gospel in Palestine, just prior to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE. Although this opinion is still held by some, most scholars consider the Gospel According to Mark the earliest Gospel. They believe, on the basis of both external and internal evidence, that the author of Matthew used Mark as one of his two major sources. This exegesis, whilst interpreting the holy Christian scripture will discuss Jesus' teaching on adultery (Matthew 5. 27-30).

    • Word count: 675
  22. What were the main grouping or sects in the time of Jesus?

    The two (most) well known sects within Judaism in the time of Jesus were the Pharisees and the Sadducees. These two groups' beliefs were based on the Torah but their interpretations were different. Sadducees In the Jewish society the Sadducees were an aristocratic party made up of the priests and the Levits plus the rich landowners. They accepted the law of Moses literally but they did not accept the idea of oral tradition, furthermore, they rejected anything which was outside the Torah. According to Heater (1966:54), "the Sadducees, who formed the larger part of the priesthood of Temple, appear to have been theologically conservative."

    • Word count: 1616
  23. What do you understand by the 'Synoptic Problem?'

    Moreover, the common material is not always presented in the same order in the various Gospels. So the question remains, who copied from whom? Well this question is commonly referred to as the 'synoptic problem' which as O'Donnell points out is an 'investigation into the existence and nature of the literary interrelationship among the first three "synoptic" gospels.'1 The Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are called the 'synoptic' gospels, in contrast with the Gospel of John, because they can be readily arranged in a three-column harmony structure called a "synopsis."

    • Word count: 641
  24. The afterlife of a Catholic can go three ways: heaven, purgatory which eventually can lead to heaven, or hell. This paper presents an in-depth look at the Catholic afterlife as well as how the afterlife affects a person during life.

    Catholicism is very distinctive in certain beliefs that all have a very powerful influence over the religion as a whole. For one, Catholics believe the Pope to be nearly infallible (Thurston). Because of this, what the Pope believes is good for the religion is usually done. Another example of uniqueness is the seven sacraments of the Church, which are Baptism, Confirmation, Holy Eucharist, Matrimony, Holy Orders, Reconciliation, and Anointing of the Sick (Thurston). They also believe in the use of prayers for the dead which is innately tied to the belief in purgatory (Robinson).

    • Word count: 2173
  25. Compare and contrast Muslim view of the after-life with any other view.

    In addition He will then bring all the dead back to life when He wishes. This rebirth will be the final day of resurrection for humanity where all will stand before Allah and account for their deeds in this world. According to the Muslims, Allah is informing human beings through Muhammad, that He is the creator and ressurector of all human life. The warning from Allah is clear to Muslims. Muslims must believe in Allah's promise that He will bring people back to life so that they may rectify their actions in this world and be prepared for their ultimate judgement.

    • Word count: 1072

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