• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Structuralist Epistemology - archaeology of knowledge

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

��ࡱ�>�� �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������[email protected] ��0��bjbj�2�2 (��X�X�����������������""""8Z f�"mvVVVVVVVV�������$�R5 ��E�VVVVV���VV'���V�V�V��V�������VJ �ں.��"V��=0m�� V4� ���������� �� VV�VVVVV��� PHI302 Module Title: Continental Philosophy Module leader: Dr John Mullarkey Lecture 11: Michel Foucault (1925-1984) 'ARCHAEOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE' (or 'Structuralist Epistemology') * Term used as early as (or retrospectively applied to) Madness and Civilization (p.111). * Cross-disciplinary, comparing statements concerning, eg, biological taxonomies with what was said about linguistic signs, formation of general ideas, language of action, hierarchy of needs, etc.[1] STRUCTURALISM * Never a 'purist'. * F himself always distanced himself from structuralism, saying that archaelogy's 'methods and concepts cannot possibly be confused with strucuralism' and that he had used 'none of the methods, concepts, or key terms that characterize structural analysis....'[2] Nonetheless, with passages from Madness and Civilization, like this: 'beneath these...meanings, a structure is forming which does not resolve the ambiguity but determines it. It is this structure which accounts for the transition from the medieval experience of madness to our own experience...'[3], it is clear that he was a part of the structuralist movement. His early work examines 'serious' speech-acts or, more precisely, 'statements' of the human sciences; he neglects the question of the truth, falsity or any anteriority (reference, intention, ownership) of these statements or even whether they make sense: these are all typically structualist moves.[4] Meaning, truth, and value can be ignored, as what people say can be explained by rules rather than what goes on in their minds. F can take these serious statements and examine non-seriously (ie, without recourse to interior meaning and reference but only to exterior discursive relations); the later F, emersed in history, will not be able to ignore these elements if he is to take these serious statements seriously.[5] Nonetheless, this approach led to 'an objective account of the rulelike way discourse organizes not only itself but social practices and institutions, and to a neglect of the way discursive practices are themselves affected by the social practices in which they and the investigator are imbedded.'[6] For example: '...it was as ...read more.

Middle

were, effectively, a 'technique without an instrument': these were conventionally constructed carnal regimes efficacious in moral, communal action (symbolic, religious, juridical).[56] Early on in Madness and Civilization, F had written of how 'language, the formulations of truth and morality' were 'in direct contact with the body'.[57] Only in Discipline and Punish, though, does he focus on what he calls the 'political technology of the body'.[58] * Modern power works through 'discipline': 'tiny, everyday, physical mechanisms', asymetrical and non-egalitarian systems of micro-power working of the body.[59] Discipline is localized on the body, or the political technology of the body, and it works through a microphysics of power. So instead of looking at texts like Machiavell's The Prince when writing the history of controlling people and events, F reads the unknown authors of the police and technicaltrianing manuals of the age.[60] Genealogy looks to what is nearest, dietary regimes, physical training: following Nietzsche, it works 'historically and physiologically'.[61] Discipline works primarily upon the body, at least initially. Distinctively, it analyses the body into parts with the aim of precise and calculated training: the body as whole will be made docile by disciplining and training each of its parts: their movements, timing, configuration. No longer is the body a sign or carrier of signification (as the body of the tortured criminal was of the king's power): it is something to be moulded, controlled. Such micro-power works on time - regulated and periodized sequences of actions - and on space - organizaton and supervision of individuals in space, the organisation of this space - organisation of the body-movements within this space.[62] A political anatomy emerged in education, then the hospitals, and then the military academies.[63] 'The body, required to be docile in its minutest operations, opposes and shows the conditions of functoning proper to an organism. Disciplinary power has as its correlative an individuality that is not only analytical and "cellular", but also natural and "organic".'[64] 'We believe...that the body obeys the exclusive laws of physiology and that it escapes the influence of history , but this too is false. ...read more.

Conclusion

[98]Habermas, p.261. [99]See Habermas, pp.264-5, 270. [100]DP, p.194. [101]See Lechte, p.114. [102]Quoted in Habermas, p.282. [103]DP, p.202. [104]See Dreyfus, p.220. [105]See Dreyfus, p.186. [106]See Dreyfus, p.221. [107]See Dreyfus, p.187. [108]See Habermas, p.241. [109]See Dreyfus, p.216; See DP, p.274 for F talking in the style of the old power/class politics of domination-liberation. [110]Habermas, p.256. [111]Habermas, p.281. [112]Dreyfus, p.204. [113]See Writing and Difference; Habermas, p.247. [114]MC, p.xii. [115]See Habermas, p.269. [116]See Dreyfus, p.223. [117]See Habermas, p.284; See Dreyfus, p.206. [118]See Habermas, pp.276, 277. [119]See Dreyfus, p.27. [120]See Dreyfus, p.202. This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database - http://www.coursework.info/ This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database - http://www.coursework.info/ This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database - http://www.coursework.info/ This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database - http://www.coursework.info/ This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database - http://www.coursework.info/ This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database - http://www.coursework.info/ ��P�Q�¬ì4�5���������������������������h�/h�/OJQJh�/h�/CJOJQJ%h�/h�/OJQJfHq� ����)h�/h�/CJOJQJfHq� ����h�/h8Kc h8Kch�/ /Py�� 6 ~ � ( I � � 1 � � i � � j � `�����������������������������gd8Kc�����`��I��Q��4��k��8��"7��&q�Q������������������������������gd8Kc��:��)u�c����G��,}�l��%w�g������������������������������gd8Kc�O��< � � � A!�!�!#"o"�"#T#�#�#I$�$�$6%�%�%&J&�&�&5'�����������������������������gd8Kc5'�'�'!(_(�(�(.)w)�)*b*�*+N+�+�+�+�+P,�,�,?-�-�-!.m.�. /S/�����������������������������gd8KcS/�/�/0f0�0121�1�1&2w2�23i3�34J4�4�4:5�5�5(6u6�6 7Y7�7�7�����������������������������gd8Kc�7�7I8�8�849}9�9:d:�:�:-;z;�;<e<�<�<N=�=�[email protected]>�>�>#?s?�[email protected]"@�����������������������������gd8Kc"@[email protected]�@AdA�ABTBqBsB�B�B8C�C�C$DrD�D ESE�E�E.FTF�F�FDG�G�GH�����������������������������gd8KcHjH�HITI�I�IGJ�J�J1K�K�K%LrL�L�LBM�M�M&NxN�NOeO�O�OEPtP�P�����������������������������gd8Kc�P QZQ�R6S�S5T�T�T�T�TUjU�U VYV�V�V%WwW�WXX XmX�X YYY�Y�Y�����������������������������gd8Kc�YEZPZ�Z�ZB[�[�[%\t\�\�\+]w]�]^c^�^_M_�_�_2`�`�` ala�a b^b�����������������������������gd8Kc^b�b�bc!cDc�c�c6d�d�d$eqe�efdf�f�fKg�g�g$hth�hi_i�i�iEj�j�����������������������������gd8Kc�j�j2kk�k!lrl�lmfm�m�mGn�n�n0o�o�op p3p�p�p'qvq�q r(rxr�r�����������������������������gd8Kc�rsYs�s�sFt�t�t4u�u�u$v5v�v�v#wEw�w�w0xx�xyby�y�y�y�y=z�z�����������������������������gd8Kc�z�z'{D{�{�{|\|�|�|E}�}�}2~�~�~ m��^������M����5���É�����������������������������gd8KcÉ�O����?���Ö(�P����?����0�}�Ì�k�����G����.�{�Ê�k������������������������������gd8Kck����<���×"�q��� �C���ß/���Ñ"�o�����B���ß-�y�Ç�i�t��������������������������������gd8Kc����D�Ø���n����9������4��Å�<���ß��G���� �T����=������������������������������gd8Kc=������Y����������� �:�<�K�M�i�k�~�����������ÇÉ�������������������������������gd8Kc�����2�4���Ò������-�/�H�J�Z�\�l�n�}������������àß ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½gd8Kcß ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½%�'�;�=�R�T�e�g���������ơȡ�c�k�m������������������������������������������gd8Kc����â֢آ����(�*�9�;�S�U�k�m�}������������ãԣ֣���������������������������������gd8Kc������#�%�5�7�G�I�e�g�w�y�������������ĤƤ������e��������������������������������gd8Kc����������%�'�@�B�W�Y�n�p�������������Φ�����%�'�7������������������������������gd8Kc7�9�I�K�\�^�w�y�����������§Ù§Û§ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½5�7�F�H�W�Y�m�o������������������������������gd8Kco���������ŨǨ��������/�1�J�L�m�o�������������ԩ֩�� ������������������������������gd8Kc ��]�������������ת٪ ���!�<�>�X�Z���������ǫɫ�Q�R�S�����������������������������$a$gd�/gd8KcS�T�ìĬŬƬ5�6�7�8������������������������������������������������gd8Kc$a$gd�/$a$gd�/&1�h:p8Kc��/ ��=!�'"�'#��$��%��[email protected]�D NormalCJ_H aJmH nHsH [email protected]�D Default Paragraph FontRi�R Table Normal�4� l4�a� (k�(No [email protected]�D 8Kc Plain TextCJOJQJ^[email protected] �/Header ���!4 @4 �/Footer ���!`�o"` �/watermark header$a$CJOJQJfHq� ����N�o2N �/watermark footer$a$ CJOJQJ������� ���z� ���z� ���z� ���z� ���z� ���z� ���z� ���z� �� �z� �� �z� �� �z� �� �z� �� �z� ���z�Q� /�>�N_toO��������d���QPMQRQIS " r�V�:����X`��5'S/�7"@H�P�Y^b�j�r�zÉk���=ï¿½ï¿½ß ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½7�o� �S���Y[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstu��Z�]����ޡN�4�������alex��/8Kc�@��PW�@ZIZJ����[email protected]�@P�P,@��Unknown������������G��z ��Times New Roman5V��Symbol3&� �z ��Arial7&� � �VerdanaG5�� �����h�MS Mincho-�3� fg?5� �z ��Courier New"1���h�R���R���R���l�>�l�>$�������4��3�� H�?������������������8Kc�� TCoursework.Info Coursework - http://www.coursework.info/ - Redistribution ProhibitedTCoursework.Info Coursework - http://www.coursework.info/ - Redistribution Prohibitedalexalex�� ��Oh��+'��0`��� |�� �� ( [email protected]� sUCoursework.Info Coursework - http://www.coursework.info/ - Redistribution ProhibitedualexewoUCoursework.Info Coursework - http://www.coursework.info/ - Redistribution Prohibitedu>Downloaded from Coursework.Info - http://www.coursework.info/is Normal.dotfalexl.d2exMicrosoft Word [email protected]@X�.��@X�.��@X�.���l��� ��Õ.��+,��D��Õ.��+,��`���H����� ���� � ��UCoursework.Info Coursework - http://www.coursework.info/ - Redistribution ProhibitedoUCoursework.Info Coursework - http://www.coursework.info/ - Redistribution ProhibitedoUCoursework.Info Coursework - http://www.coursework.info/ - Redistribution Prohibitedo�>�A [email protected]���+K_PID_LINKBASE CopyrightDownloaded FromCan RedistributeOwner�A4http://www.coursework.comcoursework.comehttp://www.coursework.com -No, do not redistributecoursework.com/ !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>[email protected][\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuv����xyz{|}~�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Root Entry�������� �[email protected]�ں.����1Table��������wWordDocument��������(�SummaryInformation(����DocumentSummaryInformation8�������������CompObj������������j������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ ���� �FMicrosoft Word Document MSWordDocWord.Document.8�9�q ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Philosophy and Theology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Philosophy and Theology essays

  1. Primary Source Analysis of a document from the New York Daily Tribune, written on ...

    With the assistance of Government, Frazier proposed the idea of enlisting young men, meaning young African Americans to help the fight for their freedom. Once enlisted into the Union Army, Frazier may had thought that in any situation where African American freedom may be threatened, the Africans would be more

  2. An Exegetical Study of Genesis 15

    from an entirely different source to chapter 14, as von Rad suggests.13 Rather, I take "After these things" as referring to the events of the previous chapter; and thus the danger Abraham is afraid of is possible reprisal from Cherdorlaomer and the other kings (14:17)

  1. The debate between structuralism and deconstruction.

    Deconstructionists call this a disruption of the rhetoric of causality. It can be said that 'cause' and 'effect' as meaningful words are mutually dependent and not hierarchical. We understand them by each other, in connection with each other, and we use them to describe and explain each other.

  2. Descartes' classification of thoughts.

    He concludes that 1) a stone is a substance, that is to say, a thing that could possibly exist in itself; 2) he thinks he, too, is a substance. Descartes has an idea of God: the "eternal, infinite, omniscient, omnipotent, and creator of all things" (28).

  1. Modernity's Madness and Manifestations of Masochism and Malice: A Demand for Irrational Self-Love, Forgiveness, ...

    it demonstrates that an identity is not merely a material, physical thing1; and this type of struggle is very Russian, especially during this time period when social beauracracies were initiated and beginning to mould social classes, and therefore identities for their constituents.

  2. Zionism has never seriously posed this question: Why, during these two thousand years, have ...

    The last phrase is intended metaphorically, as a way of saying that the Jews will ultimately achieve a normal political existence. (5) Spinoza's criteria for examining Jewish history are historical and sociological categories not theological or metaphysical ones. Scholars have already noted that the conclusion to be inferred is that

  1. Existentialism - a philosophical movement that developed during the 19th and 20th centuries

    At those moments, says Martin Heidegger, the whole of my being seems to drift away into nothing. The unaware person tries to live as if death is not actual, he tries to escape its reality. But Heidegger says that my death is my most authentic, significant moment, my personal potentiality, which I alone must suffer.

  2. Is there an explanatory gap such that even perfect knowledge of the physical facts ...

    the firing of C-fibres Heat is the motion of molecules Let us suppose both of these statements are necessarily true. They are true in a sense that it is not possible in whatever world for these statements to be false.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work