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Structuralist Epistemology - archaeology of knowledge

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��ࡱ�>�� �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������[email protected] ��0��bjbj�2�2 (��X�X�����������������""""8Z f�"mvVVVVVVVV�������$�R5 ��E�VVVVV���VV'���V�V�V��V�������VJ �ں.��"V��=0m�� V4� ���������� �� VV�VVVVV��� PHI302 Module Title: Continental Philosophy Module leader: Dr John Mullarkey Lecture 11: Michel Foucault (1925-1984) 'ARCHAEOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE' (or 'Structuralist Epistemology') * Term used as early as (or retrospectively applied to) Madness and Civilization (p.111). * Cross-disciplinary, comparing statements concerning, eg, biological taxonomies with what was said about linguistic signs, formation of general ideas, language of action, hierarchy of needs, etc.[1] STRUCTURALISM * Never a 'purist'. * F himself always distanced himself from structuralism, saying that archaelogy's 'methods and concepts cannot possibly be confused with strucuralism' and that he had used 'none of the methods, concepts, or key terms that characterize structural analysis....'[2] Nonetheless, with passages from Madness and Civilization, like this: 'beneath these...meanings, a structure is forming which does not resolve the ambiguity but determines it. It is this structure which accounts for the transition from the medieval experience of madness to our own experience...'[3], it is clear that he was a part of the structuralist movement. His early work examines 'serious' speech-acts or, more precisely, 'statements' of the human sciences; he neglects the question of the truth, falsity or any anteriority (reference, intention, ownership) of these statements or even whether they make sense: these are all typically structualist moves.[4] Meaning, truth, and value can be ignored, as what people say can be explained by rules rather than what goes on in their minds. F can take these serious statements and examine non-seriously (ie, without recourse to interior meaning and reference but only to exterior discursive relations); the later F, emersed in history, will not be able to ignore these elements if he is to take these serious statements seriously.[5] Nonetheless, this approach led to 'an objective account of the rulelike way discourse organizes not only itself but social practices and institutions, and to a neglect of the way discursive practices are themselves affected by the social practices in which they and the investigator are imbedded.'[6] For example: '...it was as ...read more.


were, effectively, a 'technique without an instrument': these were conventionally constructed carnal regimes efficacious in moral, communal action (symbolic, religious, juridical).[56] Early on in Madness and Civilization, F had written of how 'language, the formulations of truth and morality' were 'in direct contact with the body'.[57] Only in Discipline and Punish, though, does he focus on what he calls the 'political technology of the body'.[58] * Modern power works through 'discipline': 'tiny, everyday, physical mechanisms', asymetrical and non-egalitarian systems of micro-power working of the body.[59] Discipline is localized on the body, or the political technology of the body, and it works through a microphysics of power. So instead of looking at texts like Machiavell's The Prince when writing the history of controlling people and events, F reads the unknown authors of the police and technicaltrianing manuals of the age.[60] Genealogy looks to what is nearest, dietary regimes, physical training: following Nietzsche, it works 'historically and physiologically'.[61] Discipline works primarily upon the body, at least initially. Distinctively, it analyses the body into parts with the aim of precise and calculated training: the body as whole will be made docile by disciplining and training each of its parts: their movements, timing, configuration. No longer is the body a sign or carrier of signification (as the body of the tortured criminal was of the king's power): it is something to be moulded, controlled. Such micro-power works on time - regulated and periodized sequences of actions - and on space - organizaton and supervision of individuals in space, the organisation of this space - organisation of the body-movements within this space.[62] A political anatomy emerged in education, then the hospitals, and then the military academies.[63] 'The body, required to be docile in its minutest operations, opposes and shows the conditions of functoning proper to an organism. Disciplinary power has as its correlative an individuality that is not only analytical and "cellular", but also natural and "organic".'[64] 'We believe...that the body obeys the exclusive laws of physiology and that it escapes the influence of history , but this too is false. ...read more.


[98]Habermas, p.261. [99]See Habermas, pp.264-5, 270. [100]DP, p.194. [101]See Lechte, p.114. [102]Quoted in Habermas, p.282. [103]DP, p.202. [104]See Dreyfus, p.220. [105]See Dreyfus, p.186. [106]See Dreyfus, p.221. [107]See Dreyfus, p.187. [108]See Habermas, p.241. [109]See Dreyfus, p.216; See DP, p.274 for F talking in the style of the old power/class politics of domination-liberation. [110]Habermas, p.256. [111]Habermas, p.281. [112]Dreyfus, p.204. [113]See Writing and Difference; Habermas, p.247. [114]MC, p.xii. [115]See Habermas, p.269. [116]See Dreyfus, p.223. [117]See Habermas, p.284; See Dreyfus, p.206. [118]See Habermas, pp.276, 277. [119]See Dreyfus, p.27. [120]See Dreyfus, p.202. 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