The world without its greatest invention-the wheel-is a world that does not exist.

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Introduction

The world without its greatest invention-the wheel-is a world that does not exist. Presentation by: Saad Aqil Group: M-7 Group Topic: Great Empires and Civilizations Individual Topic: Sumerian Civilization Title: The Sumerian Lifestyle and Their Contributions to the Modern World The world without its greatest invention-the wheel-is a world that does not exist. Imagine what it would be like if such an important invention as the wheel did not come into being? Or, just think how it would be if the concept of writing had not been introduced? I believe that such integral inventions make much of our lives today. The Sumerian civilization was not just a civilization, but also a foundation for many civilizations that followed, which adopted and implemented many of its developments and inventions. What I find ironic is that being one of the first civilizations ever, "having existed from 4000 BC to 2000 BC"1, it was also the innovative catalyst that first introduced certain inventions, such as those mentioned above, that are used in the everyday life of almost every human being today. "It was one that had to struggle for its existence owing to the many floods that often overwhelmed the city of Sumer, which was located between the Tigris River and Euphrates River.

Middle

A simply startling fact is that being one of the first civilizations ever, that too about 6,000 years ago, "the Sumerians invented the wheel, which they used both for making pottery and for vehicles. They had four-wheeled wagons for transporting goods and two-wheeled chariots for war"6. The Sumerians also developed the concept of using "mud bricks to build houses and temples because they didn't have wood and stone." I believe that such a technique was a very effective one because whenever the mud-brick walls of a temple collapsed from age or accident, "the ruins served as the basis for building a new temple. It expanded and formed into something known as ziggurat, which was a sequence of one building rising on the ruins of another, which came to resemble giant steps."7 An astonishing fact is that the ziggurat still remains in Iraq despite the Civil, Gulf, and the very recent war (2003) that just took place. Even from the inside these monuments are breathtaking with frescoes and sculptures adorning the walls of temples' many rooms. "It is believed that the ziggurats were artificial hills, built in honor of various deities. It was the center of daily undertakings of certain transactions and exchanges, for example, where a tablet went to the donor as a receipt, and the other was deposited in the sacred archives."

Conclusion

They were known as the Akkadians."12 They battled the Sumerians and emerged victorious, settling in Akkad, a city later came to be known as Babylon. Nevertheless, despite the fact that the Sumerian civilization had come to an end, the Akkadian kingdom had adopted the Sumerian customs and culture, and furthermore, their inventions are still probably the most useful and essential ones to date. Just think, if it weren't for the invention and development of cuneiform, you probably wouldn't be reading this article! Reference list * www.sumerians.com * The British Encyclopedia * History Of The World 3000-1500BC 1 Extracts in Paragraphs 1, from "The Merit Student Encyclopedia" 2 Extracts in Paragraphs 2, from "The Merit Student Encyclopedia" 3 Extracts in Paragraphs 3, from "The Merit Student Encyclopedia" 4 Extracts in Paragraphs 4, from "The Merit Student Encyclopedia" 5 Extracts in Paragraphs 4, from "The Merit Student Encyclopedia" 6 Extracts in Paragraphs 6, from "History Of The World 3000-1500BC" 7 Extracts in Paragraphs 7, from " History Of The World3000-1500BC" 8 Extracts in Paragraphs 7, taken from "History Of The World 3000-1500BC" 9 Extracts in Paragraphs 8, taken from "Merit Student encyclopedia" 10 Extracts in Paragraphs 10 taken from " History Of The World 3000-1500BC" 11 Extracts in Paragraphs 11, taken from " History Of The World 3000-1500BC" 12 Extracts in Paragraphs 12 taken from "The Merit Student Encyclopedia" 1

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