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What factors helped bring an end to the Cold War?

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Introduction

Q. What factors helped bring an end to the Cold War? In this essay I will argue about the end of the Cold War, why and how did the Cold War end?. Actually, in the late 1980s, the Cold War came to a dramatic end. Essay outlines the approaches followed in this essay. During this essay I would explain the end of the Cold War and who helped to bring an end to the Cold war. Politically, I used to put the question with which people are concerned as: Which factors did more to bring about the end of the Cold War, the actions and decisions of individual statesmen, or long term impersonal factors? The aim of this essay, first of all is to explain what is Cold War and between whom and when did it end?, did the Cold War ended by Reagan?. Secondly, I would highlight my understanding of his points about taxes and military. This essay will also address the following issues; Did Reagan and Gorbachev played an important role in the end of the Cold War?; what factors bring about the end of the Cold War, the actions and decisions of individual statesmen, or long term impersonal factors or Berlin Wall in Germany from 1981-1991? While the actions of Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev played important roles in this process, impersonal factors such as the inherent inefficiencies of the Soviet system and the continued Western policy of containment had a greater impact in ending the Cold War. Finally, explain clearly these factors to show the factors which brought an end to the Cold War and did really Reagan one of the important elements that helped to ended the tension?. The Cold War refers to long period of tension and rivalry between two political and economic systems in particular, the United States of America(USA) and the Soviet Union. The Cold War actually was a post World War II struggle between the United States and its allies and the group of nations led by the Soviet Union. ...read more.

Middle

Ralph B. Levering, (1988), The Cold War, Illinois: Harlan Davidson, INC, P.187-188. Reagan agreed with Gorbachev and the United States signed nuclear arms treaty eliminating all the intermediate range missiles centred in Europe. This was the first ever agreement that eliminated whole class of nuclear weapons. American officials were sent to Russia to make sure that any violations were discovered. In his speech to the United Nations on December 8, 1988, Gorbachev announced the withdrawal of fifty thousand Soviet troops in Eastern Europe. The withdrawn forces were tanks and units with bridging equipment. The West conceded that the Eastern section had stronger non nuclear forces and that to move toward equal in Europe required deeper reduce on the Eastern side than the Western side. The Soviet Communist Party agreed to let Poland have a democratic election on June 5 1989. In the elections, Solidarity (a labor union) won a landslide victory. Despite Solidarity's win Communists still regained control of the Parliament. The reason was that election rules guaranteed it a majority of seats. However Solidarity won almost all the seats it was allowed to compete for. This Polish election that allowed the opposition to share power with the Communist Party was a major part of the historic movement for political reform in the Soviet Union. On November 11, 1989, the Berlin Wall came down. This marked the end of the cold war. East Germany has announced that all border restrictions were lifted. President Bush wanted to "seize every chance" to promote democracy in Eastern Europe Secretary of State James Baker called the lifting of the German travel restrictions "the most dramatic event in East West relations" since World War II.(12) George Bush had comments on the Berlin Wall also. He went to Mainz, in Germany where he said a few words about that: "For 40 years, the seeds of democracy in Eastern Europe lay dormant, buried under the frozen tundra of the Cold War. ...read more.

Conclusion

Firstly, and most importantly, the Cold War should be understood as a non linear process. That is, the effect of the different explanation variables is not added, but multiplicative. A series of causal chains came into confluence, interacting and causing a synergism that resulted in the end of the Cold War. Secondly, it was amazing how badly leaders miscalculated during the end of the end of the Cold War. I contend that Gorbachev probably would not have headed down the path towards glasnost and perestroika if he had known the results. An important question: Why did Gorbachev and his advisors misjudge so badly? One hypothesis argues that Soviet leaders could not possibly understand the possible impact of the reforms because the Soviet Union had always been ruled by an authoritarian regime. So, the possibility of the dissolution of the Soviet Union probably did not even enter the mind of Gorbachev when he made those fateful decisions during the mid of to late 1980s. Bibiolography: * Walter Lippman, The Cold War: A Study in U.S. Foreign Policy, New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1947. * Charles S. Maier, ed., The Cold War in Europe: Era of a divided Continent, NewYork: Markus Wiener Publishing, Inc, 1991. * Ralph B. Levering, The Cold War, Illinois: Harlan Davidson, INC, 1988. * John Young, Cold War Europe 1945-1989, New York: Edward Allen, 1991. * Ronald E Powaski, The Cold War, Oxford: Oxford U Press, 1998. * Barbara Farnham, Reagan and the Gorbachev revolution: Perceiving the end of threat" Political Science Quarterly; New York; Summer, 2001. * Jeremi Suri, Explaining the End of the Cold War: A New Historical Consensus?, Journal of Cold War Studies, vol. 4 no. 4 (Fall 2002),pp 60-92. * The End of the Cold War, 1997, available at: http://usa.coldwar.server.gov/index/coldwar/ * Tom Morganthou, Reagan's cold war 'sting'?, Newsweek 32 August 1993: 32 * Ending the Cold War, Foreign Affairs Spring 1988: 24-25 * Brinkley, Alan An Uneasy Peace 1988,Vol. 10 of 20th Century America, 10 vols. (New York: Grolier 1995):22 * Rutvij Bhatt, 1997 "George Bush addresses Europe" available at: http://www.rjgeib.com/thoughts/burke/ * http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/24/ ...read more.

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