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University Degree: Law of Evidence
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This study provides evidence that the language used in a question can distort recall. When questioned later about the amount of glass at the scene more of the participants that had been in the 'smashed' condition reported seeing glass than the participants in the 'hit' condition, when actually there was none. Showing that information given after the event can alter a witness memory of the original event. Loftus and Zanni (1974) as cited in Eysenck and Keane (2000) found that even trivial differences in the way a question is asked can create false memories.
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The CCD acts like a bucket holding the electrons. The CCD's can be cascaded into arrays in which the electrons can be efficiently moved from one cell to another over long distances to a final readout destination. The reading, which is taken from each array, is directly proportional to the light intensity at that point in the captured image. So just as in conventional photography where silver halide crystals record the level of light intensity, the photo diode found in a digital system does exactly the same job.
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The hearsay rule generally disallows the use of out of court statements as evidence of the truth of the matters asserted in that statement. However in countries like Malaysia, the parliament has come up with a regulation to allow hearsay as evidence. That regulation is the Esential (Security Cases) Regulations (ESCAR) Offences. The Attorney General in Malaysia can designate any offences as an ESCAR prosecution. This procedure directly indicts the accused to trial by the High Court Justice without a jury. Witnesses need not identify themselves when they testify. Hearsay is admissible and giving the same weight as direct evidence.
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'The hearsay rule ought to be abolished. Its exceptions are complex and lead to the arbitrary exclusion of cogent evidence' - Discuss.
The rule thus obliges the prosecution to call X as a witness to give direct evidence that she saw D take the book.2 Reasons in favour of Hearsay rules Why do we need a rule that prevents or restricts evidence being given by anyone? * Ambiguity of Narration Language is ambiguous and several meanings can often be ascribed to the same word. It may be that only the maker of the statement knows what he meant when he used the particular words in question.
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