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University Degree: Other Jurisdictions

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  1. The US Federal Court system.

    The court's that are established under Congress consist of the United States Court of Veteran's appeals, United States tax courts, bankruptcy courts, United States court of Military appeals and the Magistrate Court. The individual judges that head these courts have main contacts with the Senate and the President of the United States. The Courts of Military appeals, the tax courts as well as the court of Veterans appeals are known as the legislative court's or Article I. The Magistrate and the bankruptcy court's are attached to the district court of the United States.

    • Word count: 702
  2. There is a fundamental difference between Constitutional supremacy and Parliamentary Supremacy.

    It implies that the legislative body may change or repeal any prior legislative acts. Parliamentary supremacy exists in UK, Finland, New Zealand and Israel. However, for the purpose of this paper I will be looking at Parliamentary Supremacy as it relates to the UK. It is interesting to note that constitutional documents are usually the result of some major upheaval in a nation's history. The moving force for implementing the constitution for many countries all over the world were the result of a war, whether inter-state or civil; from a revolution; from a revolution; and as it relates to Jamaica and other territories the grant of independence.

    • Word count: 811
  3. Hate crimes in this country are indeed at an all time high. According to the FBI, "a hate crime is a criminal offense motivated by bias, particularly against a given race, religion, disability, ethnicity, nationality, or sexual orientation

    The average person to commit a hate crime is someone who is said to resent a groups growing economic power. These people are said to engage in what is known as scapegoating. Others who commit hate crimes could feel a threat to there homes and/or property. Desegregation of public housing is thought to be a good example of this type of motivation. Lastly, you have what are referred to as thrill seekers and the mission offenders. Thrill seekers are the type of people randomly target random people of minority group to harass or assault.

    • Word count: 872
  4. How does this examination of the Prison Medical Service, challenge conventional ideas around the role of the Medical Service Providers in prison?

    Reform Already in the 18th Century reformers had recognized that Gaols were cruel unfair and inefficient as pointed out by Sim, J. The work of reformers such as John Howard, Sir George and Elizabeth Fry led to Sir Robert Peel to pass the Gaols Act in 1823 to encourage Gaols to be more secure, more healthy and to separate prisoners by category and gender. It wasn't until 1842 new prisons were starting to be built to enable this new act to be carried out.

    • Word count: 613
  5. Organized Crime: Political & Corporate.

    Enron was also caught bribing foreign government officials and manipulating prices and supplies in Texas. WorldCom was another huge company who inflated its reported cash flow by nearly $3.8 billion dollars. Late WorldCom was forced to file bankruptcy with over $400 billion dollars worth of debt. Other companies include Rite Aid, ImClone, and Adelphia, to name a few. (Lyman & Potter, 2004) In the political world it is no different. Organized crime practices and the scandalous and corrupt practices in the political world is a blurred one which is hard to separate.

    • Word count: 913
  6. Discussing Infanticide.

    Both of those cases are very true; 4 other incidents very similar to those also took place. Both of the judges in those cases believed that the infants were not human beings, therefore gave those children's parents the minimum sentence for the crime they had committed. By definition, infanticide is the intentional killing of a child usually less than one year old. Infanticide committed within the twenty-four hours of birth is called neonaticide. People and cultures all through history have used infanticide as a means of dealing with overpopulation. In the Peoples Republic of China, infanticide is one of the most common things you will hear about.

    • Word count: 947
  7. Hong Kong: Pre-China takeover.

    Governor Chris Patten urged Hong Kong residents to standup for their freedoms. Next year's handover is predicated on a promise by China's Communist leaders to keep Hong Kong highly autonomous and Capitalist under the Slogan "One Country, two Systems". The handover to China of Hong Kong also effects China's reputation and economic stability because if China loses the prosperity and stability of Special Administrative Region (SAR), China's own credibility will be undermined. But it is inevitable that Hong Kong after the revision to China sovereignty will come under the dominant influence of China that the business environment will become more Chinese.

    • Word count: 903
  8. Apartheid in South Africa.

    they would still have to live in appalling conditions with a lot of other Blacks. This means that there was a lot of Blacks in a small area, but as a percentage of employed Blacks there was a very small amount. These conditions were introduced by the South African government to make a carefree country were the Whites didn't have to worry about a Black conspiracy. But instead of this happening it caused more of a dilemma. The Blacks thought the Whites were plotting to get rid of them and the Whites thought the opposite.

    • Word count: 781
  9. The Execution of Wanda Jean. Wanda Jean Allens mental defects, which included frontal lobe brain damage and mental retardation, were never discussed nor considered in her criminal murder trial of 1989.

    She was subsequently convicted of first-degree murder and sentenced to death in 1989. Wanda Jean's access to judicial procedure was not applied fairly. To begin, Allen had many factors working against her: poverty-stricken, little access to education, black, lesbian, and a resident of Oklahoma. Oklahoma, located right smack in the center of the Bible Belt, "hated homosexuality."[2] Because Wanda Jean was considered to be "living in sin"[3], the jury that sentenced her to death likely placed very little value on her life. The law is influenced by social conditions and societal ideas. Wanda Jean's jury was anything but impartial: the all-white, Bible Belt Southerners, likely failed to relate to the black, lesbian, ?murderous villain? presented before them.

    • Word count: 787
  10. Sentencing Juveniles. The risk assessment system would identify several risk factors that are common between juveniles. This system would go through a list and see if the juvenile would fit in for a secure facility

    I view these factors as the most important indicators for the need of secure placement. Also, there would be another list for risk factors that would explain their most recent offenses and behavior. I would call this step list two. This second list would include: 4. age at first adjudication, 5. prior out-of-home placements, 6. prior supervision behavior, prior escapes or runaways, 7. has juvenile received mental health help or substance abuse care (Taylor, 2011). This second list would be weighed less than the first. This second set of risk factors would represent the important aggravating circumstances that should be taken into account in determining the need for secure custody or the level of security required.

    • Word count: 876

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Compare and evaluate the success of the drug control policies of Sweden and the Netherlands.

    "In conclusion, the problems of drugs in our society is so complex, no nation's drug policy will work completely. The Netherlands have a liberal drug policy and it seems to have worked well. On the other hand the Swedish have a repressive policy and it seems to have worked on the surface but in reality is has not at all very well. The success gained by Sweden can be more explained by their previous more liberal policy in the 1960s and 1970s and also the lack of exposure to the drugs market and low unemployment as well as their inherent culture. The implications of this is that for other countries aiming to formulate an effective drug policy may observe the Netherlands greater success and move towards a liberal drugs policy. Moreover, it is impossible to reach a common drug policy for the whole EU with such contrasting approaches and therefore in the future if the EU was ever to push for a unified drug policy, it may also move more towards a liberal approach. I acknowledge the ambiguity of the effects of such a liberal or repressive drug policy may have on other countries but this is unavoidable."

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