- Join over 1.2 million students every month
- Accelerate your learning by 29%
- Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
University Degree: Other Jurisdictions
Meet our team of inspirational teachers
the examination of such applications and if thought fit of applicants by an Advisory Board; c) the establishment of an Advisory Board to advise Minister of Finance in elation to such applications and also as to whether the name of any person on the authorized list should be removed therefrom; d) anything which may require to be prescribed, and e) carrying this Act into effect. 3) All rules made under this section shall be judicially noticed, and shall have effect as if enacted by this Act.
- Word count: 2228
In criminal law, there are several legal devises designed to protect the accused, one of which is the presumption of innocence, or the traditional rule that all suspects are treated as innocent until proven guilty.
It is a general rule in criminal law that, while the accused is presumed to be innocent, the prosecution bears the legal burden of proving guilt. In this sense, the presumption of innocence expresses the incidence of the prosecution's burden of proof, his obligation to establish his case, the defendant's guilt, beyond a reasonable doubt. To say that an accused is presumed to be innocent is to effectively say that the prosecution must prove his guilt. It is important to note that, while the term presumption can refer to a "conclusion that may or must be drawn if another fact
- Word count: 2656
this left many probation staff viewing the future of offenders negatively. Fortunately for all concerned the challenges and changes which occurred in the 1980s provided evidence that "some things work" this in turn has led to the use of evidence based practice and the what works initiative (the drive that aims to ensure that all probation practice is base on evidence of success) Home Office 2000. In identifying engaging, rather than alienating within the probation environment we should discuss and be aware of the qualities and values we hold both as individuals and as probation officers, also what motivates us to engage with offenders whilst conducting interviews.
- Word count: 2727
The only viable alternative, in my opinion, is separation, which inexorably will lead toward Palestinian self-determination. Striking a balance between Palestinian national aspirations and Israeli security concerns is the key to finding a realistic solution, and the survival of both states; Israel and Palestine. Separation can be achieved through peaceful negotiations or by unilateral action. The Oslo Accords intended to obtain the former whereas the wall being built at present aims at the latter. Personally, I hope that despite the wall, both sides will eventually return to the negotiating table.
- Word count: 1057
capable of being a serious threat to society. Risk in some form has always been fundamental to human society. Around 3200 BC, when human settlements began to grow in the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, trade and travel became commonplace on the highways of the rivers and this eventually lead to travellers exploring more distant reaches meaning that 'calendar time, navigation and geography mattered a great deal and these factors required ever more precise computations' (Bernstein, 1998:29). The element of risk was recognised, albeit in a very crude and simplistic manner, and the Ashipu group of people served as consultants for risky, uncertain, of difficult decisions.
- Word count: 2929
The cachet of Coach was waning with high-fashion competitors gaining popularity. Financially, Coach was bought by Sara Lee, a food company in 1985. It operated as a division of the larger company until 19.5% of it was spun off in October 2000. Sara Lee decided to divest the rest of its Coach ownership the following year, and the company fully became its own entity in April 2001. The transition of Coach and the change of the industry could be well-explained by the three laws of competition, the convergence of the industry, the renewal of the company and how the company align its capability, markets and strategy.
- Word count: 3625
What is your understanding of case management? Show how a case management approach has shaped your work with offenders (either and individual or group) through discussion of one or more pieces of work you have been involved in.
Holt  identifies the fact that a variety of models exist which reflect the diversity of agencies and the complexity of individual need. He does however point out that regardless of what the need is the central function remains the same. These being assessment, planning, linking, monitoring and evaluation. Holt refers to Rubin  who discusses the often-present further component of advocacy. Holt  sees this element as something, which empowers service users within the context of anti-discrimination. Case management has evolved therefore as a response to fragmented service provision, the often complex multiple needs of clients and the need
- Word count: 4038
foreign investors need not to gain any certificate from any organs. Its positive aspect is that foreign investors have much more choices if they decide to establish companies in the UK. However, the negative aspect occurs as well, which is that they may not be guided correctly in legal areas due to the loose policy. So they should be very careful later, once they break the law, they will be punished seriously. Secondly, a strict examination and approval procedure is available in China before cooperative enterprise is established. For example, they should submit a series of complicated documentations, including the agreement, contract, articles of association and other documents signed by the
- Word count: 1327
Among his sample, there were two children who were particularly delinquent, and who appeared to have very little in the way of social conscience. This syndrome was described by Bowlby as 'affectionless psychopathy', and he argued that this was the extreme consequence of maternal deprivation. If the child lacked a special relationship with the mother, it would grow up unable to form relationships with other people. Without relationships with other people, the child would be unlikely to conform to social norms in the usual way.
- Word count: 1799
Identify the Ethical Issues. Is H. B. Fuller morally responsible for the addiction of the street children to the Resistol Product?
Is H. B. Fuller morally responsible for the addiction of the street children to the Resistol Product? The rights theory suggests that the consumers and society have a right to a safe product. It would then extend to suggest that H. B. Fuller had a duty to provide a safe product. The product when used correctly was "safe" however the firm failed to effectively educate persons on the correct use of the product. In addition the firm in their rational not to exit the market applied the Utilitarian Theory. They sated that they had to remain in the market because of their contribution to the economic viability to the society.
- Word count: 1782
Lord Curzon: the Last of the British Moghuls by Nayana Goradia. Delhi: Oxford University Press 1993.
Although the book was published in 1993 by Oxford University Press, it would be of no surprise if the date read 1900. In addition, she puts forward speculations and interpretations which seemed to detract from her monograph: Feats of exceptional endeavor demanded exceptional self-denial. Empire-building for many Victorians became a sublimation of the sexual instince. Libidinal or sexual energy if properly channelized has been known to lead to the highest and most creative human endeavour and to Victorians empire-building was a divine call.1 Goradia presents two following chapters on the formative years of Curzon's life.
- Word count: 1216
die of the wound or hurt, etc. within a year and a day after the same.5 The general notion of homicide in civilised countries, requires that both the active subject and the passive subject of this offence be persons. Per uomo qui s'intende ogni qualsiasi individuo che alla specie umana appartenga.6 This premise, insofar as the agent is concerned, is however subject to the exemptions from criminal responsibility granted by the Criminal Code. Even under English law the active subject must be a man of sound memory, and of the age of discretion.
- Word count: 13106
It is an outrage. This is happening today. George Orwell back in the 1930's wrote the science fiction novel 1984, but science fiction is becoming reality. Big Brother is watching. Big Brother just happens to go by names such as COINTELPRO, the US Patriot Act, the FBI, CIA, the US government. Americans have become less resistant to giving up more and more of their rights for the protection that the US government claims to provide against the all elusive terrorism. By its own definition the US government is a terrorist, a terrorist of the worst kind with unlimited power and unlimited funds.
- Word count: 10509
The obtaining of security for claims in the disputes is very important, in respect to maritime claims.
+++ Traditionally, the power to order the respondent to give security of claim was outside the arbitrator's statutory jurisdiction and application to be made to the Court. The s. 2GB of the HKAO bring fundamental changes to the law and practice of arbitration in Hong Kong. In s. 2GB(1), it provides "When conducting arbitration proceedings, an arbitral tribunal may make orders or give directions dealing with any of the following matters- (b) requiring money in dispute to be secured;" In s.
- Word count: 1326
The will says the gift is subject to a trust, but the objects of the trust are not specified. An example of that might be if the will says "I give this to X to applied in accordance with my instructions". That indicates an intention to create a trust, but the objects aren't specified. In either case, a person who claims to be a beneficiary under a secret trust must show three things and those three things are listed towards the bottom of p12 in the study guide. The first is that the testator had an intention that the property be used in a particular way.
- Word count: 4288
The secondary source analysis entailed library-based research in order to identify relevant theories of youth offending in criminology. One other significant resource utilised in this research was the Internet, which was convenient for downloading newspaper articles and obtaining data from the Homeoffice website. Data from different sources were compared to find any trends, to see if there could be conflicting data and to check for any biases. Information was then gathered from these sources and constructed in to explanations for the purpose of our argument. For my part of the research, I was also responsible for the conclusion, which meant that I would have to wait for other members to complete their part in order to summarise for the conclusion.
- Word count: 1647
Any income that these families get, regardless of the means to earning it, is always welcomed. Secondly, some of these families themselves are involved in illegal activities, such as; single mothers who are alcoholic, drug- addicts and who also are drug peddlers themselves. Being engaged in these activities, they not only influence their children to do the same things but also encourage them at times. The book, Code of the Street mentions "some people tend towards self-destructive behavior; many street-oriented women are crack addicted ('on the pipe', alcoholic, or involved in complicated relationships with men who abuse them.
- Word count: 3635
First though I discuss the problems associated with the assessors need to be aware of risk. Awareness is fundamental to risk assessment both in terms of obtaining a probability and in obtaining a likely consequence. The risk assessors' awareness is their ability to recognise and accept that a potentially harmful situation existsa. Underwriters need to be aware of all possibilities in order to give correct risk assessment. Underwriters may use several approaches or mechanisms to try and increase their awareness, such as brainstorming and Delphic forecasting.
- Word count: 2306
Ferdin andTonnies wrote in Community and Association (1887) that “Just as language cannot be made by agreement…real concord cannot beartificially produced” How far, if at all, does this statement provide a clue to solving the puzzle.
The church and family would regulate the culturally homogenous behaviour. Today communities as evident in pre-industrial life are basically obsolete. Tonnies used the term Gemeinschaft to describe this type of social bond, which can also mean 'community' and Gesellschaft to mean 'association'. In a modern society there is a diverse work force, lack of moral regulation, impersonal relationships, multiculturalism, dysfunctional families, privatised companies only available to a minority of the population etc. Society is based on meritocracy (although the extent of this may be challenged)
- Word count: 1878
Enron was also caught bribing foreign government officials and manipulating prices and supplies in Texas. WorldCom was another huge company who inflated its reported cash flow by nearly $3.8 billion dollars. Late WorldCom was forced to file bankruptcy with over $400 billion dollars worth of debt. Other companies include Rite Aid, ImClone, and Adelphia, to name a few. (Lyman & Potter, 2004) In the political world it is no different. Organized crime practices and the scandalous and corrupt practices in the political world is a blurred one which is hard to separate.
- Word count: 913
limited by shares, is the most important and differs in its effect from the others. Such a company does not have to register articles (as opposed to the memorandum) and, if it does not, Table A (as in force if it does register articles, in so far as these do not exclude or modify Table A, its provisions will apply. Furthermore, it, and any other type of company (which will have to register articles) may, in them, adopt by reference any provisions of Table A. In contrast, the model articles in Table C (relating to a company limited by guarantee and with a share capital)
- Word count: 1020
Both of those cases are very true; 4 other incidents very similar to those also took place. Both of the judges in those cases believed that the infants were not human beings, therefore gave those children's parents the minimum sentence for the crime they had committed. By definition, infanticide is the intentional killing of a child usually less than one year old. Infanticide committed within the twenty-four hours of birth is called neonaticide. People and cultures all through history have used infanticide as a means of dealing with overpopulation. In the Peoples Republic of China, infanticide is one of the most common things you will hear about.
- Word count: 947
Increased attention is being paid to Health and Safety issues in the workplace by national governments and international bodies. The education and enforcement of regulations are most difficult to achieve in small work units; nowhere more is this the case than in farming, which may have the disadvantage of isolation. One of the main issues surrounding the agricultural industry is that a farm is a home and a workplace, with a further hazard of the involvement of children and the elderly.
- Word count: 5901
There are four elements to a crime, a law, an offender, a target or victim and a place. When these four elements come together, a crime has been committed.
Ecology is the study of animals and plants and how they relate to one another in their natural habitat. Burgess then examined area characteristics instead of criminals for their explanations of high crime. They developed the idea of natural urban areas, which consisted of concentric zones, which extended out from downtown central business district to the commuter zone at the fringes of the city. Each zone had its own structure and organisation, characteristics and unique inhabitants. This is known Burgess' Concentric Zone Theory. 3 Zone A is the Central Business District, Zone B is the Transition, or 'Twilight' Zone, C is the Council Estates, Zone D is the Commuter Zone and Zone E is the Countryside area.
- Word count: 5260
Governor Chris Patten urged Hong Kong residents to standup for their freedoms. Next year's handover is predicated on a promise by China's Communist leaders to keep Hong Kong highly autonomous and Capitalist under the Slogan "One Country, two Systems". The handover to China of Hong Kong also effects China's reputation and economic stability because if China loses the prosperity and stability of Special Administrative Region (SAR), China's own credibility will be undermined. But it is inevitable that Hong Kong after the revision to China sovereignty will come under the dominant influence of China that the business environment will become more Chinese.
- Word count: 903