• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Socio-Emotional Effects of Hate crimes in Communities and on Human Beings

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Socio-Emotional Effects of Hate crimes in Communities and on Human Beings Introduction Hate crimes are criminal actions intended to harm or intimidate people because of their race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion, or other minority group status. They are also referred to as bias crimes. Hate crimes have existed from the beginning of time, severely affecting communities and people without our knowledge. Since the 1980's researchers have tried to explain the social and mental effects of hate crimes on human beings as a whole. In order to eliminate these horrific acts of hate the United States needs to pass the Hate Crimes Prevention Act. Sociology A hate crime is a crime that intentionally offends the victim on an emotional level, for the victim is picked out solely for whom he/she is. The purveyors of hate use explosives, arson, weapons, vandalism, physical violence, and verbal threats of violence to instill fear in their victims, leaving them vulnerable to more attacks and feeling helpless, suspicious, and fearful. Others may become more frustrated and angry if they believe the local government and other groups in the community will not protect them. When perpetrators of hate are not prosecuted as criminals and their acts not publicly condemned, their crimes can weaken even those communities with the healthiest race relations. In 1996, the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) received reports of 10,706 hate crimes from state and local law enforcement agencies, involving 11,039 victims, and 10,021 known perpetrators. ...read more.

Middle

Herek observed among hate crime survivors may have resulted from a heightened sense of personal danger and vulnerability that becomes associated with their identity as a gay man or lesbian. Previous research has shown that all crime victims are likely to feel more vulnerable after their experience and to perceive the world as more dangerous, unpredictable, and hostile. The present data suggest that hate crime victims, in addition, often link this sense of vulnerability and powerlessness to their gay or lesbian identity. This association can be psychologically harmful because sexual orientation is such an important part of the self-concept. In addition, it is reasonable to expect that victims of hate crimes based on race, ethnicity, religion, or another comparable characteristic may also experience heightened psychological distress because the incident represents a serious attack on a fundamental aspect of the victim's personal identity. The effects that hate crime victims experience are due solely on the fact that each status (race, religion, sexual orientation, etc.) is associated with different kinds of life experiences for the individual and historical experiences for the affected community. Hate crimes based on sexual orientation appear to have more serious psychological effects on lesbians and gay men than do other crimes. Political Science The hate crimes described above in a sociological and psychological aspect shocked the nation and created a public uproar that forced lawmakers to create a federal legislation to combat these socio-emotional problems. ...read more.

Conclusion

Lawmakers have passed legislation to encourage data collection and attach enhanced penalties to hate crimes at both state and federal levels. President Bill Clinton sponsored a White House Conference on Hate Crimes in 1997, at which he announced numerous initiatives, including his support for expanded coverage of hate crimes in federal legislation. In order for the federal government to take stand against hate crimes in the United States, the Hate Crime Prevention Act is a must. Changes in hate crime legislation, whether viewed favorably or negatively are simmering. With the passing of the Hate Crime Prevention Act, legislation and the federal government gives itself the right to investigate and prosecute hate crimes. The HCPA is the only way to guarantee equal treatment for all. Conclusion In the words of ex Vice President Al Gore, "We must send a clear and strong message to all who would commit crimes of hate: it is wrong, it is illegal, and we will catch you and punish you to the force of our laws." A crime is a crime, no matter what motivated the incident. All crimes should be punished accordingly and with the same degree whether the crime was committed because of gender, race, sexual orientation, or any other bias. Any crime committed against another human being is a hate crime. People know this is persistent and serious and causes socio-emotional affects on human beings. These violent crimes happen in communities, schools, and work places. No area is immune. The Socio-Emotional Effects of Hate crimes in Communities and on Human Beings Kelsey Brodie Kelly Champion M.S. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Jurisprudence section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Jurisprudence essays

  1. Universal conceptions of human rights should supersede culturally relative conceptions. Discuss. Assess the effectiveness ...

    an African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child144. This latter Charter is similar to the provisions of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and states that "any custom, tradition, cultural or religious practice that is inconsistent with the rights, duties and obligations contained in the present Charter...shall be null and void"145.

  2. An Introduction to the Law of Intellectual Property

    In the case of a motion picture or other audiovisual work, showing the work's images in sequence is considered "performance." It also includes public delivery of lectures, speeches and the like. * Public Display Right. The public display right is the right to show a copy of the work directly

  1. What is wrong with inequality?

    Secondly, economic inequalities would also lead to economic emergencies, for the reason that it would garner the existence of monopolies and oligopolies. These market states would lead to inefficiencies as well as exploitation of the consumer. This is due to the fact that the monopolies are no longer in competition

  2. Beneficial joint tenants and the protection of purchasers: An unsolved problem

    The purchaser of unregistered land from the survivor of beneficial joint tenants does not need to do this provided he checks that the requirements of the 1964 Act are met. He has no such protection in registered land, and must either insist on the appointment of another trustee of the

  1. Address the relevance of current legislation in its relation to the problems of homelessness.

    The matter of suitable accommodation is under s.210. And co-operation between relevant housing authorities is noted under s.213. This Act is extensive and well thought out and denotes to start to the demise of homelessness. However, it is the Homelessness Act 2002, which has put more emphasis on the tackling of homelessness.

  2. Forensic psychology essay

    by serial killers as "a substitute for action, or it may prepare the way for later action6." In other words, as reported by McCulloch et al. (1983), the intense fantasies that the serial killer indulges in may lead to a "behavioural try-out."

  1. Reform Acts

    personal freedom, maintaining that the king governed at the people's consent ("the people" was itself, of course, an ambiguous term at this time, since it did not include, for example, women), and that sovereignty rested, ultimately, with the people. They were strong supporters of William III and his consort Mary,

  2. The death penalty is an effective punishment for the worst crimes and should be ...

    The death penalty is thus the legal right of the sovereign to protect its citizens. Punishment serves various purposes. One of its main purposes is rehabilitation; to enable to prisoner to experience remorse and to emerge from prison lacking the criminal tendencies possessed beforehand.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work