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Anthelmintics are drugs that are used in the treatment of threadworm infections.

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Introduction

ANTHELMINTICS. Anthelmintics are drugs that are used in the treatment of threadworm infections. However for these drugs to be effective they need to be combined with hygienic measures to break the cycle of autoinfection. The different drugs used for treatment are discussed below. 1.MEBENDAZOLE: This is used in the treatment of threadworm (Enterobius vermicularis), roundworm, whipworm and hookworm infections. PHARMACOLOGICAL KINETICS; This drug is a broad-spectrum agent and is one of the major groups of drugs used in the treatment of worm infections. They work by binding to free B-tubulin, inhibiting its polymerization and thus interfering with microtubule dependent glucose uptake. This effect takes time to develop and the worms may not be expelled for several days. ASSAY; Dissolve 0.250g in 3ml of anhydrous formic acid and add 40ml of anhydrous acetic acid determining the end-point potentiometrically. 1ml of 0.1m perchloric acid is equivalent to 29.53mg of Mebendazole. Storage: Store in a well-closed container, protect from light. C6H13N3O3 2.LEVAMISOLE HYDROCHLORIDE: This is used in the treatment of common roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) ...read more.

Middle

Each of the residue is equivalent to 0.3382g of Piperazine Phosphate. Storage; Store in an airtight container, protect from light. C4H10N2H3PO4H2O 4.PRAZIQUANTEL; This is used in the treatment of guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) even tapeworms (Taenia saginata, Taenia solium) PHARMACOLOGICAL KINECTICS; It acts by altering calcium homeostasis in the helminthes cells. This causes contraction of the musculature and eventually results in paralysis and death of the worm. Praziquantel has no pharmacological effects in humans in therapeutic dosage. Given orally it is rapidly absorbed; much of the drug is rapidly metabolized to inactive metabolites on first passage through the liver and the metabolites are excreted in the urine. ASSAY; Dissolve 40.0mg in alcohol and dilute to 100.0ml with the same solvent. Prepare a reference solution in the same manner using 40.0mg of the praziquantel. Measure the absorbances of the two solutions at the maximum at 265mm. From here the content of Praziquantel from the absorbances measured can be calculated and also the concentrations of the solutions. ...read more.

Conclusion

ASSAY; Dissolve 0.300g in 80ml of mixture of equal volumes of acetone and methanol. Titrate with 0.14-tetrabutylammonium hydroxide determining the end-point potentiometrically. Storage: Store in an airtight container, protected from light. C13H8Cl2N2O4 DRUG MOLECULAR WEIGHT (grams) PHYSICAL PROPERTIES CHEMICAL PROPERTIES 1.MEBENDAZOLE 295.3 1.White or faintly yellowish powder. 2.Odourless 3.Exhibits polymorphism. Practically insoluble in water, alcohol, ether and methylene chloride. 2.Levamisole Hydrochloride 240.8 1.White or almost white powder 2.Crystalline in nature 3.Odourless 1.Soluble in water and alcohol. 2.Slightly soluble in methylene chloride. 3.Practically insoluble in ether. 4.pH 3.0-4.5 3.Piperazine Phosphate 202.1 1.White powder 2.Crystalline in nature 3.Odourless 1.Soluble in dilute HCl. 2.Sparingly soluble in water. 3.Practically insoluble in Ethanol, Ether, and Chloroform. 4.Ph 6.0-6.5 4.Praziquantel 312.4 1.White or almost White 2.Crystalline in nature 3.melting point 136-140 degrees Celsius 1.Soluble in alcohol and in methylene chloride. 2.Slightly soluble in water. 5.Diethylcarbamazine Citrate 391.4 1.White powder 2.Crystalline in nature 3.Slightly hygroscopic in nature. 4.Melts at 138 degrees Celsius. 1.Soluble in water and alcohol. 2.Practically insoluble in acetone and in ether. 6.Niclosamide 321.7 1.Yellow or yellowish-white. 2.Very fine crystals. 3.Melts at 227-232 degrees Celsius. 1.Practically insoluble in water. 2.Sparingly soluble in acetone. 3.Slightly soluble in ethanol. 1 ...read more.

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