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Composed upon Westminster Bridge, 3rd September, 1802 by William Wordsworth, To Autumn by John Keats and Kubla Khan by Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

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Introduction

Composed upon Westminster Bridge, 3rd September, 1802 by William Wordsworth, To Autumn by John Keats and Kubla Khan by Samuel Taylor Coleridge. William Wordsworth is usually a romantic poet. He often writes about nature, and is therefore expected to write about nature and romance. In Composed upon Westminster Bridge, Wordsworth has used the traditional romantic form of a sonnet. This suggestion of romance and nature is reflected in the style and language of the sonnet. He uses a lexical set of 'beauty', 'fair' and 'sweet' to convey a romantic image; he also uses 'morning', 'fields', 'sky', 'smokeless air', 'sun', 'valley, rock or hill' and 'river'. This lexical set brings nature and the countryside into the city. Both lexical sets contrast to the industry and culture of the city and the sense of grandeur, strength and awe, implied in the lexical set 'majesty', 'splendour' and 'mighty'. Wordsworth brings the countryside into the city, and the natural within the man-made, with the sun rising and the river flowing 'at his own sweet will'. Wordsworth uses a Latin sonnet form, divided into an opening octave, and a concluding sestet. His rhyme scheme is formal, and Wordsworth does not deviate from the a, b, b, a pattern in the octave, but changes to c, d, c, d after the volta at the end of the octave at line eight. ...read more.

Middle

The structure of Coleridge's poem is less formal. His rhyme scheme is clear, in an a, b, a , a, b pattern, and similarly creates a sense of harmony and flowing in nature. It has no definite pattern to it's lines, and is only one continuous stanza. This suggests dischord, and a more chaotic tone than the other two poems which are both flowing. They show their flow by certain vocabulary such as 'glideth' (Wordsworth) and 'oozings' (Keats), sibilance - 'Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness!', and assonance in the elongating of vowel sounds - 'oozings hours by hours' and the foregrounding of 'Earth' elongates 'fair' in Wordsworth. All three use enjambment. However, Coleridge seems to use it more to show length or size. For instance, he uses it to illustrate the length of the river and the size of the walls around the fields, whereas Keats and Wordsworth use it to describe the flow or gentility of what the are describing. The tone of Keats is very positive. It is cheerful, empahsising the beauty and peace of the countryside in Autumn. It does however, have a more negative side, that winter is coming. Although Wordsworth does not mention it in words, there is the sense that through the beauty of London, of its 'smokeless air', eventually the beauty will be spoilt when everyone wakes, and it becomes smoky again. ...read more.

Conclusion

Coleridge uses it in 'wailful, whereas Wordsworth does not use it. Coleridge also uses oxymorons, whereas the other two do not. For example 'tumult to a lifeless' and 'demon-lover'. This gives a contradictory image of the reader's natural image of what Coleridge says. He also says 'dancing rocks' which is an oxymoron, because rocks are lifeless, and do not dance, but it may also be thought a hyperbole, as it is an extreme exaggeration of the movement of the rocks, to create extreme action in his writing. All use exclamation marks, or interjections. For instance 'Dear God!' (Wordsworth), 'a savage place!' 'But Oh!' (Coleridge) and 'Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness' (Keats) and in all three emphasise the feeling of the poet, as well as emphasising the extremities of the description. Although Keats uses sound, he does not use speech, nor does Wordsworth, because both poems have no people in other than the narrator and the metaphorical woman as autumn. Coleridge however, mentions Kubla Khan the king, and the 'Ancestral voices prophesying war!'. This adds to the idea of human intervention in Kubla Khan. Both Coleridge, in this manner, and Keats' use of onomatopoeia and sound enable the reader to imagine the scene as if it were around them. � /1�/Os| " � k%u% &{vov{k{k{k{k{k{h ( ���03��y | � � qaXRRIIIIIIII��:u :u � %(xz�(r)���79(+0$2$&& &vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv� &M� &NOTimes New Roman� �A....�8 �A....�8dCompObj������������U������������������������������������ ...read more.

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