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University Degree: Arthur Miller
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He wants us to reconsider the way we think about the Miller. However, the reason for doing this is a bit unclear to me. We are first introduced to the Miller in the General Prologue to the Cantebury Tales, where he is described as a "stout carl" told that "He [is] a ianglere, a golyardeys, / And that [is] moost of synne and harlotryes" (561). We are told about his brute strength, so brute that he is able to tear down doors with Trujillo 2 his bear hand, or by head butting.
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Miller's drama can be compared to his real life in some ways. "New York-born Arthur Miller's father, Isidore Miller, was a garment-maker, wrecked in the great depression. The abrupt change in fate had an intense impact on Miller. The family shifted to a small house in Brooklyn, thought to be the type of Brooklyn home depicted in Death of a Salesman" (Galvin). "This desire to move on, to metamorphose - or perhaps it is a talent for being contemporary - was given me as life's inevitable and rightful condition", he wrote in Timebends: A life (Kirasto).
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This conviction was later overturned by the United States Court of Appeals. The National Institute of Arts and Letters awarded him with the Gold Medal in 1959. Three years later he married Inge Morath his third wife after Mary Grace Slattery in 1940 and Marilyn Monroe in 1956. Miller's writing earned him vast amounts of honors, including the Pulitzer Prize, seven Tony Awards, two Drama Critics Circle Awards, an Obie, an Olivier, the John F. Kennedy Lifetime Achievement Award, and the Dorothy and Lillian Gish prize as well as honorary doctorate degrees from Oxford University and Harvard University.
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Provide evidence for the Relevance-theoretic hypothesis that the identification of explicatures is equally inferential, and equally guided by the Principle of Relevance as the recovery of implicatures.
These processes are based on the Relevance Theory, where maximal contextual effect is wanted for minimal effort. Firstly, explicatures are defined as "assumptions that are explicitly communicated"1 by using "the linguistic clues provided, the appropriate contextual information and the Principle of Relevance as a basic guideline" 1. The process of explicating can be split up into: reference assignment, disambiguation, bridging and enrichment. If we take the following example into consideration, we can use it to make the process of explicating clearer. Ms Miller: Doctor, doctor! You've got to help me. I'm shrinking. Doctor: Sorry, I can't give you an appointment for three weeks.
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Death of a Salesman - Write a critical appreciation of the Requiem. To what extent does this passage reflect the tone, style and concerns of the play as a whole?
Brian Parker suggests that this technique "forces the audience to become Willy Loman's for the duration of the play." We see in the requiem scene how Willy's dream of a large funeral, like Dave Singleman's, to prove to his boys how well-liked he was, proves to be just another false dream. Above all, Willy seems to prize the emotional appeal of being popular, like Singleman, and it seems to be social standing that really motivates him. His prediction that his funeral would be well attended by all those who liked and respected him was a false hope and the belief that he was respected is clearly unfounded.
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Happy is the Loman's youngest son. He is also of low moral character. Happy has always been the "second son" and tries to be noticed by his parents by showing off. Hap tries to be on Will's good side and keep him happy, even if it means perpetuating the lies and illusions that Willy lives in. Happy loses himself to the unattainable American dream therefore forebodes his own failure through his delusions. Biff was a star football player in high school with scholarships to two major universities.
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He flunked math his senior year and was not allowed to graduate. He became a drifter and was lost for 15 years. Happy Loman is the youngest son. He lives in New York in an apartment. Happy which they call Hap is of low moral character. Hap has always been the "second son" to Biff and tries to be noticed by his parents by showing off. Hap also tries to be on Willy's good side and keep him happy, even if it means perpetuating the lies and illusions, that Willy lives in.
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Discuss how Arthur Miller suggests dramatic conflict at the beginning of the play 'Death of a Salesman'
This contrast in the visual aspects of the play emphasizes any conflict between characters during the play. The house is presented as 'small and fragile-seeming', dwarfed by a wall of apartment blocks which contribute to the trapped and somewhat claustrophobic atmosphere created before there is any dialogue in the play. The initial word of the play, spoken by Linda, the wife of Willy, is said with trepidation, therefore Linda is expecting there to be a problem, and this is the first sign on conflict within speech. Willy reassures her, however Linda still appears to be anxious and is expecting there to be something wrong - 'did something happen?'.
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They both won book prizes. In the second verse we find out that Mary's family have eventually moved to a house with a cheaper rent. Mary would not be going to a senior school, as her father did not "believe" in educating girls, uniforms, or any of that "nonsense". In the third verse we find out the two girls stayed in the "same houses, different homes", suggesting that they lived in the same kind of house but their home lives were vastly different.
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To what extent does Arthur Miller's character 'Willy Loman' conform to the conventions of a tragic hero? Discuss with reference to the play "Death Of A Salesman"
Death of a Salesman, by Arthur Miller, is a good example for modern playwrights to follow. It contains all four of Aristotle's conditions a tragedy must have. Serious Magnitude means the people in the play are important. In older times the principal characters were kings, queens and other nobility, but in our modern society kings and queens are more likely to appear in tabloids. The modern hero has become everyone. The characters represent the entire society and the issues we face are the same issues the characters deal with. The play must also have a hero with a tragic flaw which can be something personal, family circumstances out of his control. He must also evoke (arouse)
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'Death of a Salesman' is about characters that lie to themselves as well as others. How does Arthur Miller present the theme of dishonesty within the play?
However, in this play the central character (Willy Loman) dreams of those specifications for a 'perfect' life but never achieves it. The term "dishonesty" means a lack of honesty. It's almost like a fraud. In this piece of writing I will try to answer the question "How does Arthur Miller present the theme of dishonesty within the play?" In an attempt to answer this question I will be looking at characters, the stage directions, language and possibly flashbacks. Firstly I will study the characters individually and comment on how the theme of dishonesty is characterised during the play.
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Restaurant Scene 1. What is Willy's mood as he enters the restaurant? 2. Comment on the various changes in Biff's mood as the scene develops. 3. How does Miller convey Willy's anxiety for good news from Biff? 4. Why does Biff become angry and frustrated? Biff can no longer feed Willy lies and half-truths about himself. He wants to deal on 'cold fact' and painful reality. Willy wants to hear good news, but he doesn't seem to care whether the good news is true or not.
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'Death of a Salesman� written in 1949, is a moving destruction of the whole myth. To be hard working, honest and have ambition were the ways of the American Dream. This lead onto success, wealth and in due time - power. But this dream for everyone developed, and encouraged greed, selfish behaviour, pride and rivalry between one another. Willy Loman was 'caught-up� in this American Dream. It causes business to develop in the world. Capitalism and also the profit motive and competitive instinct, makes Willy have a weakness in his personality. This weakness was caused by a combination of business pressures.
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Perhaps another person in the village? Someone you know." Hale knew that Tituba should confess, should say that she compacted with the devil or she would be hung, but he still accuses her with no proof. Just because one person is accused and confesses, Hale brings in the accusations that other people around town are witches. Another instance is when Reverend Hale says, "If she is truly in the Devil's grip we may have to rip and tear to get her free."(39)
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Essentially it is an epic tale in which the wicked are destroyed, right prevails, and the family is reunited. On the other hand, The Crucible was written in the early 1950's in America and is set in 1692 in Salem, a small town in colonial Massachusetts. It follows the witch-hunts of 1692 which began when several young girls were stricken with an illness characterized by symptoms of hallucinations and seizures, which were ascribed to witchcraft. This led to the eventual execution of thirty individuals for the crime of witchcraft.
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Miller introduces Willy's older brother Ben as a hallucination when Willy has to make important decisions. Willy idolises Ben, despite having only met him a few times during his adult life, because Ben has achieved easy and lucrative success. I view their interchanges as representative of the mental processes that Willy goes through in order to reassure himself that his choices are informed and objective. For example, in the play's final act Ben summarises Willy's decision to commit suicide as, 'A perfect proposition all around'. Despite the fact that Ben's judgement is just a function of his own opinion, Willy needs this affirmation to give the idea status inside his own head.
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"Willy Loman is such an unpleasant character that it is very difficult to sympathise with him, yet Miller clearly means us to do so." Discuss and evaluate this comment, with close reference to Miller's presentation.
His particular slant on this ideal is that a man succeeds by selling his charisma, that to be well liked is the most important asset a man can have. He made a living at this for over 30 years, but as he enters the reclining years of his life, people have stopped smiling back and he can no longer sell the firm's goods to support himself. His ambition was one of greatness, to work hard and to be a member of the firm; and if he could not succeed in this respect, that he should at least be well-liked and
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In this essay I will be looking at the importance of family relationships in Arthur Miller's play 'Death of a salesman' and in particular Willy's relationships with his two sons Biff and Happy.
This meant that Miller had to pay his own way through university by taking a variety of jobs. At the age of 17 he started to write the book 'Death of a salesman' and even though he started to write the book at such an early age it wasn't published until 1949. His background and experience influenced the themes of the play so if Miller had a different background the chances are he would of never wrote the book 'Death of a salesman'.
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In what ways does Miller use Willy's last day to raise questions about the validity of the American Dream?
Willy seeks to justify everything in monetary terms, going as far as putting a price on his life. Charley tells Willy that no man is worth "nothin' dead," showing that a successful man can see that there is more to life than money, yet a man like Willy is constantly reminded of his inadequacy and can see nothing beyond material gain. Willy, who has failed to achieve what he wanted, lives vicariously through his sons, encouraging them to pursue money rather than happiness. When Biff tells Happy that, with their physiques, they should be mixing cement on the open plains or be carpenters, Willy says, "even your grand-father was better than a carpenter."
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The Card game scene is an important dramatic scene in "Death of a Salesman." What is Miller trying to convey to the audience through the scene and which dramatic devices and structures does he use to achieve this?
It starts off with Willy downstairs in the kitchen with Happy who has come down to see what the matter is when in walks Charley who is wondering what all the noise is about. Charley is presented as the dramatic opposite of Willy; he is successful, has plenty of money and is well liked. He pities Willy and is happy to help out with anything he can, including money, but he cannot understand why Willy will not take the job he is offering him.
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This disapproval signifies the ultimate personal and professional insult and failure. Willy's consciousness is split between despair and hope, and therefore, it is possible that both considerations are behind Willy's choice not to criticize Biff's youthful carelessness. Willy's life is a failure for him and now he is trying to redeem his life by "The American Dream." He displays characteristics of a happy man looking for all the success he can find and puts his faith in Biff as the bright hope of the future. He wants his "boys" to be all that they can be and not see them fail just like he has been.
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Miller criticises the general way of the business world. Howard, the young boss of Willy's company, represents the ruthless and impersonal nature of capitalistic enterprise. When Willy goes to ask Howard if he can be transferred to a job in New York, Howard refuses to help him even though Willy has been working for the company for a long time and was good friends with his father. When Willy asks why he cannot be reassigned, Howard replies, 'it's a business, kid, and everybody's gotta pull his own weight,' thus demonstrating Howard's cold indifference to Willy's situation.
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Death of a Salesman: Discuss the Importance of Dreams in the Play and explore how Dreams are Present?
In Death of a Salesman, there are several types of dreams that are clear. These are the hopes and ambitions of the characters, daydreams fantasies and memories, such as the American Dream. Dreams are a very important part of the play. They encourage the characters into their actions and explain their behaviour both in the past and the 'real time' that the play is set in. The dreams also affect the way that the whole play is structured. Willy complains about his work and struggles to pay his bills. He is also frequently shown in a state of depression, he cannot concentrate when driving; he is still working at his old age and is struggling to bring in a steady earning.
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Joe Keller justifies his actions in terms of the family, to which alone he acknowledges responsibility. Like so many of Miller's characters, he wishes to leave his mark on the world, to justify his existence, and how else but by passing the business onto his sons. He forgets, however, that he has a responsibility which extends far beyond the family. Indeed, in some senses, this had been a central theme of the 1930s literature with which Miller was so familiar.
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Analyse how character, language, setting and structure contribute to the dramatic effect of Death of a Salesman.
At the start of the play, flute music is played. This gives the effect of dreaminess and creates a surreal mood for the start of the play. Another example is in the restaurant scene. Loud, raucous music is heard. The music sets the scene for the dramatic confrontation of Willy and his sons. Miller uses different types of music to reflect the mood and tone of the scene. Another way the setting contributes to the plays dramatic effect is by creating a sense of being 'boxed in'. Willy is particularly aware of this because he says, 'gotta break your neck to see a star in this yard.'
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