University Degree: Milton
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Jean-Baptiste Molire's Don Juan has all the outward appearances of seventeenth-century French farce - the stage settings are surreal, the costumes are ludicrous, and the wordplay is witty.
The full French title of the play is Dom Juan, ou le Festin de Pierre, the latter phrase of which may be variously translated as "the stone banquet" or "the stone guest." (Perhaps Molière has various permutations of meaning in mind.) Regardless, the inclusive title points to the end of the play in which an enlivened statue, a sepulchral golem-having been invited to a feast at the house of the protagonist-warns him of his impending doom. As the denouement of the play, perhaps this is the point that Moliére is trying to make: there is a connectedness in the universe; disrupting that continuum can lead to destruction.
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In order to be able to discover the relevance Milton and Paradise Lost still have today in a post-modernist society, I believe that it is imperative to first be able to understand and appreciate Milton in the context and times in which this epic, Paradise
Thus it is not surprising that the text of Paradise Lost is liberally sprinkled with references to the colonisation of America, (p.11) such references are interesting still to today's reader of Paradise Lost. This is due to the fact that the world is still reeling from the effects of colonisation. Although such events took place so many years ago, ripples still have an effect on today's society. One instance where we can se the detrimental effects of colonisation still taking place today is in Ireland.
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John Milton's "Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce" argued that the most valid reason for divorce was that of incompatibility and his prophetic vision of this
The current Alberta Divorce Act allows divorce on the basis of marriage breakdown due to incompatibility. Incompatibility, at it applies to the divorce act, is not as simple as a couple simply declaring that they are no longer compatible and therefore should be divorced. Before incompatibility causing marriage break down can be established at least one of three criteria must be met: "(a) the spouses have lived separate and apart for at least one year immediately before the divorce judgment (b) one spouse has committed adultery or (c) one spouse has committed physical or mental cruelty".
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By means of what textual strategies does Milton seek to 'justify the ways of God to man' in Paradise Lost
Paradise lost, in asserting 'Eternal Providence', attempts to uncover the hidden pattern of history in the context of a universe under God's control. So why did Milton feel a poem of this type was necessary? Upon returning from a fifteen-month long tour of the continent, spent mainly in Italy, Milton set about defending the liberties of the English people, 'God's chosen race', as he put it, from the tyranny of Charles I. Between 1641 and 1651 the poet published a number of political pamphlets arguing in favour of parliament and against a hierarchical Church government.
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Humanism in Dante and MiltonHumanism had a profound impact on European society during the Renaissance
Humanism, literally "the study of man", can be defined as an awakening of the self. Humanism emphasized both the study of the classics and the "liberating arts", arts that liberate the mind. The study of moral philosophy, history, grammar, rhetoric, and poetry allowed humanists to broaden their minds, become worldlier, and more individualized. Whereas before the Renaissance, Europeans had defined themselves as part of the collective, humanists began to define themselves as individuals. Whereas the Medieval thinkers had embraced the teachings of the Church, humanists distanced themselves from the Church by their intense study of the classics and the liberal arts.
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Phrases such as "Corpses are scattered through a paradise" (4) and "his wars dance.."(19) combine the presence of violence with positive concepts. The speaker is mocking the brutality by describing it using the words "paradise" and "dance", that are normally associated with celebration and bliss. He refuses to accept the motives of the white men and the attacks of the Africans. At one point, the speaker addresses the colonial policy and how it is justified and accepted. He points out that any validation of the colony's actions is not worth anything to the people who are suffering from the ongoing battles.
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They have overcome the immediate circumstances of the universe and uncovered a richer 'divine' existence within themselves, not dependent on the 'vain' and 'jealous' motions of Fate. The position that the confident speaker of 'The Definition of Love' expounds is similar to that reached by Adam and Eve at the end of Paradise Lost. At the end of Book IX the agony of their fall appeared irremediable: Thus they in mutual accusation spent The fruitless hours, but neither self-condemning, And of their vain contést appear'd no end.
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(Milton, 3). Milton felt that Catholicism does not tolerate ideas or beliefs outside of its own and implemented these laws in order to avoid defamation of the church. The law that Milton speaks of is that of censorship before the fact; banning books before they even get printed or published. This law angered Milton as he saw it as unjust. He explained it in a nutshell: "...by judging over again that order which ye have ordained to regulate printing:--that no book, pamphlet, or paper shall be henceforth printed, unless the same be first approved and licensed by such, or at least one of such, as shall be thereto appointed."
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The references to past works not only called to mind in the learned reader the tradition inherited by Paradise Lost, it furthered the poem's own status as epic, thereby doubling its position as such. At the heart of the poem's claim to epic status are its interest in individual heroism, its cross-references to other major texts and its use of varied literary forms. Each of these relates in some way to classical or Renaissance systems of genre. Barbara Lewalski (1999)
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In "On the Morning of Christ's Nativity" Milton sees both Christmas and Easter as the same thing since it is impossible to have one without the other. The baby in the cradle is the man on the cross. John Milton's "On The Morning of Christ's Nativity" uses the idea of the Jesus of history and the Christ of fact to relay his ideas of the creation of the world and the synonymous events. Comparison can be drawn between John Gospel and "On the Morning of Christ's Nativity" for it is an intensely symbolic book.
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There are many indications within the poetry of Tony Harrison that he considers his work within the context of the canon.
The continual allusions to the opposition his poetry has faced, and his subsequent under confidence, can have said to have led to a need for the reassurance of the canon: using the models of other poets to validate the worth of his own poetry. Alternatively, Harrison may feel that the only way to express the voice he wishes to project, that of a working class northern man with authority is by using the "enemy's weapons"2, and establishing a scholastic side to his work, in order to be taken seriously by the 'cultural elite'.
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Paradise Lost Books IX and X "Discuss the development of the characters of Adam and Eve and their relationship" The major theme of 'Paradise Lost' is the development of the relationship between Adam and Eve
Milton lures us into a false sense of security and then shows us the other side to the pair in the quite heated discussion they have about working alone. This development and change from Adam and Eve actually happens very quickly. Eve wants to have a break from Adam and believes that if they work separately they will get more things done. In hindsight this was a grave error in Eve's judgement and pre-empts the fate of the couple during the rest of the poem.
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Milton believe that the proper end to all activities should be in God or goodness, based on this central belief of good and evil and its association with the Augustine concept of the 'chain of being'. Milton beliefs in a heaven, chaos and hell, as clearly defined entities, are more consistent with poetic myth rather a rational, scientific belief although Milton had visited Galileo, and the concept of physical space and the Universe clearly influenced his thoughts. Milton's blindness prevents him from seeing any light, except in strong symbolic terms, as the light of God illuminates and inspires the mind.
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." (ibid.), and further comments on his "insistence . . . on seeing the external world permeated with value and meaning" (ibid., p. 147). The second would hold particularly correct for actions mentioned in the Old Testament, as Milton was the progeny of a long standing practice of interpreting these stories as allegoria in factis, having a dual reality both as factual historical events and as messages sent to civilization by God (Eco 1990:11-17). Further, O'Keefe comments on how; "The imagery of sound and music in Milton's poem possesses ethical nuances when depicting places, characters, and situations; thus Chaos, hell, Satan, the battle in heaven, Adam and Eve immediately after the Fall .
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- something one sees significantly for the first and last time throughout the poem. Satan's great yearning for heaven is brief, and when finally suppressed, Milton offers a fine and revealing example of Satan's rhetoric and quick-moving contradictions, as he instantly expresses excuses for his failure. Firstly, he declares that 'Till then who knew, the force of those dire arms?' explaining how they were unaware of Gods powers before testing him. This is supportive evidence, backing up the suggestion that Satan is the supposed 'Father Of Lies', as he is seen to be directly manipulating the truth.
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The narrator characterizes the angels' physical appearance as full of light, and the devils' as shadowy and dark. Milton also uses light to symbolize God and God's grace. The absence of light in Hell and in Satan himself represents the absence of God and his grace. The opening scenes reveal Hell as a fiery, glittering place that reflects the corrupt souls of the devils. Milton establishes two opposing poles of evil and good, dark and light, and the action shifts to Earth, a region blessed by Heaven but vulnerable to the forces of Hell. Milton's first description of Hell is full of negative emotive words, 'obdurate pride' and 'steadfast hate' are adjectives used by Milton to describe Hell and the emotive words appeal to the readers emotions 'dismal', 'waste'.
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This is also significant in showing us the path to hell and the sins to avoid. This leads on to the introduction of the fallen angels and Satan himself. Milton succeeds in portraying these fallen angels as terribly evil, deceitful and rebellious, the exact opposite to God's highly respected greatness and power over these fallen angels. Milton emphasises the clear difference between heaven and hell. Between the lines 61-77 Milton's portrayal of Hell emphasises how much the fallen angels have been punished for their behaviour and how that kind of evil behaviour will not be tolerated by God in heaven.
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Show how Ngugi uses his narrative to contrast the inner emotional qualities in his characters- (chapter 7 pages 99-107)
This is not surprising to the reader, since we see Kihika's strong passion, for the cause, formed at a young age where even his 'heart hardened towards' the white people before he even saw them. However, what is unanticipated is the reaction of his father who does not seem to understand his son. Being the father of such a hero would certainly suggest that Mbugua would be proud and support Kihika. Nevertheless Mbugua does not even join the fight and wonders 'what has come into his head', suggesting that he does not identify with his son.
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His first stop was his mates house Remi Boncour, who similarly to him also waiting foe his big break. During his hitchhike he meets 'a middle aged woman' and a 'tough truck driver with popping eyes', 'two boys from the university of Iowa'. The fundamental thing bout these characters is that they all seem to know where they are going not jut literarily to their destination but also metaphorically in their lives, all these people have cars and are picking Sal Paradise up, pulling him to his destiny.
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'Paradise Lost' - "Our Flesh is An Eve Within Us"- The Presentation of Eve and her role in the Fall.
When the Lord comes to dealing with punishment for their actions, it would appear that Adam's wrongdoing was primarily in the fact that he listened to and obeyed his wife, as this action is the one God stresses firstly and unnecessarily; with the eating of the apple - and thus the contravening of His law - coming as a secondary citation for punishment: "And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten from the tree..."
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The opening scenes of Paradise Lost unveil Hell as a fiery and horrifying place that reflects the corrupted souls of Satan and his devils. Here Satan gives a brief synopsis of the story of how Adam and Eve fell, along with destruction of Earth as it was once known. Satan pronounces that Adam and Eve were quick to disobey their Creator by eating from the Tree of Knowledge. He feels all credit is due to him for transforming into the cunning serpent and seducing God's newest creation, Adam and Eve.
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These two trees are the tree of life and the tree of knowledge. The tree of knowledge is not to be touched, touching it will give you the knowledge of good and evil. "God commanded the Man, "You can eat from any tree in the garden, except from the Tree-of-Knowledge-of-Good-and-Evil. Don't eat from it. The moment you eat from that tree, you're dead." (Peterson 2). Adam and Eve ate from the tree and paradise was lost to them. The concept of losing paradise is present in all people. It represents our need for knowledge; some would sacrifice everything, even paradise, for the knowledge of God.
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By invoking a muse, but differentiating it from traditional muses, Milton tells us a lot about how he sees his project. In the first place, an invocation of the muse at the beginning of an epic is conventional, so Milton is acknowledging his awareness of Homer, Virgil, and later poets, and signaling that he has mastered their format and wants to be part of their tradition. But by identifying his muse as the divine spirit that inspired the Bible and created the world, he shows that his ambitions go far beyond joining the club of Homer and Virgil.
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Margaret, on the other hand appears to be ill at ease with the superficial attitudes and concerns of those around her. As she tells her mother; "I think what you call the makeshift contrivances at dear Helstone were a charming part of the life there". Margaret has no pretensions and this dislike of the superficial relationships is particularly evident in her description of her aunt's view of her "neighbours whom Mrs Shaw called friends, because she happened to dine with them more frequently than with any other people, and because if she or Edith wanted anything from them, or they from her, they did not scruple to make a call at each other's houses before luncheon".
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The protagonist, God, does not appear until the third book whilst Satan features prominently in the first two books. He is the first identifiable character which would gain the audiences sympathy in a traditional drama. He also exhibits the traits of a villainous tragic hero as his downfall was caused by hubris. His hamartia is "obdúrate pride"; by fancying himself as "equalled to the Most High", he is appropriately cast into ruin by God. What is especially villainous about Satan is that he rationalises and justifies his rebellion.
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