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University Degree: Jonathan Swift
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Another literary device that was employed was the use of macaronic verse. Macaronic verse is language consisting of a mixture of words containing of two or more languages. Macaronic doggerel is used frequently throughout the poem, this is shown in line 58, '"que pensez-voz, Parrot? What meneth this besynes?"' This is effective use of satire to comment on John Skelton's period because he wrote Speke Parott to mock Thomas Cardinal Wolsey and Wolsey spoke a number of languages, therefore the parrot is declaring that despite understanding the myriad languages, Wolsey was unwise and ridiculous.
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However Swift uses the Houyhnhnms, also, to express underlying human flaws by hinting at faults in the Houyhnhnms themselves. The Houyhnhnms are portrayed mainly as a perfect race to establish the extremities of human behaviour and that of their society. Swift makes no hesitation in convincing the reader of the Houyhnhnms worth, "The word Houyhnhnm, in their tongue, signifies a horse; and in it's etymology, the perfection of nature."2 Swift not only suggests the ideal race but names them this too, he has stated perfection which enables him to compare them to humans from the beginning of the book rather than build a character of perfection, therefore allowing him to concentrate on the satirical elements.
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'A modest proposal could be read by an insensitive reader as a cruel, inhuman, and perfectly sincere proposal. Where and how does Swift indicate that it must not be taken at face value? Where and how does he indicate his own true feelings and opinions?
In the opening, Swift adopts the language of finance and exchange. The language offers early indication on the way the author's proposal reduces human beings to statistical entities, animals, or economical commodities. However, at times, this argument sounds almost reasonable. The depersonalising vocabulary is used to illustrate the way the British treated the Irish." I have found them grossly mistaken in their computation.' An economic proposal is put forth to solve the problem of the poor in Ireland. 'Computation' infers a depersonalising of the subject matter of the poor people. Swift's use of language highlights the emotional detachment felt by the colonising British towards the Irish.
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Throughout the novel this specificity is contrasted with the ambiguous, particularly well illustrated by the nature of the Fens, as the paradoxical 'liquid terrain'. In the 'Oxford English Dictionary,' the Fens are described as the transition zone between land and water, being neither one nor the other. Swift comments on this throughout the novel most explicitly through the title, which illustrates the 'not quite solid' nature of the setting. The Fens were formed by silt, 'silt: which shapes and undermines continents; which demolishes as it builds; which is simultaneous accretion and erosion; neither progress or decay.'
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He despises his wife and cannot deal with the idea that he fathered children on the yahoo race. This is not the type of behaviour one would expect from such a newly enlightened man. Gulliver is a simple man; Swift created him in such a way that the people of England could identify with him easily. He has become a "familiar metaphor, the loyal native who travels to a remote nation and is soon or late obliged to make a[n]... evaluation of what he sees."ivSwift takes a few pages to establish the character Gulliver of because the reputation of the protagonist in the reader's eyes is important to his evaluation of the book.
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But things change when Gulliver is convicted of treason for putting out a fire in the royal palace with his urine and is condemned to be shot in the eyes with poisoned arrows. The emperor eventually pardons him and he goes to Blefuscu, where he is able to repair a boat he finds and set sail for England. After staying in England with his wife and family for two months, Gulliver undertakes his next sea voyage, which takes him to a land of giants called Brobdingnag.
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The transformation that did however occur can be seen as the transformation of traditional Irish attitudes towards it. According to Tim Pat Coogan, the pattern of Irish emigration began in the sixteenth Century. 4 The invasion of Ireland under Elizabeth I, and the attempt to spread the Anglican Reformation, may be said to have started Catholic Irish emigration.5 Wars in Ireland, during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries saw waves of emigration from Ireland to Catholic Spain, Portugal and France. In addition, Cromwell transported several thousands from Ireland to Virginia and the West Indies. Despite this, it wasn't until the early eighteenth century that emigration became common practice.
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Their initial assessment of Gulliver was that he was a Yahoo, but due to his clothing, his dislike for the food that Yahoos love, and his ability to learn to pronounce words in the Houyhnhnm language, they determine that he is not a Yahoo. Furthermore, Gulliver requests not to be referred to by that name, and the Houyhnhnms consent. Gulliver engrosses himself in the Houyhnhnm culture and eventually learns to speak the language. Undoubtedly recognizing the similarities between him and the yahoos, Gulliver attempts to distinguish himself from them.
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'The two basic modes of satire are good-humoured teasing and savage attack.' Discuss The Rape of the Lock and A Modest Proposal in the light of this statement.
The form provides a means for two ideas or situations to be compared or contrasted against one another. It is therefore perfect for the evaluative, moralising foundation of the poem, but does not attack the subject matter too viciously. This also complements the mock-epic style in which the poem is written, by building up something in one line to have it swiftly put down in the next. This approach to satire is expressed extremely well in an excellent example in what is largely known as the 'toilet scene', near the end of canto 1.
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Discuss how satire uses aspects of other genres. Use Rape of the Lock and Gulliver's Travels as the models to support your argument.
Any work whose satirical tendencies are immediately and dominantly obvious runs the risk of becoming wearying and uninteresting to read, after the events and characters become secondary to the author's political or social viewpoints. A satire must hold the interest of the reader so that the serious points behind the work can be given time to unravel gracefully and effectively. For this reason, a satirical work will often disguise itself as a product of an entirely different genre. If done well, there is no reason why the work cannot also be an entirely enjoyable example of this genre - after
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of a Satyrist for a libeller; wheras to a true satyrist nothing is so odious as a libeller, for the same reason as to a man truly Virtuous nothing is so hateful as a hypocrite. In 1725 Pope wrote to his eminent friend Swift, of his desire for his proceeding poetry to be a, �useful investigation of my own territories....something domestic, fit for my own country, and for my own time;� This definition could apply to many types of works and it is possible that he was referring to the epic he had always wanted to write, just as Virgil
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was totally foreign to the Houyhnhnms. Lying undermines the very purpose of speech-to make us understand one another. In his effort to explain European mankind to these noble creatures Gulliver is made by Swift to satirize his own society. Must men lie and twist the truth to get what they want? Another way Gulliver shows the flaws of society is by explaining the need for government and laws. Men cannot come to an agreement if there are no laws and government to rule them. Gulliver manages to rid himself of the "habit of lying, shuffling, deceiving, and equivocating, so deeply rooted in the very souls of all my species; especially the Europeans" (Swift 234)
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Chelezki: (talking to Elma Swift) So Ms. Swift, were you at the Johnsons' residence when the murders took place? Elma Swift: (looking over at Amber and crying) Yes!! I saw this evil girl taking after she had killed off her own parents and brother. (She starts screaming with rage) Judge: Order! Order! Order! Please control your emotions and answer only the question which is asked Defense: Your Honor, I object! Mr. Prosecutor is suggesting the answer to the questions he is asking Judge: Objection overruled. Mr. Chelezki, please get to your point quickly Mr. Chelezki: Yes, your Honor! (Turning his attention towards Elma Swift again) So, Ms. Swift, what exactly did you see the night of February 22nd, 01?
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The first epistle begins with the metaphor of the universe as "a mighty maze." Pope suggests that man is capable of navigating through this maze because he is endowed with the God-given faculty of Reason: Say first, of God above, or Man below, What can we reason, but from what we know? Of Man what see we, but his station here, From which to reason, or to which refer? (l. 17-20) Pope addresses the issue of man's folly as a question of fundamental evil.
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Discuss The Similarities And Differences In Themes And Ideas As Shown In 'Stone Cold' And 'A Modest Proposal'.
Link is slowly driven out his home in Bradford. Not thrown out, but through emotional hardship that his new 'dad' figure is a moron, as he says, "If you happen to know anybody who's looking for a hundred percent out-and-out bastard, I can let him have Vince's address." He movies in with his sister who lives with her boyfriend, but soon falls homeless in Bradford as staying at her sisters is awkward and her boyfriend makes it clear he doesn't want Link there. After being homeless in Bradford and all the bad memories fresh in his mind, he decides to move to London for a clean start, a job and a home.
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The Houyhnhnms have typically been viewed as a 'perfect' society - demonstrating a standard for conduct by which humanity should follow. Ward argues that the Houyhnhnms are "... intelligent in the way in which they organize their lives. They are an expression of something which we would all ... wish to be; an expression of a human ideal, an ideal which [is] very much prized" (168). This may be the case if one's ideological perspectives focus on slavery and female subordination.
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With this statement, Swift used the fact that the parents of these children are too poor to raise them. So, in order to keep them from being a burden, they should make them useful to society, instead. Swift only considered what makes sense, and not how the actions would effect anyone emotionally. He used only reason and no emotion throughout the essay. Swift wrote, "For first, as I have already observed, it would greatly lessen the number of papists; with whom we are yearly overrun, being the principal breeders of the nation as well as our most dangerous enemies..."
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The hunt for the missing plane was given up and the story revolves round how the survivors managed to exist for 71 days until their rescue. The victims used their Catholic faith to help them through this but an obvious conflict arose when their only chance of survival was to eat the flesh of their dead companions. Read deals with this situation realistically and sensitively, sometimes lifting the situation with brief flashes of ironic humour. He was awarded the Thomas More Medal for distinguished contribution to Catholic literature for this novel.
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