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University Degree: Jonathan Swift
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Another literary device that was employed was the use of macaronic verse. Macaronic verse is language consisting of a mixture of words containing of two or more languages. Macaronic doggerel is used frequently throughout the poem, this is shown in line 58, '"que pensez-voz, Parrot? What meneth this besynes?"' This is effective use of satire to comment on John Skelton's period because he wrote Speke Parott to mock Thomas Cardinal Wolsey and Wolsey spoke a number of languages, therefore the parrot is declaring that despite understanding the myriad languages, Wolsey was unwise and ridiculous.
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However Swift uses the Houyhnhnms, also, to express underlying human flaws by hinting at faults in the Houyhnhnms themselves. The Houyhnhnms are portrayed mainly as a perfect race to establish the extremities of human behaviour and that of their society. Swift makes no hesitation in convincing the reader of the Houyhnhnms worth, "The word Houyhnhnm, in their tongue, signifies a horse; and in it's etymology, the perfection of nature."2 Swift not only suggests the ideal race but names them this too, he has stated perfection which enables him to compare them to humans from the beginning of the book rather than build a character of perfection, therefore allowing him to concentrate on the satirical elements.
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But things change when Gulliver is convicted of treason for putting out a fire in the royal palace with his urine and is condemned to be shot in the eyes with poisoned arrows. The emperor eventually pardons him and he goes to Blefuscu, where he is able to repair a boat he finds and set sail for England. After staying in England with his wife and family for two months, Gulliver undertakes his next sea voyage, which takes him to a land of giants called Brobdingnag.
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The transformation that did however occur can be seen as the transformation of traditional Irish attitudes towards it. According to Tim Pat Coogan, the pattern of Irish emigration began in the sixteenth Century. 4 The invasion of Ireland under Elizabeth I, and the attempt to spread the Anglican Reformation, may be said to have started Catholic Irish emigration.5 Wars in Ireland, during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries saw waves of emigration from Ireland to Catholic Spain, Portugal and France. In addition, Cromwell transported several thousands from Ireland to Virginia and the West Indies. Despite this, it wasn't until the early eighteenth century that emigration became common practice.
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The hunt for the missing plane was given up and the story revolves round how the survivors managed to exist for 71 days until their rescue. The victims used their Catholic faith to help them through this but an obvious conflict arose when their only chance of survival was to eat the flesh of their dead companions. Read deals with this situation realistically and sensitively, sometimes lifting the situation with brief flashes of ironic humour. He was awarded the Thomas More Medal for distinguished contribution to Catholic literature for this novel.
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