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  • Marked by Teachers essays 2
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  1. Linux memory management. Linux uses demand paging where the virtual pages are only loaded into physical memory when needed by the process. Swapping occurs when a process needs to bring data from the virtual memory to the physical memory,

    Each of these pages has a page frame number (PFN). Linux uses demand paging where the virtual pages are only loaded into physical memory when needed by the process. Swapping occurs when a process needs to bring data from the virtual memory to the physical memory, if there is no space available an old page is swapped out of memory to bring in the new one. Linux the Least Recently Used (LRU) technique to efficiently choose pages which are to be removed from the system.

    • Word count: 694
  2. IT Security. In this practical we focus on digital signing based on RSA and ElGamal. We also look at the Digital Signature Standard and the use of hashing when signing.

    Determine if Bob should accept the signed message as valid. Solution. Bob checks by computing 5444 (mod 5023) = 4678 and also ybbg (mod p) =3796229422943740 = 728. So no, Bob should not accept the message as being validly signed by Alice. C. The questions in this section deal with attacking the El Gamal scheme. 1. In this case, Oscar, the attacker, uses Alice's scheme set-up parameters p = 5023, a = 5 and y = 5a = 3796. Oscar picks random , r1 = 205 and r2 = 1021.

    • Word count: 973
  3. Critique: Why Don't we encrypt email?

    And for the most part, it is. There are many concepts that Farrell ploughs through to try and explain to the reader, many of which don't help in answering the question posed in the title. One example of this would be Farrell's divergence to explaining the two MUA integrated protocols, S/MIME and OpenPGP, and how these have not been incorporated mainstream MUA program operations. He doesn't entirely describe why the protocols "remain unused" (though he partly answers this under the following section), but how "these protocols are deployed" (Farrell 2009, p.83).

    • Word count: 905
  4. Computers

    • Word count: 400
  5. Testing 123

    Hyperlink reference not valid.. It normally takes us less than 24 hours to process your submission. 399 Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. buys a one month subscription to TSR. As a TSR subscriber you can change the colour of your username, see who gave you rep, have a large avatar, hang-out in the top secret Back Room, as well as getting a Error!

  6. Laser Printer

    A laser printer is a high-speed, high-quality nonimpact printer. Laser printer are available in both black-and-white and colour models. Figure 1 Laser printers are available in both black-and-white and colour models. The objective of this article is to give more knowledge about the functions of laser printers. Details and specifications of these printers will also be provided. Furthermore, it also shows the benefits and disadvantages of this kind of printer, and help users to choose a printer to purchase. 2. Specification Of Laser Printers Laser printers print text and graphics in high-quality resolutions, usually 1200 dpi for black-and-white printers and up to 2400 dpi for colour printers.

    • Word count: 545
  7. site survey

    Experiment A: Chanalyzer After inserting the 'dongle' in the USB port and running the Chanalyzer u will be able to see several access points and channels which match with those found using Netstumbler. Access Points and Channels as seen in Network stumbler Chanalyzer provides three different views to guide us manage issues with Wi-Fi networks: * Spectral View: depicts bandwidth use over time with a graph that plots the time period chosen against the range of frequencies, with each point colour-coded where red is high and blue is low.

    • Word count: 812
  8. NetStumbler or Network Stumbler is a Windows tool that facilitates discovery of Wireless local area networks using the 802.11b, 802.11a and 802.11g Wireless LAN standards

    A site survey typically includes finding out what existing items (microwave ovens, cordless phones, radio hams) are using the radio frequencies as the wireless LAN. Before installing a wireless LAN a survey should be done and after installation some subsequent surveys should be performed. Hardware such as an RF spectrum analyzer is generally used for a full site survey, but Netstumbler can also be for surveying a site partially. Turn the Auto Reconfigure on, to ensure that as many wireless LANs as possible are detected.

    • Word count: 844
  9. Expert System

    hostile environments * there are considerable advantages in reaching an accurate answer quickly http://library.thinkquest.org/11534/expert.htm How are they different from a conventionally coded system? Expert systems are differ from conventionally coded system because expert system can do lot of things then a normal conventionally coded system. Also a expert system are able to perform more than one tasks at a time but the conventionally coded system does not allow to perform that way they are just using a basic programming language. Describe the architecture/Design of a typical Expert System 2) http://www.cee.hw.ac.uk/~alison/ai3notes/subsection2_5_2_1.html The above diagram shows the importance of a rule base system.

    • Word count: 659
  10. Asynchronous And Synchronous Communication

    Asynchronous data transmission is fine if the volume of data to be transferred is low. However, owing to the high overhead incurred, transferring large volume of data asynchronously is very slow. Also the lack of timing information sent with data the data restricts asynchronously transmission to low data rates. Asynchronous character representation Star bit 1 bit 7-bit ASCII character Parity bit 1 bit Stop bit 1 bit Synchronous Communication Synchronous data transmission is used to overcome these limitations. With synchronous transmission, rather than sending individual characters, a block of characters is sent.

    • Word count: 801
  11. Code model and the inferential model

    Example: Mary is angry with Peter and she doesn't want to talk to him. When he tries to engage her in conversation, she might: 1. stare ostentatiously at the ceiling. 2. open a newspaper and start to read it. 3. look angrily at Peter and clamp her mouth shut. 4. look angrily at Peter, put a finger to her lips and whisper `Shh`. 5. say `I m deaf and dumb`. 6. say `I won't talk to you`. * What do Mary's actions communicate to Peter? * Which, if any, of Mary's actions encode some part of her meaning?

    • Word count: 914
  12. The hospital today is striving to achieve the best handling of patients' historical records as well as the common problem how to provide the best medical care to thousands of patients that receive care from multiple physicians

    Other problems are as followings: * Physicians and staff have to wait for the delivery of patient's record. * The hospital operated with paper only. Dictated documents and lab results often took weeks to reach the patient's chart. * The paper filing process was not conductive to ensure that most recent information was available. * Many of historical data regarding to service involved can be lost. * The work flow resulted in manual process lead to frequent inefficiencies, such as delays in returning patient phone calls , scheduling appointed to re-diagnose or follow up their symptom.

    • Word count: 738
  13. INFORMATION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT - questions and answers

    This wastes space and makes updating more time-consuming. A database system minimises these effects. Data independence is another benefit of the database approach. In short, data independence means that the data is held in such a way that changes to the structure of the database do not affect any of the programs used to access the data. Other advantages that organizing information in a database brings are integrity of data and greater security of data. With a database management system (DBMS), users are provided with the ability to specify constraints on data such as making a field entry essential or using a validation routine.

    • Word count: 946
  14. CPU scheduling deals with the issue of deciding which of the processes in the ready queue is to be allocated the CPU. Many different scheduling algorithms exist and these are the most important ones:

    � Response time: Measures the time from the submission of a request until the first response is produced. SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS: CPU scheduling deals with the issue of deciding which of the processes in the ready queue is to be allocated the CPU. Many different scheduling algorithms exist and these are the most important ones: First Come First served (FCFS): This is the simplest scheduling algorithm, where the process that requests the CPU first is allocated the CPU first; it generates an average waiting time that varies significantly according to the CPU burst times. But it produces a "convoy effect", where all the other processes wait for the one big process to get off the CPU.

    • Word count: 822
  15. Microsoft Access is a relational database management system (DBMS). At the most basic level, a DBMS

    However, this ease of use can be misleading. This sort of developer is often an office worker with little or no training in application or data design. Because Access makes it possible even for such developers to create usable systems, many are misled into thinking that the tool itself is limited to such applications. 2. The tasks/process, it is specifically designed for. Professional application developers use Access for rapid application development, especially for the creation of prototypes and standalone applications that serve as tools for on-the-road salesmen. Access does not scale well if data access is via a network, so applications that are used by more than a

    • Word count: 972
  16. "Heuristic evaluation is an essential element of systems' development".

    Around 5 evaluators can usually discover 75% of a systems usability faults according to Nielsen (2003). Abowd (1994) describes heuristic evaluation as a "design time evaluation technique", as it is easier to fix many problems with a system at the design stage. In relation to the statement "heuristic evaluation is an essential element of systems' development" and its relevance, it is best to first look at the benefits of using a heuristic evaluation. UsabilityNet (2003) outlines the five following benefits of this technique: 1. The method provides quick and relatively cheap feedback to designers. The results generate good ideas for improving the user interface.

    • Word count: 953
  17. This report focuses on how the OSI (Open System Interconnection) and TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) compare and contrast.

    Main Body: Both TCP/IP and OSI relate to the networking system divided into layers. Each layer performs a certain function, interacting directly only with the layer beneath or above it. The laying of both models is the following: OSI TCP/IP Application (Layer 7) Application Presentation (Layer 6) Session (Layer 5) Transport Transport (Layer 4) Network (Layer 3) Internet Data link (Layer 2) Network Access Layer Physical (Layer 1) Both models adhere to the same principle. Data is being passed from the application layer dawn the stack when it is being sent over the network (Physical Layer).

    • Word count: 953
  18. Software Development

    The main Computer (CUSSBASE) has to keep record of every cardholder's identity. The CUSSENSEs have to be powerful enough to cover every possible area. For the moment, City University operates with a swipe-card and manual card check system. People who enter the buildings are asked to show their City University ID to a member of staff. To enter certain areas such as the computer labs, people have to swipe their card, and if their ID is valid, the door will unlock.

    • Word count: 895
  19. In order to reach the stage of the final Entity Related diagram (I shall call this the ERM) I had to go through quite a large amount of data and processes. The first process being normalization, done through the nine forms given to us

    To start with at this first stage I just introduced a name and a primary key. This is where I encountered the first main problem, what to use as a primary key? Some of the tables of data didn't have an obvious key, so where absolutely necessary I created my own for example, Order Number on the Order Form (see page two). From here the initial information can (normally) be broken down, for example figure one below is part of a normalization table (Ingredients Forecast, page one) showing an initial split from UNF to First Normal Form (FNF), (Blue=Name, violet=Primary Key and orange=Foreign Key)

    • Word count: 745
  20. Hybrid electoral systems the Additional Member System (AMS).

    It is a hybrid of the FPTP system and the Party List system. The operation of the AMS system Two key points which characterise the system: 1. Each voter casts two votes at the same time - one for a constituency MP and the other for a party. 2. There are two different types of MPs elected - constituency MPs and the 'additional members' (those elected using the party lists). The voter casts one vote for a constituency MP. This process is identical to the FPTP system as it operates on a simple majority basis.

    • Word count: 691
  21. Artificial Intelligence

    Science fiction writers came up with all kinds of machines like "The Terminator", which led people to believe that such machines were just round the corner. "2001: A space odyssey" that talked about the existence of such machines in the early 21st century. But when computer scientists actually got down to creating such machines, they realized the problem was much larger than they had imagined. Conventional computers find it very difficult to do basic things that people do. When we look at the picture of a Hyundai Accent or a Tata Indica, we have no trouble identifying it as a car.

    • Word count: 699
  22. What Was the Tsarist Political System? To What Extent Had It Changed By 1914?

    It can look as if the Tsar was more a dictator than a monarch. The other consequences of the Tsars hold on Russia were the failing and ineffective administration that eventually led to the Tsarist systems downfall. A centrally appointed bureaucracy ruled Russia itself. The size of Russia made a unitary system completely ineffective, for example on the Western borders were Polish Jews yet in the Far East were peoples of Oriental origin at Vladivostok. No centralised government could understand the needs of all these peoples at the same time. The actual size of the country itself also made administration difficult as messages took a long time to pass from border to border.

    • Word count: 997
  23. Snail Mail or E-mail?

    E-mail also has the advantage of being less expensive, for most people, than regular mail. Many people have access to e-mail for free through their work or school. And while some people may pay for e-mail through an online service, there is no increase in cost relative to the number of messages sent. It is the same price to send one message to one person as it is to send several messages to a hundred people. There is no question that e-mail is convenient. It allows us to send the same message to many people at the same time with little more effort than it takes to send a message to one person.

    • Word count: 873
  24. Presidentalism or parliamentarism: which system is better?

    Linz describes two main features of presidentalism: the first, "president's strong claim to democratic, even plebiscitarian, legitimacy" and "the second is his fixed term in office". The second argument is really seemed stronger to argue against presidentalism. Because, during four or five years until next elections the other political groups - "the losers" have not any opportunity to participate in executive power. Moreover, as Linz describes, in case of president's death or incapacity person who is not elected by direct popular vote or who has not elected by citizens can come to power.

    • Word count: 737
  25. Compression and Decompression for Multimedia Systems.

    If the machine that the converting does not have a math co processor it would take a very long time to complete a conversion, or in most cases be impossible to complete in real time. LPC is very sensitive to high frequencies and clipping caused by a microphone with an input level set to high, this is even more apparent when a person with a high frequency voice uses the compression as LPC removes a lot of the high frequency data, making their message (in the case of voice mail)

    • Word count: 870

"Computer science is no more about computers than astronomy is about telescopes."

-Edsger Dijkstra

If you're the kind of person that chooses a laptop based solely on the colour and shape, you can stop reading here. If, on the other hand, you've alwaysloved digging into the underlying mechanics of computers, trying your hand at writing software and replacing hardware, then a university degree in computer science could be an excellent choice for you.

To demonstrate full understanding of the course material, students of computer science will be expected to write papers. If you'd like to sharpen yourwriting skills, visit Marked by Teachers' collection of mathematical and computer science essays. Study from our teacher-annotated examples, and soon you'll be able to write as logically in English as you can in C++.

Computer science graduates usually go on to apply their skills directly to their careers, whether they find themselves withinbusiness, finance, government, academia or even the video games industry.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • This report focuses on how the OSI (Open System Interconnection) and TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) compare and contrast.

    "Conclusion: Because the OSI model was developed before the protocols were invented, it is not biased towards any of them. That makes it a general model. In contrast, the TCP/IP was just a description of already existing protocols. That makes it an applied suite for internetworking. It is relatively simple and reliable and available on virtually every hardware and operating system."

  • What Was the Tsarist Political System? To What Extent Had It Changed By 1914?

    "In conclusion it is clear that the Tsarist system was on a slippery slope. The Tsars knew from other countries experience that autocracy would crumble. I think that Alexander II tried to reform the system to bring the country up to date yet retain autocracy. However it could not happen as censorship made people uneducated and stopped the industry progressing. I think the Tsars after him tenuously held onto power by controlling the population in every aspect of life yet they tightened their grip so the country burst into revolution."

  • To what extent has the German electoral system shaped its party system and the development of the ma

    "In conclusion, then, the party system in Germany has been affected by many factors, including the role assigned to parties in the Basic Law, the role of the Federal Constitutional Court, sociology, and history, as well as the electoral system. It is difficult to see how any of these factors could be said to be pre-eminent, since they are intertwined to such a great extent, and it is also difficult to predict how the system will change in the future. The PDS, the remains of the old communist party in the GDR, is now in the Bundestag, and it is impossible to say how long they will stay there. Likewise the Greens. However, on the whole the history of the FRG is one of stable government, and this can be attributed to all of the factors noted above."

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