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Information systems development literature review. Since the 1960s Methodologies, Frameworks, Approaches and CASE tools have evolved providing more effective and efficient strategies intended for systems development.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Comparative Information Systems Development                                            Hayewood Barnett C05300856

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Contents

1.0INTRODUCTION

2.0 _        LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1Development Approaches

2.2Structured Methods

2.3Object-Oriented Approach

2.4Soft Systems Methodology

3.0LITERATURE REVIEW OF THE CASE TOOL

4.0 _        THE CHOSEN IS DEVELOPMENT APPROACH

5.0CONDUCTING THE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

6.0EVALUATION OF THE APPLICATION OF METHOD

7.0EVALUATION OF THE APPLICATION OF THE CASE

8.0CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

9.0REFERENCES

10.0 Bibliography

11.0 APPENDIX A

Appendix B: Process Model

Appendix C: Context Diagram

Appendix D: DFD

Appendix E: Entity Matrix Diagram

Appendix F: Logical Data Model

Appendix G Entity Life History

Appendix H Research Portfolio

1.0        INTRODUCTION

A methodology can be defined as a technique, utilised to collate information employing a sequential method to store data.  A framework can be defined as hypothetical outline influenced by a philosophical theory interpreted by the developer/developers, adapted to their scenario to implement a development. An approach can be defined as a Method, System or Framework used to implement a development.

Since the 1960’s Methodologies, Frameworks, Approaches and CASE tools have evolved providing more effective and efficient strategies intended for systems development.  During the evolutionary period which is still preceding today a shift within paradigms brought forth the ideas regarding Soft Systems Methodologies, which began to take into account the socio-technical, political and User involvement when developing systems.  This idea withdrew from structured approaches which were seen as inflexible and impractical to manage the developments within present dynamic organisations.

Methodologies are still currently being used within organisations, however companies are developing more tailored approaches to suit their companies.  This enables developers to respond quickly and efficiently within these dynamic environments.  Methodologies evidently present a controlled condition in which complex systems can be developed.          

2.0         LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1        Development Approaches

A choice of numerous development

...read more.

Middle

  • Requirements planning
  • User design
  • Construction phase
  • Cutover

JMRAD embraces the evolutionary and prototyping approach.

  • IE Methodology
  • JRP workshop
  • JAD workshop
  • Construction
  • Cutover

Organisation-Oriented

 (SSM)

SSM can be broken down into several stages

  • Stage 1&2 – Finding out
  • Stage 3 – Selection
  • Stage 4 – Model Building
  • Stage 5 – Comparison
  • Stage 6&7 – Recommendations for change and taking action

SSM provides a shift within paradigms where perspectives are concerned.  An Ethical, Political and Social approach is taken when developing business systems.

  • Rich picture diagrams
  • Conceptual Model

Methodology

Merise

Merise developed in the late 1970’s, prescriptivly details data and process elements within information systems development.  Including input from end-users, senior management and data processing experts. Conducting a process involving the Decision cycle, Life cycle and the Abstract cycle.

Merise was mostly used within Europe and Canada, established through a project embarked on by the French Ministry of Industry.  

  • Merise flow diagrams
  • Conceptual model
  • Conceptual processing model

Type

Methodology

Brief

Philosophy

Techniques

Framework

Multiview

Multiview presents a hybrid information system dvelopment process. Including the Techinical and Human elements of information systems development, combining ideas obtained from solid methodologies, for example IE and STRAIDS. Also influenced through by individuals such as Checkland and Mumford.  There are five stages to this methodology

  • Analysis of human activity
  • Analysis of information
  • Analysis of design of socio-technical aspects
  • Design of the hunam-computer interface
  • Design of technical aspects

Multiview explores information systems development providing a contingent flexible methodology, which takes into account the analysts abilities, also condition and constraints which analysts tackle.  

  • The Multiview framework
  • Socio-technical analysis and desogn

Framework

Information Engineering

IE developed in the late 1970’s to early 1980’s is a comprehensive framework dealing with all aspects of its life cycle. From employing this Framework this generates a project management mechanisum which produces quality systems efficietly.

IE aknowledges the fact that process development is essential to model a system correctly.  Therefor both end-users and management understand the construction of diagraming techniques enabling a thourough understanding of a system, increasing accurate creation of the necessary requirements.

...read more.

Conclusion

Conclusion:

While conducting this assignment a range of factual resources were identified to obtain information regarding methodologies utilized when developing Information Systems.  A variety of Methodologies, Frameworks, Approaches and CASE tools were researched including Structured Methodologies, O-O Methodologies and SSM.  It became evident that information written before the 21st century was somewhat harder to acquire that information written previously.  This was due to the fact that most of these Methodologies, Frameworks, Approaches and CASE tools were developed from  and after the 1960’s, when their prevalence was recognized within the world of computing and Information Systems Development.  

Since the 1960’s a number of methodologies have evolved further developing these Methodologies, Frameworks, Approaches and CASE tools to be more effective and efficient within today’s world.  During the evolutionary period which is still preceding today a shift within paradigms brought forth the ideas regarding SSM, which began to take into account the socio-technical, political and User involvement when developing systems.  This idea withdrew from structured approaches which were seen as inflexible and impractical to manage the developments within present dynamic organisations.

Within various literature often the author interchangeably used the termsMethodology, Approach and Framework.  This provides a misconception that all three are in fact defined equally.  This is simply not the case as distinctions have been conveyed.  A methodology can be defined as a technique utilized to collate information employing a sequential method to store data.  A framework can be defined as hypothetical outline influenced by a philosophical theory interpreted by the developer/developers, adapted to their scenario to implement a development. An approach can be defined as a Method, System or Framework used to implement a development.

Methodologies are still currently being used within organisations, however companies are developing more tailored approaches to suit their companies and users.  This enables developers to respond quickly and efficiently within these dynamic environments.  Methodologies present a controlled condition in which complex systems can be developed.          

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