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# University Degree: Statistics

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• Marked by Teachers essays 1
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1. ## Do House Prices Affect Homelessness in London?

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The figures also incorporate average prices and number of sales within Greater London by individual London Boroughs. Sales in this context are taken to mean the transfer of ownership for value of freehold and long leasehold residential properties, whether or not the purchase was supported by a mortgage. No weighting or adjustment was applied to the information collected to reflect any seasonal or other factors. The price data can be said to be actual unadjusted averages, drawn from the great majority of all residential sales completed during the last quarter of 2002. All types of accommodation have been included in the numbers, whether detached, semi-detached, terraced houses or flats or maisonettes were sold.

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2. ## Quantitive Methods - questions and answers

What is the 25th percentile for doctor visits for the previous week? 25th percentile = value at observation 0.25 � (n + 1) = value at observation 0.25 � 16 = 4th observation = 22 This means 25% of the distribution lies below 22 and 75% of the distribution lies above 22. 6. What is the 75th percentile for doctor visits for the previous week? 75th percentile = value at observation 0.75 � (n + 1) = value at observation 0.75 � 16 = 12th observation = 37 This means 25% of the distribution lies above 37 and 75% of the distribution lies above 37.

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3. ## Business Statistics. The aims of this report for AllRepairs mechanics are to systemectically review on the efficiency of repair staff towards assigned jobs and customers satisfaction levels towards the services provided through a series of statistic

experienced repaired staffs were assigned for jobs with lower difficulty level ( easy, standard ), while the more experienced assigned to undertake hard jobs * Jobs were completed mostly between 25 - 35 minutes * Time taken to undertake jobs increase with the associated difficulty level * There is a similar trend for the efficiency of repair staff towards the completion of easy or standard level of tasks, while for hard tasks, there is a significant upward trend of time taken for mechanics 4 compared to mechanics 1, 2 and 3 with gradually increase and the least of increase in time taken respectively.

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4. ## Dorfman, Robert (1943) essay 'The detection of defective members of large populations

In conjunction, Dorfman uses the analogy of discussing blood samples as one application of the quality control methodology. Ultimately, TDDMLP can be utilised in proving indirectly that undergoing shortcuts do not completely reduce quality, if and only if the analytical theory is supported by it. With Dorfman's main objective to identify defective individual members of a large populace in a less "expensive and tedious process", informs the reader that testing of combined samples can be beneficial in an economical way.

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5. ## Stochastic Applications of Actuarial Models with R coding

MATLAB was used to perform this procedure and plot the results in the below graphs. The code can be located in the Appendix 1.1 attached. The green, black, blue and red lines indicate the probability for default rating for a sovereign rated BBB, A, AA, AAA respectively at the beginning of 1995. It can be noted that the probability for default rating for sovereigns rated BBB, which is around 3.4*10-3 after 10 years, exceeds the probability of default ratings for sovereigns of other ratings by a significant amount over the 10 years.

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6. ## Denmark Investment

in the scatter plot. Since a maximum value of 1 indicates a perfect fit and a value closer to 0 indicates no apparent relationship, a value of 0.76 suggests a reasonably good fit. However, macroeconomic theory explains that there are several other important factors which can influence real GDP, such as interest rates and savings, which have not been included in the simple regression. This may engender autocorrelation, which is more likely to arise when utilising time series for regression analysis.

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7. ## Non-Response Bias

There are also those who relentlessly refuse to take part in surveys. Nonresponse is classified into unit and item nonresponse. Unit nonresponse appears when the sampling units in the selected sample do not participate in the survey. Item nonresponse arises when for some units who agree to participate information obtained is incomplete, because they refuse to answer specific questions, such as on their income (Korinek, Mistiaen et al. 2005). The response and nonresponse rates, as well as the associated bias, vary depending on the type of the survey such as, telephone survey, mail survey or personal interview.

• Word count: 1450
8. ## The Advantages and Disadvantages of Quota Sampling Compared to Random Sampling

The biggest case for it is that is incredibly cheap to carry out. Travel costs are much cheaper, as your objective is to satisfy your quota, of course this would be constrained by the control, i.e. if you have to sample 50 women, then you just need to sample the first 50 women you find, regardless of where they live, saving lots of time and money on travelling (Moser & Stuart, 1953). In random sampling methods, all the population needs to be listed first before you can use a random number generator to select your sample; this process is completely eliminated when using the quota sampling method.

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9. ## Quality analysis for AllRepairs mechanics

different experiences, thirdly I measure whether the customer satisfaction reaches the goal of the company and analyze which factors affect the satisfaction rate, last I put forward my conclusion and give some suggestions. Discussion and Analysis This part shows the entire research process. Figure 1 The Mechanic feature1 Figure 1 shows that workers with different experience share nearly the same amount of the jobs. Figure 2 The Difficulty feature Figure2 shows that nearly 60.8% of the repairing jobs are standard, 28% of the jobs are easy, and the hard jobs are the least, which account for 11.3%.

• Word count: 1446
10. ## Econometrics Ordinary Least Squares Coursework (year 2)

Error terms vs residuals. The error term - is the disturbance term of the PRF. It represents factors other than X that affect Y and is calculated as the difference between the actual data point and the estimated value of Y from the PRF. The residual is the difference between the actual value of Y and its fitted value: In most cases we cannot calculate the parameters for PRF, therefore we cannot calculate the error term, which is why the residual is used more often in empirical studies.

• Word count: 1468
11. ## Financial Ratios

The increase in 2009 means that gross profit was higher relative to sales revenue and that cost of sales was lower relative to sales revenue in 2009, than in 2008. 3) Sales Revenue per employee Labour is a very important resource, but more important to that is how well it is managed. This is one of the issues, which most businesses struggle with. Unsatisfied labour force simply means lower production, which may also affect the quality and reputation of the business.

• Word count: 2286
12. ## How to lie with statistics

Final argument is how important is to make correct assumptions also known as false or misleading presuppositions. The first argument is that: "there are several types of averages such as median, mode and mean, so averages hide a lot of information" . Even though in most of the cases arithmetic mean is used as an average, other two averages can be used as well. To prove the argument above, let's assume we are given a collection of values {1,2,3,4,20,20,20}. Then, arithmetic mean is the sum of all values from the set, divided by the number of values.

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13. ## Correlation and regression and time series analysis

The word possible is necessary here because it is not always like that. As we see in the appendix table that for example the company with the lowest number of sales, Ebro Puleva (2 billion), has more employees than Tate & Lyle (4.800 employees and 3.5 billion) while they have a bigger number of sales than Ebro Puleva. However, I suggest that there could be a correlation between the number of employees and the sales. Graph 1.1 shows this relationship: The graph illustrates the relationship between the number of sales and the number of employees is linear with the correlation coefficient of 0.922568.

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14. ## Analysing Cross-sectional Data

On the other hand we can see that the Vegetarian range was the less liked kind of food with only 3 votes (6%). People had the opportunity to choose one of the given options or if they preferred something that is not on the list to chose other and specify. This graph shows that the people were satisfied with the options and had no other types of food in mind. To see the rest of the statistics of this graph I refer you to look in the appendix 9.3, figure 1b page 15.

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15. ## Practical 3 on SPSS

100.0% 100.0% 100.0% % of Total 8.0% 60.0% 28.0% 4.0% 100.0% Looking at the cross tabulation, it shows that 12% of patients in anxiety level group have slept normally. The patients with no anxiety levels had 4% and the patients with mild anxiety had 8% and there were no moderate and severe anxiety levels The probability that a patient will have moderate anxiety levels are 7/25. Having 25 female patients who are and are not sleep normally. Looking at the clustered barchart, i can see that there are approximately 12.5 patients with mild anxiety levels who don't sleep normally, 7.5 patients with moderate anxiety levels, 1.5 with none or severe anxiety levels.

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16. ## A practical using SPSS

Pie chart - Here the pie chart shows that the European ethnic group is large compared to other ethnic groups. This a visual reference as it contains no quantitative data. The pie chart also makes it easier to see which ethnic group is which by different colours. iii) Bar Charts - This Bar chart shows that the European ethnic group is the highest than any other ethnic group. It shows quantitative data by showing percentages. 3. A quick overview of the ethnicity is the best way to show a presentation, whereas detailed information's is better for qualitative reasons. 4.

• Word count: 755
17. ## Titanic Stats

General equilibrium of the age (mean) is greater than the median, which means that the whole tendency of the age goes rightward, resulting in positive skewness (rightward skewed distribution). As we can see in bar chart below, there is a high frequency in ages 20 and 30, resulting in an asymmetry distribution. Age 80 in this case is an outlier; its value is too high with respect to the other ages. There was only one person who was 80, out of 1309 passengers. The kurtosis index is low (0.14) suggesting a hypo-normal (more flat) distribution relative to a normal distribution.

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18. ## How statistical interpretation can cause data to appear misleading

Interviewing, surveys or questionnaires and observations are the three main methods of collecting data for analysis. Although interviewing allows the respondents to talk about their own opinions, the reliability of the data is dependent upon the individual's responses (Gratton and Jones (e), 2004). Eggert (2007) notes that there is research to suggest that interviewing is one of the most unreliable techniques; this could be because the respondent may recall the information inadequately, have incorrect knowledge on the question in hand or may misinterpret the question. Another reason for interviewing to favour so low could be because the majority of people, including managers have not been trained efficiently in interviewing skills and may even add in a

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19. ## Quantitative Methods

is very close to the median (59.66), the points on the distribution appear approximately symmetrical. We can assume that the distribution is very close to a normal distribution. The standard deviation describes how the share prices cluster around the mean. In here, the standard deviation is relatively small which indicates that the share price is stable during this period. Kurtosis is "a measure of whether the data are peaked or flat relative to a normal distribution"1 and "is based on the differences around the mean raised to the fourth power."2 Because a normal distribution would have a kurtosis of zero, a negative kurtosis here indicates flatness of the distribution3.

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20. ## Dress code study. The method of random sampling in this investigation was cluster sampling. The population of our investigation was all ABC University female students. Since all ABC University female students stay in block 1, we took 20 students from thr

The questionnaire was as followed:- Hello! We are doing a survey for our Mathematics project. Your help of answering the following questions is appreciated. This survey is anonymous, so please answer honestly. Thank you very much! Gender: How many summons(es) have you received due to improper attire from June 2005 to June 2006? 0 5 1 6 2 7 3 8 4 9 Others:____________ Which type(s) of restrictions do you think should be abolished? (If you think none of these should be abolished, you may leave it blank.) Short shirt (does not cover bottom) Sleeves of shirt do not reach wrists Too tight pants Pants must be at least ankle length Our purpose of investigation

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21. ## Statistics Unit 3 IP

Now, we can determine the standard deviation. This is done by subtracting 4.972 from each rating and squaring the number. Then you add up all of the calculations and divide by one less than the number of variable used. Then you take the square root of that number, and you have your standard deviation.

• Word count: 606
22. ## Statistics Unit 1 IP

I have chosen to analyze the qualitative variable of gender and the quantitative variable of overall job satisfaction. Qualitative Variable - Gender Gender was chosen as my qualitative variable because gender is categorized in one of two categories: male or female. This qualitative variable was categorized as 1 for male and 2 for female. When setting up the frequency table, the gender column in the predetermined data set was copied into a separate Excel worksheet. Since there are two categories (1 and 2), the bin range was set at 1 and 2.

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23. ## Hypothesis method

For the above example the corresponding H0 would be that there has been no increase or decrease in the mean. Always the null hypothesis is tested, i.e., we want to either accept or reject the null hypothesis because we have information only for the null hypothesis. Types of Tests Tests of hypothesis can be carried out on one or two samples. One sample tests are used to test if the population parameter (?) is different from a specified value. Two sample tests are used to detect the difference between the parameters of two populations (?1 and ?2).

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24. ## &#1057;&#1090;&#1072;&#1090;&#1080;&#1089;&#1090;&#1080;&#1082;&#1072;

In 2006 a team of managers set in building the sales network, consisting of several fashionable stores in Moscow and regions. The first boutique was opened in last February and now they are planning to expand and open 15-40 more stores. Price policy, according to Sergej Plastinin, is simple: "We should be cheaper than Zara and more expensive than Jennifer". As for Kira, she mentioned in her interview that she is only a designer and her father deals with all the financial matters.

• Word count: 865
25. ## Factors predicting disclosure of chronic illness status in the workplace and general well-being for individuals with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Seventy-nine patients (71.8%) had worked full time and 31 had worked part time. The mean number of years since diagnosis of IBD was 9.4. Linear regression analyses were performed to assess the association between the 3 predictors and 2 criteria. Pearson correlation coefficients were then computed to evaluate the associations between the 2 criteria. These analyses will be described below. Statistical significance was set at p < .05. 1. Joint predictive effects of coping strategies on Illness Disclosure and General Well-being (Appendix 2)

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"Statistical thinking will one day be as necessary for efficient citizenship as the ability to read and write."

-H.G. Wells

All around you, data is being collected. Scientists collect data for their research, companies collect data for marketing purposes, and Google Street View cars roll down backstreets, collecting still more data. It can be hard to find a clear path through such a vast jungle of information. Luckily, we havestatisticians to guide us. If you want to be one of the chosen ones, cutting through the confusion to reveal the causality beneath, a university degree in statistics could be for you.

Well-written reports are an important part of success in a statistics degree, and will be especially critical if you go on to work in industry. If you want to improve your writing skills, try browsing Marked by Teachers' collection of student-submitted statistics papers. Studying the teacher-annotated examples will speed you along that learning curve until you're earning the marks you deserve.

Statistics graduates may take a higher degree in the same subject, or a related subject like mathematics; and go on to careers in areas including finance, insurance and business.

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