University Degree: Statistics essays
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129 University Degree Statistics essays
 Marked by Teachers essays 1

Do House Prices Affect Homelessness in London?
3 star(s)The figures also incorporate average prices and number of sales within Greater London by individual London Boroughs. Sales in this context are taken to mean the transfer of ownership for value of freehold and long leasehold residential properties, whether or not the purchase was supported by a mortgage. No weighting or adjustment was applied to the information collected to reflect any seasonal or other factors. The price data can be said to be actual unadjusted averages, drawn from the great majority of all residential sales completed during the last quarter of 2002. All types of accommodation have been included in the numbers, whether detached, semidetached, terraced houses or flats or maisonettes were sold.
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Quantitive Methods  questions and answers
What is the 25th percentile for doctor visits for the previous week? 25th percentile = value at observation 0.25 × (n + 1) = value at observation 0.25 × 16 = 4th observation = 22 This means 25% of the distribution lies below 22 and 75% of the distribution lies above 22. 6. What is the 75th percentile for doctor visits for the previous week? 75th percentile = value at observation 0.75 × (n + 1) = value at observation 0.75 × 16 = 12th observation = 37 This means 25% of the distribution lies above 37 and 75% of the distribution lies above 37.
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Business Statistics. The aims of this report for AllRepairs mechanics are to systemectically review on the efficiency of repair staff towards assigned jobs and customers satisfaction levels towards the services provided through a series of statistic
experienced repaired staffs were assigned for jobs with lower difficulty level ( easy, standard ), while the more experienced assigned to undertake hard jobs * Jobs were completed mostly between 25  35 minutes * Time taken to undertake jobs increase with the associated difficulty level * There is a similar trend for the efficiency of repair staff towards the completion of easy or standard level of tasks, while for hard tasks, there is a significant upward trend of time taken for mechanics 4 compared to mechanics 1, 2 and 3 with gradually increase and the least of increase in time taken respectively.
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Stochastic Models
MATLAB was used to perform this procedure and plot the results in the below graphs. The code can be located in the Appendix 1.1 attached. The green, black, blue and red lines indicate the probability for default rating for a sovereign rated BBB, A, AA, AAA respectively at the beginning of 1995. It can be noted that the probability for default rating for sovereigns rated BBB, which is around 3.4*103 after 10 years, exceeds the probability of default ratings for sovereigns of other ratings by a significant amount over the 10 years.
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Dorfman, Robert (1943) essay 'The detection of defective members of large populations
In conjunction, Dorfman uses the analogy of discussing blood samples as one application of the quality control methodology. Ultimately, TDDMLP can be utilised in proving indirectly that undergoing shortcuts do not completely reduce quality, if and only if the analytical theory is supported by it. With Dorfman's main objective to identify defective individual members of a large populace in a less "expensive and tedious process", informs the reader that testing of combined samples can be beneficial in an economical way.
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Stochastic Applications of Actuarial Models with R coding
MATLAB was used to perform this procedure and plot the results in the below graphs. The code can be located in the Appendix 1.1 attached. The green, black, blue and red lines indicate the probability for default rating for a sovereign rated BBB, A, AA, AAA respectively at the beginning of 1995. It can be noted that the probability for default rating for sovereigns rated BBB, which is around 3.4*103 after 10 years, exceeds the probability of default ratings for sovereigns of other ratings by a significant amount over the 10 years.
 Length: 3564 words

Denmark Investment
in the scatter plot. Since a maximum value of 1 indicates a perfect fit and a value closer to 0 indicates no apparent relationship, a value of 0.76 suggests a reasonably good fit. However, macroeconomic theory explains that there are several other important factors which can influence real GDP, such as interest rates and savings, which have not been included in the simple regression. This may engender autocorrelation, which is more likely to arise when utilising time series for regression analysis.
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NonResponse Bias
There are also those who relentlessly refuse to take part in surveys. Nonresponse is classified into unit and item nonresponse. Unit nonresponse appears when the sampling units in the selected sample do not participate in the survey. Item nonresponse arises when for some units who agree to participate information obtained is incomplete, because they refuse to answer specific questions, such as on their income (Korinek, Mistiaen et al. 2005). The response and nonresponse rates, as well as the associated bias, vary depending on the type of the survey such as, telephone survey, mail survey or personal interview.
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The Advantages and Disadvantages of Quota Sampling Compared to Random Sampling
The biggest case for it is that is incredibly cheap to carry out. Travel costs are much cheaper, as your objective is to satisfy your quota, of course this would be constrained by the control, i.e. if you have to sample 50 women, then you just need to sample the first 50 women you find, regardless of where they live, saving lots of time and money on travelling (Moser & Stuart, 1953). In random sampling methods, all the population needs to be listed first before you can use a random number generator to select your sample; this process is completely eliminated when using the quota sampling method.
 Length: 1341 words

Quality analysis for AllRepairs mechanics
different experiences, thirdly I measure whether the customer satisfaction reaches the goal of the company and analyze which factors affect the satisfaction rate, last I put forward my conclusion and give some suggestions. Discussion and Analysis This part shows the entire research process. Figure 1 The Mechanic feature1 Figure 1 shows that workers with different experience share nearly the same amount of the jobs. Figure 2 The Difficulty feature Figure2 shows that nearly 60.8% of the repairing jobs are standard, 28% of the jobs are easy, and the hard jobs are the least, which account for 11.3%.
 Length: 1446 words

Econometrics Ordinary Least Squares Coursework (year 2)
Error terms vs residuals. The error term  is the disturbance term of the PRF. It represents factors other than X that affect Y and is calculated as the difference between the actual data point and the estimated value of Y from the PRF. The residual is the difference between the actual value of Y and its fitted value: In most cases we cannot calculate the parameters for PRF, therefore we cannot calculate the error term, which is why the residual is used more often in empirical studies.
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Financial Ratios
The increase in 2009 means that gross profit was higher relative to sales revenue and that cost of sales was lower relative to sales revenue in 2009, than in 2008. 3) Sales Revenue per employee Labour is a very important resource, but more important to that is how well it is managed. This is one of the issues, which most businesses struggle with. Unsatisfied labour force simply means lower production, which may also affect the quality and reputation of the business.
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How to lie with statistics
Final argument is how important is to make correct assumptions also known as false or misleading presuppositions. The first argument is that: "there are several types of averages such as median, mode and mean, so averages hide a lot of information" . Even though in most of the cases arithmetic mean is used as an average, other two averages can be used as well. To prove the argument above, let's assume we are given a collection of values {1,2,3,4,20,20,20}. Then, arithmetic mean is the sum of all values from the set, divided by the number of values.
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Correlation and regression and time series analysis
The word possible is necessary here because it is not always like that. As we see in the appendix table that for example the company with the lowest number of sales, Ebro Puleva (2 billion), has more employees than Tate & Lyle (4.800 employees and 3.5 billion) while they have a bigger number of sales than Ebro Puleva. However, I suggest that there could be a correlation between the number of employees and the sales. Graph 1.1 shows this relationship: The graph illustrates the relationship between the number of sales and the number of employees is linear with the correlation coefficient of 0.922568.
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Analysing Crosssectional Data
On the other hand we can see that the Vegetarian range was the less liked kind of food with only 3 votes (6%). People had the opportunity to choose one of the given options or if they preferred something that is not on the list to chose other and specify. This graph shows that the people were satisfied with the options and had no other types of food in mind. To see the rest of the statistics of this graph I refer you to look in the appendix 9.3, figure 1b page 15.
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Practical 3 on SPSS
100.0% 100.0% 100.0% % of Total 8.0% 60.0% 28.0% 4.0% 100.0% Looking at the cross tabulation, it shows that 12% of patients in anxiety level group have slept normally. The patients with no anxiety levels had 4% and the patients with mild anxiety had 8% and there were no moderate and severe anxiety levels The probability that a patient will have moderate anxiety levels are 7/25. Having 25 female patients who are and are not sleep normally. Looking at the clustered barchart, i can see that there are approximately 12.5 patients with mild anxiety levels who don't sleep normally, 7.5 patients with moderate anxiety levels, 1.5 with none or severe anxiety levels.
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A practical using SPSS
Pie chart  Here the pie chart shows that the European ethnic group is large compared to other ethnic groups. This a visual reference as it contains no quantitative data. The pie chart also makes it easier to see which ethnic group is which by different colours. iii) Bar Charts  This Bar chart shows that the European ethnic group is the highest than any other ethnic group. It shows quantitative data by showing percentages. 3. A quick overview of the ethnicity is the best way to show a presentation, whereas detailed information's is better for qualitative reasons. 4.
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Titanic Stats
General equilibrium of the age (mean) is greater than the median, which means that the whole tendency of the age goes rightward, resulting in positive skewness (rightward skewed distribution). As we can see in bar chart below, there is a high frequency in ages 20 and 30, resulting in an asymmetry distribution. Age 80 in this case is an outlier; its value is too high with respect to the other ages. There was only one person who was 80, out of 1309 passengers. The kurtosis index is low (0.14) suggesting a hyponormal (more flat) distribution relative to a normal distribution.
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How statistical interpretation can cause data to appear misleading
Interviewing, surveys or questionnaires and observations are the three main methods of collecting data for analysis. Although interviewing allows the respondents to talk about their own opinions, the reliability of the data is dependent upon the individual's responses (Gratton and Jones (e), 2004). Eggert (2007) notes that there is research to suggest that interviewing is one of the most unreliable techniques; this could be because the respondent may recall the information inadequately, have incorrect knowledge on the question in hand or may misinterpret the question. Another reason for interviewing to favour so low could be because the majority of people, including managers have not been trained efficiently in interviewing skills and may even add in a
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Quantitative Methods
is very close to the median (59.66), the points on the distribution appear approximately symmetrical. We can assume that the distribution is very close to a normal distribution. The standard deviation describes how the share prices cluster around the mean. In here, the standard deviation is relatively small which indicates that the share price is stable during this period. Kurtosis is "a measure of whether the data are peaked or flat relative to a normal distribution"1 and "is based on the differences around the mean raised to the fourth power."2 Because a normal distribution would have a kurtosis of zero, a negative kurtosis here indicates flatness of the distribution3.
 Length: 1965 words

Dress code study. The method of random sampling in this investigation was cluster sampling. The population of our investigation was all ABC University female students. Since all ABC University female students stay in block 1, we took 20 students from thr
The questionnaire was as followed: Hello! We are doing a survey for our Mathematics project. Your help of answering the following questions is appreciated. This survey is anonymous, so please answer honestly. Thank you very much! Gender: How many summons(es) have you received due to improper attire from June 2005 to June 2006? 0 5 1 6 2 7 3 8 4 9 Others:____________ Which type(s) of restrictions do you think should be abolished? (If you think none of these should be abolished, you may leave it blank.) Short shirt (does not cover bottom) Sleeves of shirt do not reach wrists Too tight pants Pants must be at least ankle length Our purpose of investigation
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Statistics Unit 3 IP
Now, we can determine the standard deviation. This is done by subtracting 4.972 from each rating and squaring the number. Then you add up all of the calculations and divide by one less than the number of variable used. Then you take the square root of that number, and you have your standard deviation.
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Statistics Unit 1 IP
I have chosen to analyze the qualitative variable of gender and the quantitative variable of overall job satisfaction. Qualitative Variable  Gender Gender was chosen as my qualitative variable because gender is categorized in one of two categories: male or female. This qualitative variable was categorized as 1 for male and 2 for female. When setting up the frequency table, the gender column in the predetermined data set was copied into a separate Excel worksheet. Since there are two categories (1 and 2), the bin range was set at 1 and 2.
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Mayfield Satistics Coursework
data of Mayfield High School between the Years of 7 to 11 and this is due to the fact for a wider sampling range and sufficient and unbiased results and uses many sampling methods to make my assignment unique and unbiased. The total number of students in the school is 1183. Here is a Table that I have produced which contains the number of boys and girls in each year. Two Way Tables The Table Below is a two way table due to the fact there are two variables shown at the same time and helps view results and data conclusively.
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Hypothesis method
For the above example the corresponding H0 would be that there has been no increase or decrease in the mean. Always the null hypothesis is tested, i.e., we want to either accept or reject the null hypothesis because we have information only for the null hypothesis. Types of Tests Tests of hypothesis can be carried out on one or two samples. One sample tests are used to test if the population parameter (?) is different from a specified value. Two sample tests are used to detect the difference between the parameters of two populations (?1 and ?2).
 Length: 2456 words