• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The OSI Reference Model, in its simplest terms is a seven layered design designed to make software development, product evolution, modular engineering and multi vendor interoperability easier

Extracts from this document...



Developed by the International Standards Organisation (ISO) in the 1980s and often described simply as The Stack, The OSI Reference Model, in its simplest terms is a seven layered design designed to make software development, product evolution, modular engineering and multi vendor interoperability easier. This enables the solutions offered by one layer to be updated without adversely affecting the other layers thus making it easier for both application and hardware developers alike. By the time the OSI Reference Model had been fully developed The Defence Advanced Research Project Agency had continued to develop what has now become the de facto standard for the internet, the four layered TCP/IP Protocol Stack. TCP/IP attempts to create a heterogeneous network with open protocols that are independent of operating system and architectural difference. TCP/IP protocols are available to everyone, and are developed and changed by consensus. Everyone is free to develop products to meet these open protocol specifications.

The Department of  Defences development of The TCP/IP Protocol Stack halted further development of the OSI Reference Model and indeed other vendors such as Netware, AppleTalk, Xerox and 3com developed there own standards. Although based on the OSI Reference Model, the concepts of protocol hierarchy are somewhat different.

This report will focus on the different protocol layers and their functions within the OSI Reference Model and the TCP/IP Protocol Stack, some comparisons with other vendor specific stacks will also be made.


...read more.


), are usually delivered to other systems and often involving complex programmes that in turn act as a front end to a variety of services.  


Sometimes referred to as "connection-oriented" this layer is the first one that offers connector functions to both a layer above and a layer below. This layer takes information provided by the application layer making sure that it is in a format that other architectures (i.e. Apple Mac) can read. This layer is also responsible for encoding, encrypting and compression. Layer 6 has to make some assumptions in order to perform its task. The first is that a route exists to the other machine. The second is that all underlying functions needed to establish that connection are available in the lower layers. If they are not, Layer 6 does not attempt to fix things by itself; it simply fails.


Maintains end to end communication sessions of the logical link between users. Such function involves a session, which may in turn support one or more presentation spaces above it and one or more applications above that. The session layer is also responsible for reporting upper layer errors.


The workhorse of the stack, and the part that most people think of first when they consider networking operations. Maintains the flow of data from source to destination. Provides error checking and recovery of data between the devices,  The transport layer can also sequence and acknowledge data requests.

In the TCP/IP Model, The Transport layer (also known as the Host-to-Host Transport layer)

...read more.


                                                                        Andrew S. Patrick

The OSI model plays an important role in standardizing communications between disparate systems. Were it not for the standards and specifications originally outlined within in the OSI model, linking Apple, Novell and other systems would certainly prove much more challenging.


Book reference

CISCO Press (2003), Internetworking Technologies Handbook, 4th Edition

Microsoft Press (2000), Windows 2000 Resource Kit, 1st Edition.

WWW   documents

Patrick, Andrew (2004), A human factors extension of the seven layer OSI Reference Model. Available from: http://www.andrewpatrick.ca/OSI/10layer.html

Drabik, John (2003), Comm’s Design. The seven faces of the OSI reference model parts 1 and 2 available from: www.commsdesign.com/design_corner/OEG2003041

Foundation Degree


Net Fundamentals Assignment 1

Paul Lord

16th October 2005

Tutor:        Lin Coxall

        Net Fundamentals Assignment 1                 16th Oct 2005               Page

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Computer Science section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Computer Science essays

  1. Network Design

    File Server The main purpose of using a file server to keep the files in a centralized storage location is so that it can be access by the client computers. So Course Materials and other documents can be kept on the file server.

  2. Information systems development literature review. Since the 1960s Methodologies, Frameworks, Approaches and CASE ...

    Engineering IE developed in the late 1970's to early 1980's is a comprehensive framework dealing with all aspects of its life cycle. From employing this Framework this generates a project management mechanisum which produces quality systems efficietly. IE aknowledges the fact that process development is essential to model a system correctly.

  1. This paper will propose a testing strategy for Internet E-Commerce applications and assess its ...

    These inspections can be performed at any stage of development from the assessment of prototypes to the finished Web site, but, of course, the cost of fault correction increases the later the inspections take place. 7.7.2 Heuristics on Which to Base Inspections Inspections are guided by a set of rules or heuristics for good user-interface design.

  2. The purpose of this project is to discuss the issues associated with the deployment ...

    Formal methods usually begin with a problem statement; Checkland found that fixing the problem too early made investigators unlikely to see different, possibly more basic, problems. And the method itself restricted what could be found out; if we expect the organization to be describable by the interaction among a number

  1. Impact of Social Networking on e-business

    With platforms such as SNSs, organizations would be able to market their products to a large network of their potential customers. This helps create a strong business reputation about the organization. Improved customer satisfaction can also elevate the reputation of businesses since customers involved are more likely to recommend products and services to people within their network.

  2. The project explains various algorithms that are exercised to recognize the characters present on ...

    Using several built in features of this library, Three display windows were created that provided image results at several stages during simulation [4][5]. Open CV library functions are the most powerful tool that allows computers to see and make decision based on the data.

  1. My aim is to develop and provide a proposal to the Surgery of a ...

    (Computer sheet provided) 5.2.14 Non NHS services * Any requests for a particular type of letters or form is given to the receptionist staff who pass it on to the doctor for appropriate charge 5.2.15 Comments & Complaints * Any comments or complaints are made in writing to the practice

  2. Database projects in MS Access.

    You need to justify the use of a RDBMS by comparing Access with at least one other package. Compare and contrast different applications with reference to the Requirements Specification to identify a specific package to use. 1.2 Justification for Chosen Solution Based on the above explain why you have chosen Access.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work