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The OSI Reference Model, in its simplest terms is a seven layered design designed to make software development, product evolution, modular engineering and multi vendor interoperability easier
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Developed by the International Standards Organisation (ISO) in the 1980s and often described simply as The Stack, The OSI Reference Model, in its simplest terms is a seven layered design designed to make software development, product evolution, modular engineering and multi vendor interoperability easier. This enables the solutions offered by one layer to be updated without adversely affecting the other layers thus making it easier for both application and hardware developers alike. By the time the OSI Reference Model had been fully developed The Defence Advanced Research Project Agency had continued to develop what has now become the de facto standard for the internet, the four layered TCP/IP Protocol Stack. TCP/IP attempts to create a heterogeneous network with open protocols that are independent of operating system and architectural difference. TCP/IP protocols are available to everyone, and are developed and changed by consensus. Everyone is free to develop products to meet these open protocol specifications.
The Department of Defences development of The TCP/IP Protocol Stack halted further development of the OSI Reference Model and indeed other vendors such as Netware, AppleTalk, Xerox and 3com developed there own standards. Although based on the OSI Reference Model, the concepts
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