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University Degree: Paper-based media studies
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While the spoken word has been a vital means of communication for much of human history, technological advances, such as printing, have given man the ability to record his thoughts for eternity in the form of written language.
A memorandum issued by Chou Linchin in the early twelfth century petitioned for suppression of tabloid news so that "the dignity of the government is upheld" (Lin 17). Confucian dogma was utilized by these governments as it allowed them control over what was being printed and released. Confucius believed in a freedom to choose only as long as it was a freedom to choose good, thus the public should only be allowed complete freedom if there is an absence of evil.
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The compendium of discourses which make up the media (print journalism, magazines, televisions, film, radio, Internet) involves a huge array of institutional values and embodied practices. In this essay, I will examine the linguistic performance of several celebrity articles which have been published during late 2001 and 2002 in some Australian woman's magazines, in terms of important aspects of the creation and interpretation of these texts. The three texts that I have chosen to analyse are all media representation of an Australian celebrity, Nicole Kidman, from Who Weekly and Woman's Day, which appeared in the aftermath of legal divorce between Nicole Kidman and Tom Cruise, an American film star.
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What then were the major factors that led to this mass unemployment in the inter-war period? The First World War obviously had a huge impact on the economy of not just Wales but in Britain as a whole. "The war marked the end of an era. It ushered in a period during which Britain was to find it increasingly more difficult to earn her living and for some parts of the country, such as the south Wales coalfield, this implied absolute economic decline...the county [Glamorgan] was faced with the harsh reality of substantial economic depression and large scale unemployment"2.
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Are The Media Racist? Discuss using appropriate examples with particular reference to Pilger's concept of 'unpeople'.
Britain is a multi-cultural society; after World War 2 until the passing of the 1961 Commonwealth Immigrants Act, anyone from the commonwealth had the right to settle in the UK. Even though the passing of the act slowed the level of immigration, a large number of both commonwealth and non-commonwealth people came to Britain in order to find work and set up home legally. However, despite having lived in Great Britain for over half a century, the media's representation of ethnic minority groups are often negatively stereotyped or completely absent from texts2.
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In her account of the decline of committed journalism, Virginia Berridge (1978) argues this was due to the commercialisation of the popular press and the launch of sensationalist papers which entertained rather than informed, and targeted popular sentiment over political commitment. MORE CAMPBELL DOUGLAS 2 Berridge demonstrates this process happened from within, when the News of the World and Lloyds Weekly tapped into the radical press in the 1840s with commercial intent. Indeed, the News of the World declared in its first issue: 'It is only by a very extensive circulation that the proprietors can be compensated for the outlay of a large capital in this novel and original undertaking.'
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It is of central interest to discover mutual influences and probable existant peculiarities of the American or European comic culture. We will focus on initial trends, and developments against the background of the Second World War and the postwar years, in order to show why the United States dominate the European comic market and how nevertheless typical European comics remained important. The European comic was influenced until the beginning of the twentieth century by the "form ... Rodolphe T�pffer gave his fanciful picture stories about Monsieur Cryptogame or Monsieur Jacob"1 (Fuchs, 1972, p.
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Select an aspect of the development of Magazines that you consider significant and evaluate your choice with appropriate examples.
The first newspaper to print photographic news pictures, was The Daily Mirror, in London, and The Daily Graphic, in New York, after a means of photomechanical relief printing, was developed in the 1890s. The 1920s saw a large increase in the number of newspapers and magazines using photographs, Fig 2 shows the type of image used in the Illustrated London News, by Herbert Ingram. The magazine started by showing images, which would provoke meaning, for example pictures from the war.
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DEFINING FEATURE It is really hard to define the term 'feature' in its journalistic context. One finds it difficult to differentiate a feature article from an editorial, a column, a news story, a work of fiction, or creative writing. Quite interestingly people talk about weather, but cant do any thing about it, journalists on the other hand do feature writing, but seldom talk about it___ or at least they seldom define what a feature is and how it should be written.2 A feature is an article giving background information on certain events or personalities in the news.
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One such policy where responses differ in one class, the peasants, was the switch to a capitalist structure for agriculture2 and giving the zamindars (rich peasants) full ownership of the land3. Prior to the British, land was seen as a community commodity shared between the three classes of peasants, the rich, middle and poor4. This interdependence led to peace during the Mughal period.5 However, when the view of land changed, the zamindars were free to manipulate the poor peasants working under them.
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Perhaps the animadversions have grown from the popular press' lack of seriousness, the deficiency of neutral, thorough and pointful coverage of what are deemed 'important' issues. Often, tabloid press coverage can, by its omission of facts and sensationalistic reporting, be misleading to the reader - a factor which seems to warrant criticism. This was evident in the Sun's coverage of the 20 April 1999 events in Serbia when a civilian convoy was gunned down by Nato troops - this is a fact and was admitted by Nato before the publication of the article: SERB MONSTERS SHOT REFUGEES THEN BLAMED US "A Nato commander insisted yesterday that Serbs slaughtered Kosovan refugees in a convoy massacre blamed on the Alliance...
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The media did build up and as the war became progressively more serious, journalists were sent out in increasing numbers. I believe it would be fair to say that media presence in Vietnam itself increased approximately in proportion to the military presence. The media back in the US were also reporting on the war and their stories also included the increase in anti-war sentiment. These stories included the 'Students for a Democratic Society' rally in 1965 and the Washington D.C.
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This resulted in the creation of policies such as 'Black Codes', which limited the freedom of blacks. Furthermore, many authoritarian whites were unable to contend with blacks having equal status. As a consequence groups such as the Ku Klux Klan were formed which saw a 'wave of violence rage almost unchecked in large parts of the post war South'2. These factors combined, Reconstruction not only meant a time of increased rights and opportunities, but also a time of great frustration, and often great fear.
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Newspaper Analysis - I am basing my analysis on The Sun and The Guardian both from Thursday 15th February 2001.
Guardian on Thursday 15th February 2001 - 117,216cm� Category Area cm� Area % Celebrity 10110 8.6 Politics 3888 3.3 Health 4915 4.1 American News 1339 1.1 Banners/Contents 3140 2.6 General/Human interest 8610 7.3 Adverts 35045 29.8 Sport 6.7 6.7 Cartoons/Cross Words/Problem pages etc. 1444 1.2 World News 8406 7.1 Technology/Science News 11014 9.3 Home News 4317 3.6 Crime 2048 1.7 Royalty 336 0.2 Fasion 495 0.4 Money 11059 9.4 All measurements to the nearest cm. No. of pictures C P S O Child, White, Female 1 1 Young, White, Female 16 5 1 9 Middle, White, Female 6 3 1
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The biggest difference between cultural industries or the media and other industries, is that while conventional industries produce goods that are tangible, media industries produce goods that are both tangible as well as intangible.
A lot of money generated by these different industries goes back into advertising. Media industries like traditional ones also have a largely triangular structure of ownership and power, in that there is usually one person or a few people owning a particular industry. This top-down structure has quite a substantial ripple on media industries. Critics believe that while owners of traditional industries are purely concerned by profit, media owners are also concerned about ideology, and promoting their agenda's. In Post Cold War 1990, There was a rise in a global commercial media system which is closely linked to the rise of a significantly and more integrated global capitalist economic system.
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Can anything operated on a commercial basis ever report any views which differ from the generally accepted ones? In reporting on politics, is the media being influenced by the interests of its owners?' I will primarily concentrate on newspapers, because, in my opinion, that is the medium which has gone through the greatest changes and also one that may face even more obstacles in the future. In the century which has past since the first tabloids came on the market, the layout and contents of the papers have changed dramatically. This is, in some ways, due to the competition encountered from the other media, like television and radio, but also due to the fact that in this period, the survival of a newspaper has become dependent upon advertising.
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In this respect, if the audience is politically conservative then the media will have to respond to this. A newspaper, for example, that insists upon representing left wing viewpoints cannot expect to survive in the marketplace if the potential audience does not agree with such views (or vice versa). According to pluralists, the main sources of media bias come not from the ideological beliefs of owners, but simply from technical constraints imposed upon various media. For example newspapers, by their very nature, have to deal with events that happen over a relatively short space of time. Television also, because of the relatively limited time available has to present words and images in a highly simplified, shorthand form that keys into the attitudes and levels of understanding of an audience.
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As a result, the media is a necessary instrument in political communication. Communication has evolved as a direct result of technology. There has been an explosion in the number of news outlets available to distribute the information. The twentieth century saw a proliferation of telephones, faxes, computer modems (that spawned the Internet), electronic mail, and network/cable/satellite television that gave birth to round-the-clock news stations like CNN. This does not include the "old-fashioned" means such as radio and print. This rapid evolution allows for an idea to be expressed in a matter of seconds, to an audience that vastly outnumbers the audiences of the past.
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She also goes through the struggles and hardships some societies of native women had to go through. In the book American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492, by Russell Thornton (University of Oklahoma Press, 1987) native women are scarcely mentioned. Thornton discusses women very briefly and is more interested in the native society as a whole. Women are mentioned in areas of the book containing fertility declines, the Cheyenne flight in which women and children were brutally murdered, the 1870 Ghost Dance, health care, and intermarriage.
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George Boyce, a revisionist, even commented that the British press with "its head in politics and its feet in commerce" had turned the fourth estate into a sheer "myth"4 This paper will attempt to argue that in this current age, the press with all its powers, might be abused by press barons and become a threat to both British politics and its liberal democracy. Norman Angell once slammed the era of press barons as "the worst of all the menaces to modern democracy".5 When there is a concentration of press ownership in the case of Britain, the plight of democracy
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The relationships between east and west, white and black, colonised and coloniser took a particular form during the early nineteenth century which can be traced through certain aspects of the novel yet are constantly undermined by the ironic tone of Marlow's narrative function and therefore bring the importance of historical perspectives in analysing literature to light. In order to assess the extent to which historical context is relevant to "Heart of Darkness" the three main areas which must be addressed are the capacity for its power and insight to be contained solely within the text, the alignment and identification of
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Freedom of the press is essential to political liberty. Where man can not freely convey their thoughts to one another, no freedom is secure.
Freedom of the press is the foundation that democratic and just societies are built on. History Freedom of the press has been a disputed issue since the modern print press began in the 1400's. Rulers and church leaders restricted the writing and distribution of certain material even before there was a press. Since AD 400's the Roman Catholic Church has restricted material that it deemed to be contrary to the church teachings3. In those days, when everything was hand written books that were considered offensive would be burned or banned. This was one of the first restrictions to freedom of the press.
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As seen in the film Birth of a Nation, following Reconstruction, white males were still determined to gain control and limit the expressiveness and political freedoms of many black leaders. In the households, white males were determined to keep their women within the domestic sphere. This meant maintaining the long-term ideals that women were supposed to be chaste, pure beings with limited vocal and sexual freedoms. Through this white male desire to maintain domination over these innocent women and so-called "inferior races," it is easy to see the likely emergence of the two narratives Duggan examines.
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Ugly, sad, grey reality that the average passer-by fills wearily, becomes an excuse for Sulima remarkably interesting essays, which describe and interpret everyday life in the past ten years. It turns out that such an analysis can be a great key to the story of the world around us and ourselves. Sulima admits that everyday life is not beautiful. What aspect of beauty can be found in the gaudy architecture of cottages in share gardens or in the space of Warsaw tower block? However, despite its ugliness carries many meanings, you just have to take the trouble to read them.
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As it is mostly known, ?manga? is the Japanese translation for ?comics?. This book also deals primarily with manga in the printed media of course, not with Japanese ?anime2?. Schodt copes well in explaining general manga which have structured story lines (?story manga?), and his writings can be divided into four major sequences. First, the chapters ?Enter the Id? and ?Modern Manga at the End of the Milennium? contain statements which help to understand the world of manga as a whole. What are manga, exactly, and where did they come from? The author states (Schodt, 1996, p.
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The occurrences in this journey however hint at the larger journey of her life, that she has made so far and is still continuing. Having endured all the atrocities of the whites during the slave years, having seen the Civil war and so much more, everything around her is full of symbolism. The journey itself witch is never ending leaves Phoenix in a state of constant motion and struggle. Jason Martinez Martinez p. #2 English 102 Slaughter 6-25-12 She first appears as a stereotype of an old black woman, with her typical long dress, superstitions, and the habit of talking to herself (Bethea 2)
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