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University Degree: Paper-based media studies
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By comparing and contrasting issues from 1855 and 1899, this essay will seek to explain the changes and consistencies in terms of the historically significant events that surrounded the newspaper between 1855 and the turn of the century. Methodology The analysis of newspapers using diverse methods of investigations is a long established practice in the study of humanities (McQuail 1977). It is widely used in mass media research because it is an efficient and effective technique of analysing the content of media messages (Wimmer and Dominick 1983).
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Mandela was known for working and leading in the African National Congress (ANC) and enduring years in prison for his cause, therefore people had faith and respect for him and many looked at him almost as if he were family to them, thus gaining the nickname of grandfather to many. When addressing the nation, not only were people willing to listen intently, but they also truly believed he would follow through on his words and not make empty promises. His past actions helped prove him as a worthy candidate and instilled trust with in the black citizens of South Africa.
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This however, according to some, was undermined when, after September 11th it began broadcasting videos which saw Osama bin Laden attempting to justify his terrorist attacks upon the United States. Ever since, Donald Rumsfeld, the US Defence Secretary and many others have accused Al-Jazeera of "consistently lying" and "working in consort with terrorists". However can this really be seen as "consistently lying" or as objectivity? Showing both sides of the story and allowing America to see Osama Bin Ladens justifications, maybe leading to his whereabouts and showing the Iraqi people the true reason for the war, to hate their country's propagandists.
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The location of the murders attracted greater public attention than other areas of London, because of the press coverage and exaggeration, which made Whitechapel feared. Another reason could be that Whitechapel is a poor area and people didn't have anything to give, so what could Jack the ripper gain from murdering, this puzzled people making them more interested. The nature of the crimes also attracted more attention; all 5 women were killed by a slash from ear to ear. 3 of the five women had their skirts pulled up suggesting the murders were of a sexual nature and sex was taboo at that time.
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The majority of female Whitechapel residents were disrespected prostitutes and the East End became known as the home of the unemployed. The Ripper cases were seen as the first ever serial killer and so immediately attracted a lot of attention; during the 18th century serial murders were unheard of, no one had ever seen or heard about such violent and gruesome attacks so everyone wanted to know more. However, the main cause of so much attention towards the murderers was the press at the time.
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Control They had personal control over their papers, Northcliffe and Beaverbrook shaped the entire content, including their layout and also interfered in choice of picture; they used it to fight or organize political campaigns, not always in the interests of the conservative party. Press Baron always had the power and control with ruthlessness. They combined terror with generosity. The memoirs of some journalist are full of anecdotes about the unexpectedly gifts, holidays and salary increase to all the staff. All this stories are named like brave underling obtains his reward.
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These claims turned out to be untrue and Elton John sued the newspaper that printed this. This leads to the next argument, newspapers may write untrue statements and get away with it, thus leading to the public believing (technically) "lies". This could be potentially dangerous as altering public opinions can lead to 'Moral Panics'. A Moral Panic is a widespread public concern, usually fuelled by sensational media coverage, that an event or group is threatening society. In 1987, Cohen argued that the reaction of the media created what he called a moral panic. A moral panic exists when 'a condition, episode, person or group of persons emerges to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests'.
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Currie, David P. The Constitution in Congress: The Federalist Period 1789 -1801. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.
Dumbauld, Edward. The Declaration of Independence and What it Means Today. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1950 In this book the author presents the historical and political events and circumstances which accompanied the adoption of the Declaration of Independence and marked the end of British authority over the American Colonies,2 and analyzes the extend to which adoption of this document has influenced further growth and development of the United States. Dumbauld also compares the philosophy of American and English governments and as appendixes presents The Dunlap Broadside of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson's Preamble to Virginia Constitution Or Form of Government, English Bill of Rights and Virginia Bill of Rights.
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The news journalist's role differs from other media writers and presenters in purpose and what it strives to achieve. For example a broadcast journalist writing for a nightly news show will condense a story so that it lasts for generally around one or two minutes. Furthermore, a broadcast journalist has to have an ability to speak publicly and be able to think on their feet. So in comparison a news journalist writes far more about a story that what a television or radio presenter does and it does not necessarily have to have the public speaking skills.
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That total picture is our version of what we are and it both reflects what we think we are and influences what we think we should be. There is plenty of evidence provided today of this important role of the media...though we don't always understand exactly how that process works. Racial stereotyping and under-representation of the ethnic minorities are still too common in the British media, journalists have been told. Most days now there are stories about race in the national news.
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They provided Greer with a Philosophy to emphasize the attitudes and lifestyle she had already acquired in Melbourne. Instead of being like the group she had joined in Melbourne known as 'the Drift' who mainly referred to art, truth and beauty as their main ideology, the push 'talked about the truth and only truth, insisting that most of what we were exposed to during the day was ideology, which was a synonym for - or bullshit, as they called it.' (Wallace:1997:p87). Greer believed this group helped her realise what she wanted to achieve in life, she believed she was already an anarchist although she didn't know why.
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A member of the public may have a valid complaint against the press; however such a complaint may come without redress from the law. Alternatively, the individual may have certain protection under the law,
There was a need for press complaints regulatory as a result of the misbehaviour of the press. Once, every ten years, there have been attempts to regulate the press complaint procedures, in order to tighten up the activities of the industry. The first self-regulatory body of the press came in 1949. However, the press disliked the idea, its effectiveness was questioned and so they introduced a private members bill in 1953, which would impose control from outside the press. The press subsequently acted swiftly in response to this and set up the General Council of Press.
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More than two months after the earthquake and tsunami, one of the most poignant sights in Meulaboh, Indonesia, is that of people scanning lists of tsunami survivors, still hoping to find missing loved ones. They arrive with hope in front of notices posted outside Meulaboh General Hospital, but most leave without closure. In the wake of the tsunami the world woke to witness destruction unlike anything ever seen before. It is up to us to ensure that all is done to support those affected and reunite families.
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The connection between Levinas's philosophy and particularly his concept of 'the other' and it's link with journalism.
follow the standard rules which indicate that they must not obtain information of pictures through distortion or deception, and that documents or photographs should only be removed with permission of the owner. Deception, or going against these guidelines "can be justified only in the public interest and only when material cannot be obtained by any other means"2 Now must arise the question of what public interest is, which according to the PCC code in Karen Sanders's book 'Ethics and Journalism', comprises of "detecting of exposing crime or serious misdemeanour...protecting public health and safety...preventing the public from being misled by some
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Industries were failing, with factories and shops closing and a steady migration of people away from Manchester1. Like the Duke of Bridgwater before them, the local business men realised that the only way for Manchester to survive was to gain cheaper transport costs. It was felt at the time that Liverpool and the railway companies were parasitical on the Lancashire cotton industry by charging high transport rates. Oldham spinners for example, could buy French or German cotton, import it via Hull, and transport it via the railway over the Pennines and still save money instead of importing through Liverpool.
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This is a common standard of presentation I all newsletters. This newsletter has three columns, which start one cm under the main heading. The gutters between all three of the columns are the same exactly 1.3 cm. This only applies to the text and images in the columns. The text boxes over lap into the gutters between the columns. The heading has been centred to the middle of the top of the document about a cm above the three columns of the page. A textbox has been placed at the bottom of the newsletter it stretches across the right and the middle columns.
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Burroughs believed that the 'Control Machine' "has a voice of its own and can talk indirectly only through the words of others...speaking through comic strips...news items...advertisements...talking, above all, through names and numbers"2 The control machine operates only on the literate population. Burroughs stresses the importance of the disruption of reality (and cut-ups can be an aid to this), as Murphy indicates, it is the "literal realisation of art"3, a realisation which concurrently requires the destruction of art as a distinct group, as a mirror to the natural world and being.
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Claude McKay's "If We Must Die," considered by many to be the "inaugural address of the Harlem Renaissance," speaks to the traditional ideal of black masculinity
Women's suffrage was in its infancy and the literary world's regard for Black or ethnic literature was almost non-existent. The racial climate in America was gauged by a lynch-mob mentality and morally corrupt legislation. Black literature was a distant afterthought in literary circles, thus making the relevance of the Harlem Renaissance that much more important and its participants future literary giants. "If We Must Die" is, at face value, a product of its time, but more important its universality and protest speech will help to sustain its importance in the future of literary criticism. II. History of the Criticism of the Work There have been a number of different critical approaches to this particular poem.
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The introduction of printing in mid-fifteenth century Europe might have made little headway if Europe were not ripe for change". Discuss the factors that contributed to the success of the printing press.
Before Henry the 8th the bible was written in Latin which was unable to be read by most uneducated illiterates in Roman Catholic England. When Henry the 8th wanted a divorce, which was not allowed at the time, he abolished Catholicism so he could do so. This abolishment led to the bible being reproduced in English and its availability spread. This was around the time that Europe was heading for the renaissance. This renaissance played a big part in the printing press and this is when it really "took off".
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How can we account for the ubiquity of the celebrity in today's media? A celebrity is a person who is widely recognized and known about in a society.
Whatever form it is what they do culminates to produce an influential commodity culture. From this we can argue that the reason we have celebrities dominating our media are to create a market around the products they endorse and that we in turn buy. Celebrities appearing on commercials and merchandising products within media forms will result in vast amounts of money going to executives in the media businesses that are promoting the celebrities and also to the celebrities themselves. I would argue against this being the sole reason accounting for the ubiquity of celebrities though.
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As mentioned earlier, to explain how media texts create particular occasions of reading, it is important to understand how media texts might be said to 'work' in forms of representation. So, what is representation? According to Hall (1977: 61), "representation is the process by which members of a culture use language or a signifying system to produce meaning". This definition emphasises that physical objects or people do not have any fixed or true meaning in themselves. They only take on meaning and become objects of knowledge within discourse (Hall 1997: 45).
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Magazines create demographically identifiable communities and sell those communities to advertisers. It is difficult to measure a magazine's performance. Circulation, meaning how many copies in fact reach people, is one measure, but it is far from being precise (Sutherland, 2). Readership is also objectionable as it is unable to measure how many readers a copy lying around in a hair salon or hospital waiting room actually finds (2). Controlled-circulation magazines depend entirely on advertisements to keep them in business. In the last decade, regional (especially city, such as Toronto Life) and specialty magazines (eg, those dealing exclusively with fashion, travel, food)
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Investigate the extent to which bias in the British press conflicts with the objectivity we expect of good journalism
Newspapers today are characterised by an oligopoly1; Newspapers are now commercialised. Today, a major role of journalists is to not only inform, but to sell newspapers. This has changed the nature of journalism, particularly in tabloids, into "info-tainment". News has become sensationalised and "sexed up". Therefore, although bias exists, it can be said it does not really conflict with the objectivity the readership expect of good journalism, simply because they realise what they read is accurate to an extent, and bias is merely there to sensationalise a story to make it more exciting.
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He also stated that with competitive politics in the system, the situation would be "depicted as being unethical to Asian ideas of consensus and co-operation." This progressed to the notion of free press and why Asian leaders do not like the idea of a free press because it depicts the same idea of political and competitive pluralism - "a fractious, liberal democratic system that is not suited to the Asian approach to politics". In his book, former Solicitor General in Singapore, Francis Seow jabbed Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew's argument for Asian values by stating that the values are basically the same values that any civilised person in the world lives by.
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"Critical political economy is mainly concerned with the relationship between capitalist enterprise and social intervention... Importantly, it goes beyond technical issues of efficiency to engage with basic moral questions of justice, equity and public good."1 This approach attempts to provide grounds to argue whether the media is simply a business, based around consumers, or if the media is a service which emphasizes informing, educating and entertaining society. The mass media of today is becoming greatly manopolised in many countries across the globe.
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