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University Degree: Paper-based media studies
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Gradience is important when discussing whether certain nouns are more noun-like than others because there needs to be a sliding scale of change from the words that are the most noun-like to the words that are the least noun-like. Gradience is reliant upon a sound definition of the word class, in this case, nouns. The traditional definition of a noun is that it is a "naming word" or a word that denotes persons, places or things. James Hurford (1994:139-143) suggests that the most basic nouns represent physical objects.
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It is not just an interest in current affairs, but rather a curiosity that acknowledges everything but boundaries. It helps to have a mind that gallops and eyes that spin 360 degrees. Being nosy is handy too. Journalists aspire to become, as United States political columnist Walter Lippman puts it 'a fly on the wall.' As Kovach suggests, news journalists do more than keep us informed - news journalists enable us as citizens to have our voices heard in the chambers of power and allows us to monitor the sources of power that shape our lives. Breen suggests that reporting involves two main skills: gathering news and writing it (29).
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The third and final section is written from another characters point of view, this being the character of Mr Stevenson, this section runs through until the end of the article. In the first section, the introduction, the main points of the article are all summarized to give the reader an understanding about what the article is about and whether it interests them. This introduction introduces the article, the basic story and gives the reader a good impression of what it is about.
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His reporting suggests and underlines ideological values that impede objectivity either unwilling or unwittingly. His general claims are that, as a reporter he reports everything he sees happening in a war. In the case of the Iraq war, he is trying to show the reality behind the wars "This is just a scene from hell here. All the vehicles on fire. There are bodies burning around me, there are bodies lying around, there are bits of bodies on the ground" (Simpson: 2003: www.bbc.co.uk). But one can easily argue that the very fact that he chooses to be a war correspondent means that he will be subjective.
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A major difference between critical political economy and mainstream economics is that critical political economy is holistic, or in other words, it is concerned with wholes, rather than analysis or separation into parts. Critical political economy takes an encompassing view of the media, blurring the boundaries between social, cultural and political aspects of the media that other theories pride themselves on keeping strictly separate. To apply the holistic component of the critical political economy approach to news and current affairs, it could be asked for example, why some people choose different network broadcasters for news information, why some people choose
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If a journalist fails to attain an objective point of view, the journalist might be viewed as incompetent. According to Seib (1994:15), journalists are not doing their jobs correctly if their coverage is constricted by premeditated bias or even inadvertent lack of evenhandedness. We immediately assume that information given to us by the media is accurate and impartial, but the information given could be systematically preferred over another and it is important for citizens to be aware of this. To maintain objectivity journalists must avoid bias perspectives, they must not allow their cultural background and experiences to affect they way they view news or potential stories.
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the value of the differences between the so-called races of man'.3 Eliot was interested in Darwin's work in relation to descent, development and race, as socio-economic sexual selection of the 19th century British society that she herself encountered, and rejected. Eliot viewed nationhood as a pathway to the future; preservation of genetics alongside personal immortality through the survival and development for the race, the culture, and for mind.4 In Daniel Deronda Eliot explores the concepts of preserving a nationhood and identity whilst immersed in another, the Jewish in England.
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Coursework Assignment 1: Author Profile (Shani Mootoo) Shani MootooShani Mootoo was born in Dublin, Ireland in 1958 and raised in Trinidad. At age nineteen she migrated
Shani said that she gravitated toward visual arts most of her life. A victim of child abuse, she was told to never speak of it, so she found it safer to express herself using pictures instead of words and described her art as "trying to find out what the purpose of life is, wondering why certain things that happened to me as a child could be permitted to happen, and why the universe would allow such a child to survive...it's about what
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Using the example of Mods, How did different subcultures distinguish themselves in Britain during the 1960's? In the 1960's, young people questioned Britain and America's materialism and cultural and political norms,
It is a structure sharing the same ideas, attachments and solidarity. The interests, activities, membership, and status differ according to each one. They usually have a particular hangout or meeting place where they mark their territory. Conflict usually occurs when there are clashes with other gangs, although conflict can also occur within their own group. "The gang is an interstitial group originally formed spontaneously and then integrated through conflict. It is characterized by the following types of behaviour: meeting face to face, milling, movement through space as a unit, conflict and planning"3.
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McRobbie (1996) argues that magazines seek to "further consolidate and fix an otherwise more unstable sense of both self and gender" (in Curran 1996: 193), and so magazines seem to be central to society as they create a culture, a culture of femininity where a common experience of girlhood is shared. Bignell argues that the function of magazines is "to provide readers with a sense of community, comfort, and pride in this mythic feminine identity" (Bignell 1997: 61). As the magazine promotes a "feminine culture" and "(defines)
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This book collects widely over important issues that relate to the theory and practice of translation. The completely understanding of translation and translation theory are also reflected in the variety of papers in this present collection that contributes to the modern interest in translation studies. Holmes, J.S (1994) Translated! Papers on Literary Translation and Translation Studies. (Rodopi Press) The most attractive feature of this book is that the author of this book collected plenty of academic papers and essays about translation and translation studies together in a convenient form. Therefore, the learners of translation can take advantage from those useful works as much as possible.
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To what extent do the texts Heart of Darkness, Black Mischief and A Passage to India represent examples of colonial discourse?
Forster and Black Mischief by Evelyn Waugh. The first question one can ask when contemplating this essay is whether the natives depicted in the books are seen to benefit from the process of colonisation. Is the opinion of Marlow's aunt, (that the colonisers are "weaning those ignorant millions from their horrid ways"3) backed up by the representation of the places depicted in the books? If so this would indicate to a degree whether the texts could be construed as examples of colonial discourse.
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and has a daily circulation in excess of 424,000 and an estimated readership of 1 million. The paper also comes with a supplement four times a week and Metro Life on a Thursday which contains all the information concerning what is happening in London for the forthcoming week in relation to cinema, clubbing and the arts. The general readership is made up of commuters as the paper has its own newsstands set up around the capital as well as sellers at traffic lights and around train and underground stations. The content is generally specific to its audience as it regularly reports on London issues and prides itself on this and utilises it as a selling point.
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The long-term consequences of Watergate are agreed to be profound. Watergate undeniably boosted journalism to be a far more high profile profession than was previously thought, and proved undoubtedly the power in the press. Watergate had a deep impact on the practical conduct of American presidential politics and on the legislative activity of Congress. A number of laws were passed in the late 1970's which had traceable connection to Watergate, most notably the Ethics in Government Act (1978). Many commentators have also noted how, in the aftermath of Watergate, the conduct of American presidential politics altered in various ways, as actual and aspiring presidents (along with their teams of aides)
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Due to this they may find that the papers are talking down to them instead of to them. This problem, known as the discursive gap, is especially significant for the tabloid press, as their target audience is mainly made up of the working class. In order to deal with this, these papers adapt a style of writing and layout which can be perceived as closer to conversation. One rarely finds long pieces of unbroken text, rather they tend to change the typeface and the fonts so as to signify someone talking.
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"Media Making" is a text that deals with a wide variety of problems and issues raised in the modern day media. It is different from other texts due to its examination of major media as a whole instead of as newspapers, film, television, radio and magazines. "Media Making" approaches the transfer of information in a dynamic, though sometimes ordinary, way. The content is primarily formal, however it is organised in a well paragraphed easy to read manner and includes many examples that the audience can relate with.
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The media, which should properly inform the population and honestly present all details or at least both sides of a story, is controlled by trained members of the elite and used for means of propaganda. The reason for upholding such a democracy is the view that the mass of people is not intelligent enough to decide on important questions and thus to participate actively in policy and economy. As the specialised class naturally wants to uphold the belief in a properly working democracy, the bewildered herd, as Chomsky quotes, has to be tamed for their own sake.
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For example, when the population of the United Kingdom was 27 million in 1848, the circulation of The Times merely passed 30,000. This number is questionable because it did not take account of these same papers, which got passed around among working-class readers. However, when the paper became thicker from four to eight or even more pages, the proprietors still failed to pay attention to the majority in the society, namely, the working class. In other words, The Times merely targeted the elite.
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The layout and positioning are important as they reflect the attitude of the paper towards the crime. Within the text itself I will attempt to relate the paragraphs of the text to the guidelines that S.Chibnall1 theorised for the reporting of crime in journalism. The key aspects of these 'professional imperatives' are eight implicit guides that construct a news story, these are: 1. Immediacy (speed/the present) 2. Dramatisation (Drama and Action) 3. Personalisation (culture of the personality/celebrity) 4. Simplification (elimination of shades of grey) 5. Titillation (revealing the forbidden/voyeurism) 6. Conventionalism (hegemonic ideology) 7. Structured access (experts, power base, authority)
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These are two of the most important in semiotic analysis. Denotation and connotation refer to the first and second level of a meaning in a sign. Firstly we will discuss denotation. According to Dyer (1982, p 128) " The term denotation refers to the literal meaning of a sign; to what is 'objectively' present and easily recognised or identified." Denotation refers to what the advertisement displays; images, written text, technical and colour codes. To effectively analysis the denotative content of the Venus advertisement I have divided it into thirds.
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For example there is a lot of emphasis on girls that men of 16-30 would lust after. Nuts magazine places them in a context that men of this age could associate with, for example in issue 9, page 3 girl Michelle Marsh reviews the weeks sporting action, predicting the results of Football and Rugby matches, All the while posing provocatively using props such as football boots and rugby balls. The Daily Star newspaper often uses a similar style to this, as it gives men the impression that these women are not untouchable.
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The writing of history is never impartial; the authors would inevitably assert their interpretations of events in their writings.
The 'Mysterious' Author It is not clear whether Marrisa Champion is the author or compiler of the textbook. I deduced that she is the author based on the acknowledgements.2 There is no biography of her in the textbook; hence I did searches on the National University of Singapore Library online catalogue and on the Internet. However, I was not able to locate any other information about her. It seems that she has not published any other titles or journal articles before. In this light, I do have some reservations about her academic credentials. In order to clarify my doubts, I contacted the managing editor of the publisher, Ms Zuraidah Jaffar through the telephone.
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I started off at Woad Gate then went to Blue Gate where all the young ones were. "At the time I absolutely despised the media and to a degree I still do, even though I now edit Peace News. A lot of us who are still around remember how we were done over by the media and we learned the painful lesson of how the media misconstrued and misrepresented us with salacious, off-the-wall, negative coverage throughout the life of the camp.
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While the spoken word has been a vital means of communication for much of human history, technological advances, such as printing, have given man the ability to record his thoughts for eternity in the form of written language.
A memorandum issued by Chou Linchin in the early twelfth century petitioned for suppression of tabloid news so that "the dignity of the government is upheld" (Lin 17). Confucian dogma was utilized by these governments as it allowed them control over what was being printed and released. Confucius believed in a freedom to choose only as long as it was a freedom to choose good, thus the public should only be allowed complete freedom if there is an absence of evil.
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There is no privacy. The press picks up on all the mistakes, ready to expose them, and use them as a form of entertainment for the public. One word out of context can stick with you for the rest of your career. The United Kingdom is particular renowned for its, "Scandal stories," and tabloid newspapers. David Beckham has been under constant attack from the media for the past few years. In July 1999, his face was on the front cover of every newspaper in England, for the simple reason he cut all his hair off!
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