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University Degree: Television & Radio Studies
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Research Investigation To what extent does a music video follow the narrative set by the lyrics? The presentation of narrative within a music video can be influenced in various ways.
However, Claude Levi-Strauss2 observed that we make sense of the world, people and events through binary opposites e.g. good versus evil or peace versus war, which therefore could be a constant 'disruption' to the narrative structure which Todorov suggested. All forms of media use a narrative structure e.g. news reports, radio shows, films, plays etc. However one form of media which doesn't follow a direct narrative structure is that of music videos. Music videos tend to suggest a story rather than explain a story to the audience. This is also due to a video is often being 'cut between a narrative and performance of the song by the band'3 and therefore cannot 'embody complete narrative or convey finely wrought stories'4.
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This essay aims to address the role of the BBC in the past, at the beginning, and see how this contrasts with its position in our society today.
To safeguard its independence from commercial or political influence, it is funded by the licence fee and overseen by a board of directors" On January 1st 1927, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) took over the works of an amalgamation of companies which had initially formed the 4year old British Broadcasting Company. The charter of this new corporation gave definition to public service. Initially, according to Scannell & Cardiff (1991) the concept of public service was fixed onto "an initial pragmatic set of arrangements between the Post Office and the British radio industry to establish a broadcasting service that would create
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This essay will discuss the representation of crime in the media in relation to ethnic minorities. Several related cases will be used to make points, examples, analysed and evaluated in detail to attempt to examine this statement.
In many countries it is the third most time-absorbing activity after sleep and work. Not surprisingly, public opinion surveys regularly show that television is cited as by far the most important source of information about what is going on in the world, well above newspapers and radio. In the 60s, the media's representation of ethnic minorities became well known and caused riots in the USA. A few years later president Lyndon B. Johnson had created the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, this report concluded that "the overall treatment by the media of the Negro ghettos, community relations, racial attitudes,
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Canada also has a national network, the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network (APTN) which programs mainly from the First Nations. It is treated as a part of the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission Network. In the greater part of Canada, however, it is aired on Cable television only. The official national networks are CBC, APTN, Radio- Canada and TVA while TQS is considered a provincial network for Quebec. CTV and Global are legally considered to be television services but they operate as television networks. Most of these stations are owned by the network themselves but may have affiliates that are owned differently 2.
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'There is a general consensus among both academic and non-academic accounts of hip-hop that the style originated in the South Bronx area of New York during the early 1970's' (Bennett, 2000, p. 134). Rap music is something that's being done, where as hip hop is something that is being lived, therefore to understand the birth of rap we need to take a look at the South Bronx. The South Bronx was part of a notorious borough of New York City, marked by some of the worst levels of unemployment, dereliction and violent crime in America.
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Society originated due to the invention of oral communication, the first mode of communication. During this period, knowledge and the distribution of information occurred on a face-to-face bases. Information rested vastly on individuals, and such individuals ability to retain it and also apply it in the course of his/her life. Rhythmic or poetry is the best ways of recording and recalling stories or events.2 Also in this mode, there was a sense of space that divides the author from the receivers.
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As an overtly British advert, whiteness and central identities (Daniels, 1997) can be explored in this text due to the fact that although the dominant central identity of this society is white, masculine, European, the advert does not suggest this at all. It includes many other minority identities, therefore, one can explore the presentation and formation of these different identities and why whiteness doesn't dominate in this advert as expected. This text also addresses issues multiculturalism in Britain, therefore, diversification (Adorno, 1945)
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What has been the social, cultural, political and technological impact the TV programme Big Brother has had on us, the television viewer?
They perform tasks in order to win prizes and extend their shopping budget for the week. In previous years, the contestants were usually young, good-looking and charismatic, but as the show has grown in popularity, and therefore attracted a wider viewing demographic, they have gone for a mixture of people, old and young, good-looking and not so good-looking. The show makes celebrities out of members of the public. No other show, in the past, has made people over-night celebrities quite like "Big Brother".
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'Don't hate the media, become the media' Jello Biafra. Is the relationship between producers and consumers changing?
(McCaughey and Ayers, 2003, page 60) Essentially, that is what they are, independent journalists with a view of reporting things in a democratically political style. Indeed, Italy's IMC has the motto "Don't hate the media, become the media". Perhaps the most globally-renowned independent news organisation, Al-Jazeera, prides itself on its independence, and it being one of only a handful of independent Middle-Eastern news organisations. It gained notoriety when it broadcast a video statement from Osama Bin-Laden following the 2001 September 11th terrorist atrocities.
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Printing is largely accepted as the innovation that brought the second major social shift (the first one being the transition from oral to scribal culture, meaning an important change in information transfer and the accuracy of the information passed on to others). It had certainly been identified long before, but it is only in 1970's and 80's that it was academically studied and maid the object of a book. The impact of the printing press was quite comprehensively studied by Elizabeth Eisenstein with a first publication in 1979, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change and the master volume
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These channels are allowed to show advertising for a limited period of time on every hour of broadcasting. The fact that all of the above terrestrial channels now all have multiple channels is an important point to note in the new age of television. In the United Kingdom there are also several cable and satellite television options available which give access to hundreds of non terrestrial channels. These include Freeview, Virgin Media, BT Vision and Sky. An important aspect of television which has changed over the past decade or so is the increase in subscription to non terrestrial television services such as those mentioned above.
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However I believed this was the best way forward as it was the approach which I understood most clearly in my mind. Although most people will have seen the world famous, award-winning 'Sex and the City' at some point in their lives, I feel that it is important to provide a brief overview for those who do not know the basis of the show. The show, set in New York City, focuses on Carrie Bradshaw, a sex columnist for the fictitious newspaper the 'New York Star', and her three best friends Samantha Jones, Charlotte York and Miranda Hobbes.
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However, with such a service comes a price: the licence fee- the BBC's means of funding. The licence fee is currently �139.50 for a colour licence and a considerably lower �47.00 for a black and white (bbc.co.uk). "Almost all debates about the BBC tend to come down to debates about the licence fee, payment by every owner of a television set of a fee to be allowed to receive the broadest signals." (Tracey, 1998: 99). Despite the BBC's efforts to deliver highest quality services and its significant impact on society debatably right to the present day, whether the costs of the service outweigh the benefits is still largely under dispute.
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The Internal Revenue Service allows benefactors to file contributions to state-approved organizations as tax exemptions. The following types of charitable organizations are permitted under federal tax code: relief of the poor, the distressed, or the underprivileged; advancement of education or science; erection or maintenance of public buildings, monuments, or works; lessening the burdens of government; lessening of neighborhood tensions; elimination of prejudice and discrimination; defense of human and civil rights secured by law; and combating community deterioration and juvenile delinquency.
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To what extent can it be argued that situation comedies package existing norms and beliefs for audiences (Selby & Cowdery 1995)?
The way in which it can do this is that sitcoms play on stereotypes a lot and a stereotype, being what it is, is understood by the majority of the audience. Comedies rely on the beliefs of the audience and changes to cater for constantly altering accepted norms. Although exaggerated, there must be at least a portion of truth in a stereotype in order to have some currency. These stereotypes, if presented correctly can give the audience a sense of 'now', since they are constantly accommodating contemporary beliefs, which could be a reason for their popularity.
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However, there are many other elements that contribute greatly to the violent behaviour at schools such as the rather easy access to weapons, the major impact the media has on individuals, and the influence of schools, the community, and family environment. 1.4 Sources and Methods: This reports information is found by library research, with the help of books and articles provided by reliable resources. 2. Causes 2.1 Family factors: Parents must always monitor their kids and give them the needed attention in order for kids to feel that they can turn to their family for help and so that the kids can depend on them for guidance and support.
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The actors represent the two computing platforms, but they also represent their users. One interpretation is that we are being told that Mac users are easy-going, while PC users are professional. On the other hand, we might just as easily deduce that PC users simply have better jobs and are more affluent than Mac users. The presentation of two actors representing computer systems is a metaphor, and a highly original concept in this particular field of advertising. Lakoff and Johnson (1980, p.5)
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This may cause viewers to become desensitized by the amount of violence viewed on television. Because of this, people may develop a false assumption of the world based on the frequency of violence on television and various other media outlets. There are many theories and studies on how people model their behavior after violence viewed on television. Famous psychologist Albert Bandura proposed one of the most influential theories of media-related aggression. Bandura's social learning theory highlights the tendency of viewers to imitate violent acts on television.
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Compare and contrast two different 'reality TV' shows and their associated web sites, discuss how they provide a platform for avenues of communication, marketing and interactivity. How are the audiences crafted and understood for each of these shows?
to watch them react". Wells and Tibaldi (2002:189) explain that this kind of programming differs from earlier so-called "reality programming such as Weddings and RPA which followed more of a socio-documentary model". I have chosen possibly two of the most influential reality television programs of which to base a discussion of this genre: Survivor and Big Brother. These two programs are the templates for which many copycat formats strive to imitate. Both have a multitude of successful seasons under their prospective belts, indicating that these are formats that work.
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What is the relationship between TV and reality? Choose a specific TV show on which to focus, including some attention to concepts of liveness, flow and seriality.
However, the insurgence of reality television into everyday life has raised a question in audience's mind, 'what is real?' By applying Leisbet Van Zoonen's argument that there is no such ting as a delivered presence or truth in culture discourse, but inevitably a re- presence or representation (Van Zoonen 1995:319), the essay will argue that it is impossible to define whether reality television programs such as Big Brother adequately reflect reality but rather look at what is re- presented. Big Brother is just one example of a very successful reality TV show. Other good examples are Survivor, Jerry Springer, Australia Idol and I'm a Celebrity get me out of here.
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It examines the relationship between a man and a woman where sex is not a factor. In particular, I wanted to show the representations of homosexuals in sitcoms and how this issue is addressed in the dialogue. Conversational analysis is a unique form of qualitative research concerned with the analysis of "talk-in-interaction." According to Heritage and Hudson, "It's gives systematic insights into the ways in which members of society interact." (1984:1) Detailed descriptions of transcriptions are used as they provide a useful representation of what is said and how it is said. By making transcriptions, the researcher is able to attend to details that would escape the ordinary listener.
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Reith's moral view of broadcasting saw it as a precious national resource which he developed into an all-embracing service aiming to broadcast to the largest audience possible, whist maintaining high standards providing the best of everything and offering something for everyone. To achieve this Reith believed the BBC had to operate as a monopoly because if there was competition it would compromise quality of programmes in favour of high audience ratings, also the service would have to be independent of commercial influences such as advertisers, and the government whose involvement though unavoidable at times needed to be kept to a minimum.
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There was limited competition and limited opportunities for expansion by privately owned companies and very little competition for the BCNZ. This all changed in 1989 when the Broadcasting act came into force. This essay will show the approach that the Broadcasting act took and how it changed the face of New Zealand Broadcasting. It will then attempt to show that despite the radical changes that were undertaken, the act can still be only considered a partial success. The essay will touch on the problems that have arisen since the act was introduced, such as the quality over quantity issue that the act has created and how the world of commercial broadcasting has affected the act.
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Big Brother and its slant on how celebrity is constructed and represented in our contemporary culture.
book acted as a representation of the repressive idea that we had entered a popular realization of an all seeing state, that was invasive of individuals privacy. Winton Smith's ending epiphany was his applause of big brother saying "I love big brother,"9 yet in truth it was remembered as "a chilling prophecy of the complete destruction of self by the surveying state."10 Now however we find ourselves enthralled by the big brother that watches people in society do everyday mundane tasks on television.
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'The Golden Age of British Television'Discuss and account for this view of television in the 1960s and 1970s. Why is British terrestrial television said to be decline thereafter?
The television had been very precious to many people since a very beginning of its existence. Television was an expensive item and not everyone could afford to have one at home. Those who actually have the television at home really took care of it, not just because of the cost of it, but because of its overall value. Even nowadays some households, especially those owned by elderly people, 'treat' the television the certain way. The television was usually kept in a centre of a room, very often decorated with some flowers or little statues, basically, people did not treat the television as a piece of furniture.
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