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University Degree: Television & Radio Studies
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However I believed this was the best way forward as it was the approach which I understood most clearly in my mind. Although most people will have seen the world famous, award-winning 'Sex and the City' at some point in their lives, I feel that it is important to provide a brief overview for those who do not know the basis of the show. The show, set in New York City, focuses on Carrie Bradshaw, a sex columnist for the fictitious newspaper the 'New York Star', and her three best friends Samantha Jones, Charlotte York and Miranda Hobbes.
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However, with such a service comes a price: the licence fee- the BBC's means of funding. The licence fee is currently �139.50 for a colour licence and a considerably lower �47.00 for a black and white (bbc.co.uk). "Almost all debates about the BBC tend to come down to debates about the licence fee, payment by every owner of a television set of a fee to be allowed to receive the broadest signals." (Tracey, 1998: 99). Despite the BBC's efforts to deliver highest quality services and its significant impact on society debatably right to the present day, whether the costs of the service outweigh the benefits is still largely under dispute.
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How BBC World(TM)s World News Today and CNN International(TM)s World News Asia produces their evening news shows
Methodology Two steps will be taken in order to investigate how editorials produce shows and the relationship with viewers; the first involves analyzing the news coverage of both channels for a week and the second involves interviews with journalists from the channels. I will observe the evening news broadcast at 8pm for both BBC World's "World News Today" and CNN International's "World News Asia" from Monday 5 November 2007 to Friday 9 November 2007. Comparing five days of coverage should be an adequate sample for spotting trends and drawing analysis of how each channel produces their shows.
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The Internal Revenue Service allows benefactors to file contributions to state-approved organizations as tax exemptions. The following types of charitable organizations are permitted under federal tax code: relief of the poor, the distressed, or the underprivileged; advancement of education or science; erection or maintenance of public buildings, monuments, or works; lessening the burdens of government; lessening of neighborhood tensions; elimination of prejudice and discrimination; defense of human and civil rights secured by law; and combating community deterioration and juvenile delinquency.
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The British Broadcasting Company (BBC) began its life as a private company in the December of 1922. It was granted a licence to begin broadcasting in the January of 1923. The company was founded predominantly by the radio equipment industry and practically at its conception found it was in dispute with the Post Office over Licence fees. Consumers were required to buy the licence, through the PO on purchasing a BBC wireless radio, but managed to evade payment by buying the cheaper"...experimenters' or home constructors' licences" (McDonnell 1991 p.10)
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It is changing and growing due to file sharing over the Internet which now changes the balance between record companies, song writers and performing artists again with such peer-to-peer programs being used as Napster and LimeWire. Also being introduced to new music has never been easier with such websites as www.myspace.com where the possibilities of listening to new and different music are endless. The music industry consists of many elements that bring it together, this essay will be looking at a small part of it, in which you could say that this is one of the elements that the industry
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To what extent can it be argued that situation comedies package existing norms and beliefs for audiences (Selby & Cowdery 1995)?
The way in which it can do this is that sitcoms play on stereotypes a lot and a stereotype, being what it is, is understood by the majority of the audience. Comedies rely on the beliefs of the audience and changes to cater for constantly altering accepted norms. Although exaggerated, there must be at least a portion of truth in a stereotype in order to have some currency. These stereotypes, if presented correctly can give the audience a sense of 'now', since they are constantly accommodating contemporary beliefs, which could be a reason for their popularity.
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The language used in advertising is often described as 'loaded' (Cook, 1992). This is because every word that is used has been critically assessed to ensure that it connotes the desired meaning. For example, in the Coca-Cola advertisement a semantic field is created through the use of adjectives describing how refreshing the drink is, 'thirst' and 'frosty'. These examples are 'loaded' as they have a specific purpose, which is to persuade the consumer that this product will refresh and revive them.
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However, there are many other elements that contribute greatly to the violent behaviour at schools such as the rather easy access to weapons, the major impact the media has on individuals, and the influence of schools, the community, and family environment. 1.4 Sources and Methods: This reports information is found by library research, with the help of books and articles provided by reliable resources. 2. Causes 2.1 Family factors: Parents must always monitor their kids and give them the needed attention in order for kids to feel that they can turn to their family for help and so that the kids can depend on them for guidance and support.
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Teenage females have a desire to buy more and pay less. Price is one of the most important factors in purchasing clothes. Charlotte Russe fits this criterion. According to Alex Biesada from Hoovers, a D&B company, "[Charlotte Russe is] priced 20% to 30% lower than competitors." Charlotte Russe has lower prices maybe because it recently entered the business market in 1999, where as Forever 21 was found in 1984. On the other hand, Forever 21's clothes are priced 2% lower than its twelve competitors. Both stores have items that are reasonably priced, but price is not everything; variety is another important factor.
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With the images showing people wading through water and graphics of thousands in the superdome without food or water supplies and left without any sort of security leaving them to be in danger. These are part of the reasons of which this event made international news. This event is one that will not be forgotten and will be remembered by many victims who had loved ones or were personally involved themselves. By having Hurricane Katrina destroying a city and devastating years of memories, this is what is classified as a humanitarian disaster.
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Fundamentally, this makes the viewer experience a thirty-minute cluster of the similar type of humour he/she would normally experience with friends and family. During the last decade, this has reached new heights with the popular American sit-com 'Friends' (1994-2004). Based around six 'twenty-something' characters, the show is fairly reliant on its representations of gender. The even mixture of three females and three males allows room for a range of gender based comical situations and dialogues. Male characters, Ross, Chandler and Joey are defined through masculinity, which is based on their strength and perception of women.
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'In attempting to understand the making of meanings in contemporary media cultures, should our focus be on forms of representation in media output or on practices of media use in day-to-day life?'
of seeing the world onto subordinated groups, in this case the audiences, which leads to the acceptance of their promoted ideology as 'common sense' and 'natural' (Alvarado and Boyd-Barrett, 1992:51). Alongside the concerns of autonomy, hegemony and power in media production which Hesmondhalgh (2006) and Garnham (1990) address, there exists numerous theories and media effects models to describe and explain the ways in which media output is hypothesized to influence and exert power over its audiences and subsequently facilitate the meanings derived from media output within people's lives.
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The actors represent the two computing platforms, but they also represent their users. One interpretation is that we are being told that Mac users are easy-going, while PC users are professional. On the other hand, we might just as easily deduce that PC users simply have better jobs and are more affluent than Mac users. The presentation of two actors representing computer systems is a metaphor, and a highly original concept in this particular field of advertising. Lakoff and Johnson (1980, p.5)
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This may cause viewers to become desensitized by the amount of violence viewed on television. Because of this, people may develop a false assumption of the world based on the frequency of violence on television and various other media outlets. There are many theories and studies on how people model their behavior after violence viewed on television. Famous psychologist Albert Bandura proposed one of the most influential theories of media-related aggression. Bandura's social learning theory highlights the tendency of viewers to imitate violent acts on television.
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Critically consider the relationship between the media and dance music culture in Britain after its take-off in 1987
It was a holiday they will never forget, for when they were there, they experienced a completely new culture. They discovered that, unlike Thatcherite Britain, (that was currently suffering a depression) Ibiza had everything only dreams were made of; sunlight, and two new materials dance music combined with ecstasy, and if they could not bring home with them the sunshine they made it their jobs to bring the other two.'1 Jonny Walker, part of that group explained 'it was really such a genuine, wonderful experience that we'd had that we all wanted to bring that back and share it with other people...we wanted to do go on and on and on.'
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With the beginnings of the 'wireless' (the older name for radio) in the early 1920s, many of manufacturers had individually sought broadcasting permits from the Post Office, at that time the government overseeing public communications, and several were licensed on a temporary and local basis. They wished to broadcast in order to stimulate the sale of their wireless receivers, but the Post Office, fearing the technical problem that the lack of air waves, finally solved the problems of radio interference by persuading rival manufacturers to invest jointly in one small and initially speculative broadcasting station.
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This plan became reality when the BBC was granted it's first Royal Charter from the government in 1927 which defined the corporations 'objectives, powers and obligations' The BBC's Royal Charter is handed down by the government of the period The criteria contained in the Charter relates to what is expected of the BBC. This is reviewed every ten years. The next Royal Charter renewal is 2006. The BBC is headed by a Board of Governors, these 12 governors act as trustees of the public interest and regulate the BBC. They are appointed by the Queen on advice from government ministers.
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Also there resources will stay in-house, and they can easily control the schedule of their programmes without waiting for other company to do their job in behave of them. o Dropping costs: BBC can shrink the huge costs of baying the peogrammes, if they keeping producing there own ones, because the equipments, staff and locations, for the production process which already they own can reduces the cost in case of any production. by using them time after time to produce many of programmes as thy can, which will suit there audiences.
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Compare and contrast two different 'reality TV' shows and their associated web sites, discuss how they provide a platform for avenues of communication, marketing and interactivity. How are the audiences crafted and understood for each of these shows?
to watch them react". Wells and Tibaldi (2002:189) explain that this kind of programming differs from earlier so-called "reality programming such as Weddings and RPA which followed more of a socio-documentary model". I have chosen possibly two of the most influential reality television programs of which to base a discussion of this genre: Survivor and Big Brother. These two programs are the templates for which many copycat formats strive to imitate. Both have a multitude of successful seasons under their prospective belts, indicating that these are formats that work.
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Later on in 1899 Marconi twins made the first wireless transmission over the channel from Wimereux to Dover. Over the next ten year this idea had begun to grow. After various other inventions were formulated and parts refined this lead to the first radio program being transmitted .On Jan 13 1910 the first broadcast took place from the Metropolitan Opera house in New York city was heard 20 km away on a ship at sea.
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During the same period the IBA (Independent Broadcasting Authority) contracted a franchise to set up a British Satellite Broadcasting (BSB) service, however the service was repeatedly delayed, until it was beaten by Murdoch's Sky channel DBS launch. When the BSB service finally began transmitting it found it could never really compete with Sky TV's head start, as Murdoch had chosen to lease four transponders on the Astra Satellite he did not have the high set up costs of launching his own satellites that BSB had.
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From the past to the modern world, it is very obvious that Media is still growing and thriving. "History, or rather the study of history, is often associated with lists of dates, successions of undeniable" (O'Sulllican, Dutton, and Rayner, 1994: 223). Year 1476, William Claxton Prints the first printed English book. Year 1785, The first issue of The Times is published (as the Daily Universal Register). Year 1896, The first moving picture show to a paying audience in London. Year 1936, BBC Television starts broadcasting.
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Evaluate the influences of the mass media on our lifestyles today using two sociological perspectives
The Marxist theories of the mass media argue that the media do not only influence the public, but they also control them. Marxists say that the mass media promotes established values and conservative views. The media dose not promote change, it is controlled by the rich capitalists who own it. Basically the capitalist ruling class own and control the mass media to promote their own interests and continued wealth. Ralph Miliband's study, The State in Capitalist Society, gives an example of a Marxist approach.
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