• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is defined as a severe difficulty in focusing and maintaining attention. Often leads to learning and behaviour problems at home, school, and work.

Extracts from this document...


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is defined as a severe difficulty in focusing and maintaining attention. Often leads to learning and behaviour problems at home, school, and work. A hyperactive child is often 'in trouble' with his peers, teachers, family and community. It develops very early in life and Denhoff (1973) confirms that they don't often reach milestones in life (Abnormal Psychology). They are often taken aback when their behaviours educe anger or rejection from others and apologise intensely for what they have just done. ADHD sufferers do not seem to know that they are doing wrong while they are 'actually doing the action', but do show the sincere remorse when given out to. As they do not necessarily show any basic deficits or disabilities (intellectual or interpersonal) he seems 'normal' in the very sense of the word. Due to this, ADHD is often overlooked and is seen as just another trouble-maker (Abnormal Psychology, 1978). Schain & Reynard (1975) show that many of the actions carried out by ADHD children as temperamental or emotional. However, Henker & Whalen (1989) showed that it is very simple to distinguish a child with ADHD and a child without the condition (Bee). They showed novice observers videos of children playing, with the sound off and no aggression displayed by either group. They differentiated between either the body language, level of activity and the social behaviour adopted by the children. Over-activity tends to decrease by young adulthood, but the problems still remain in employment settings due to structure. The implications of this dysfunction towards children are extensive. ...read more.


The National institute of Mental Health state that due to the a large amount of controversy over the medication used to treat ADHD, it is essential that the parents know all the benefits and risks of the stimulant drugs (www.nimh.nih.gov). Another method of treatment is that of behaviour modification. We view the normal activation of these systems (i.e. rewards and punishment) as being essential to the brains' capacity to process and store in the memory the feeling component of experience- pain like guilt and pleasure like joy. With no mechanism of conditioned expectancy developing in children with ADHD, they have little or no reflexive activation in the reward or punishment systems. Because of this a child can't anticipate the consequences of their actions. They have no internalisation of abstract concepts, moral or humanistic conscience. All due to this, the child feels no emotion when a significant other leaves their life, what only remains for them is emptiness. The behavioural modification method used towards very young children with this illness is on 'play therapy'. Toys and books, which are of interest to the child, is where therapeutic correction takes place. Positive behaviour is rewarded and negative behaviour is discouraged. There are home management programs associated with this treatment. It is like the reward /punishment theory. Good behaviour the child demonstrates is paired with him getting to experience good feelings, but disobedient is associated with bad. Here the therapist is like the parent. He nurtures and enculturates the child's life around them, teaching the parents also. However, this is a very long process and treatment must be continuous and one is obliged to wait until the brain matures and is capable of processing psychic feelings. ...read more.


* The child must show either significant 'inattention' or significant 'hyperactivity-impulsivity' (or both). * Inattention is indicated by any six of the following: 1) Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork or other activities. 2) Often has difficulty sustaining attention to tasks or play. 3) Often does not seem to listen to when spoken to directly 4) Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish chores, homework or other duties. 5) Often have difficulty organising tasks and activities. 6) Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort. 7) Often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g. toys, pencils, books, tools). 8) Is often distracted by extraneous stimuli. 9) Is often forgetful in daily activities. *Hyperactivity-Impulsivity is indicated by the presence of six of the following, persisting over a period of at least six months: 1) Often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat. 2) Often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected. 3) Often runs about or climbs excessively and reports feelings of restlessness. 4) Often has difficulty playing quietly. 5) Is often 'on the go' or often acts as if 'driven by a motor'. 6) Often talks excessively. 7) Often blurts out answers before questions are completed. 8) Often has difficulty waiting turn. 9) Often interrupts or intrudes on others *The onset of the problem must be before the age of 7. *At least some of the symptoms must be present in two or more settings, such as at home and in school or school and play with peers. *The behaviour must interfere with developmentally appropriate social, academic or occupational functioning. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Behavioural Science section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Behavioural Science essays

  1. How does attachment influence the social and emotional development of the child? In your ...

    their parents and the effects this separation had social development of the child. This is evident in a study done by Bowlby at a clinic for mentally disturbed adolescents. He studied the histories of 44 of the adolescents, all of whom were known to be thieves or convicted of theft.

  2. the effect of a coloured letter in a word or non word on the ...

    Therefore, the participants had to identify the colour from a string of words under the condition that all words were coloured incongruently and congruently, and also incongruent and congruent single letters. The participants were also asked to press keys that represent each colour naturally.

  1. Investigating changing the behaviour of cigarette smokers.

    In 1930, researchers in Cologne, Germany made a statistical correlation between smoking and cancer. In 1988, nicotine was declared an addictive drug similar to heroin or cocaine in the Surgeon General's Report on the Health Consequences of Smoking (Jorenby, 2001).

  2. Discuss the Nature of Some Major Psychotherapies and Critically Evaluate Their Effectiveness.

    cause the patients distress, Freud explained it thus; "........The ego has been weakened by the internal conflict.......The analytic physician and the weakened ego of the patient, basing themselves upon the real external world, are to combine against the enemies the instinctual demands of the id, and the moral demands of

  1. Sibling Relationships

    Almost all the siblings in Edwards study said that they fought with siblings, and even used terms such as annoying to describe them (Edwards, Mauthner, Hadfield, 2005). Personality Types Firstborns typically have a dominant personality type in the sibling relationship.

  2. The Vulnerable Population of Alcoholics

    alcohol problems which can include an increase in absences (particularly Mondays), consistently showing up late, and a decline in work ethic that correlate with their negative changes in attitude ("Alcohol and the Workplace", 1999). Interestingly enough, the income varies in favor of the social drinkers when compared to people who do not consume alcohol.

  1. Freud and JungThe psychological genre as it relates to sociological and medicinal matters has ...

    Janet was an important influence on Carl Jung, and he reported that the cure of several hysterical patients, using hypnosis to discover the initial trauma and then having it reenacted by the patient, was successful.

  2. Intervention for ADHD should not involve medication behavioural intervention is sufficient.

    The purpose of this study is to understand if behavioural intervention is sufficient and drugs are not necessary for ADHD (Sales, 2000). The study would cover on the risks of children diagnosed with ADHD, drug therapy, behavioural intervention and education intervention (Sales, 2000).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work