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Bone and Joint Histology

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Introduction

´╗┐Bone & Joint Histology ________________ Bone * It is a specialised connective tissue. * Osteogenic cells ? osteoblast (makes matrix, active when young, and after fracture) ? osteocyte ? osteoclast (functions in resorption, breakdown of bone matrix) (makes cavities) (from blood monocyte) Bone Functions * Framework for support of the skeleton * Protection: brain, spinal cord, lungs and heart * Levers for muscles attached to them via tendons * Reservoir for minerals e.g. calcium, magnesium, phosphates etc. Bone Matrix * Components * Extracellular matrix (ground substance and fibres) consists of inorganic material (65%) e.g. calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, fluoride, citrate, sulfate, and hydroxide. * Minerals give bone hardness and rigidity * Organic component (35%) mostly type I collagen (95%)- gives bone slight flexibility; and ground substance e.g. GAGs with proteoglycans, which contain chondroitin and keratin sulfates which give bone resilience * Development 1. Bone starts as osteoid, which is collagen and GAG?s with no minerals 2. Bone becomes mineralised (immature, primary, or woven bone). It is the first bone to appear in development and in repair after fractures 3. Bone starts to remodel as the adult form (mature, secondary, lamellar) ...read more.

Middle

These are remnants of older, partially resorbed Haversian systems. * A third arrangement (circumferential lamellae) are rings of bone around the entire bone, beneath the periosteum * Radiating from the lacunae are tiny channels (canaliculi). Processes of the osteocytes enter these canals and communicate with adjacent osteocytes where an exchange of gases occurs, nutrients are supplied to the cells and metabolic wastes are eliminated. * The Haversian canals communicate with the marrow cavity, the periosteum and with each other via the transverse Volkmann?s canals, which run at right angles to the long axis of the bone. Each osteon has a cement line of calcified ground substance with some collagen fibres. * Spongy (Cancelllous Bone): * This type is not organised into Haversian systems but is a meshwork of thin bars (lamellae) or trabeculae of bone lining the marrow cavity * The spaces within this latticework are filled with bone marrow. The trabeculae house osteocytes in lacunae that are fed by diffusion from the marrow cavity. Blood and Nerve Supply * Bones have periosteal vessels, which penetrate the bone of the diaphysis of long bones and divide into branches that enter the Haversian systems. ...read more.

Conclusion

and growth in length stops Growth in width of long bone * As a result of appositional growth from the surface and resorption by osteoclasts of the inner shaft so that the marrow space can be enlarged Bone Remodelling * Continual remodelling occurs in response to forces (e.g. teeth growing jawbones). Bone is deposited due to traction and resorbed due to pressure. * In young, bone deposition exceeds bone resorption. In the adult bone deposition is balanced with resorption. Joints * Joints are classified according to the degree of movement between the bones of the joint: * Synarthroses: little or no movement. There are 3 types based on the tissue making up the union: * Syndesmosis is the union of bones by dense CT e.g tibiofibular and radioulnar joints * Synchondrosis is a junction by cartilage e.g. IVDs and symphysis pubis * Synostosis is a joint united by bone e.g. skull sutures (Starts off as fontanelles) * Diarthroidal (synovial) e.g. knee, hip, shoulder have great freedom of movement and have a CT capsule around a joint cavity held by ligaments. * The joint has an articular cartilage (hyaline) with no perichondrium. The capsule is lined (except over the articular surfaces) with a cellular, vascular, folded synovial membrane made of loose CT which secretes a viscous lubricating, synovial fluid. The viscosity of the fluid varies with temperature. ...read more.

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