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University Degree: Medicine

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    Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    3 star(s)
    • Word count: 1402
    • Submitted: 15/12/2002
    • Reviewed by: (?) superwiseman 07/03/2012
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Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Discuss the use of ACE and Angiotensin 2 receptor blockers in diabetic nephropathy. Is there a role for a double blockade?

    "In conclusion, it can be said that multiple factors and complications in diabetes lead to the development of diabetic nephropathy. The functioning or overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a central role in the pathogenesis. Its protein cascade being effected by the high glucose levels typical of diabetes causing increases in angiotensin II and other peptides which set off other sets of reactions which result in damage to the kidneys, through certain factor, TGF- ? being a prominent one. The main target ACEI and ARBs is the RAAS and both have been shown to be effective individually and in combination. I do not feel that either one ACEI or ARBs outplays the other in effectiveness of renoprotection. Therefore, the choice of drug or drug combination will depend on the individual patient, his or her response to certain drugs in terms of adverse side effects, the type of diabetes present and the stage at which their nephropathy is residing."

  • To what extent can autoimmunity be described as the breakdown of self tolerance and how far have animal models contributed to our understanding of human autoimmune disease?

    "Conclusion The state of self tolerance includes those subsets of autoreactive cells that are not subject to clonal deletion or inactivation. The existence of such immunologically silent cells are the necessary result of the process of thymocyte selection that occurs during development and normally do not cause autoimmunity. Only a few of such peptides can act as autoantigens (shown by the fact that there are relatively few distinct autoimmune diseases and that all individuals with a particular autoimmune disease tend to recognize the same antigens) and the immune system has developed regulatory mechanisms (T suppressor cells) to ensure that if these cells do become recognised they will be eliminated. However, the consequence of infection, particularly if coupled with a genetic susceptibility, can increase the activation of these silent cells, overcoming the defence of the suppressor T cells and leading to autoimmunity. The failure of clonal inactivation, as seen in the failure of apoptosis can be considered as a true breakdown of self tolerance. The activation of the immunologically silent cells that constitute a normal part of the immune system as a result of infection can also be considered as a breakdown, but the presence of such cells themselves should not be considered a failure of self tolerance."

  • For the completion of the Applied Physiology assignment, students are asked to research and discuss the structure and function of three of the bodies systems, these systems are respiratory, cardiovascular and renal.

    "Conclusion The assignment was to look at three different body systems, looking at the way they work and how they can be affected during disease. It was also asked of us to look at the blood groups and the composition of blood, seeing how important the Rhesus factor is and how pregnancy can be affected if the rhesus factors are different in a relationship. Looking at the homeostasis was difficult when trying to link it to the different systems, I found difficulty in this. Applied physiology assignment Stephanie Allen Tutor - Hilary Davies Page 1"

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