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University Degree: Anatomy & Physiology

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  1. Peripheral vascular disease or Peripheral artery disease is caused by arteriosclerosis, or "hardening of the arteries."

    The walls of the arteries also become stiffer and cannot dilate to allow greater blood flow when needed. Eventually hypoxia and tissue death may occur. Peripheral artery disease is a common disorder that usually affects men over age 50. People are at higher risk if they have a history of: * Abnormal cholesterol * Diabetes * Coronary Artery Disease * Hypertension * Renal disease involving hemodialysis * Smoking * Stroke Early Signs and Symptoms Late Signs and Symptoms Pain Impotence Achiness Pain and cramps at night Fatigue Pain or tingling in feet or toes (can be sensitive to linens or clothes)

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  2. Free essay

    Identification of traces left on skeleton by trauma. Due to the ability of the human body to redevelop new bones, trauma left on the skeleton can be identified as bones generally do not heal back to the exact same way they were.

    is formed as a result of blood leaking from veins near the bone. The clot helps the broken bone to stabilize and keeps the two broken parts together for mending. Inflammation then follows and tiny blood vessels grow into the fracture hematoma to stimulate the healing process. A few days later, a soft callus will form from the fracture hematoma and fibers of collagen start to appear. A type of cartilage called fibro cartilage will be created and it causes the callus to be tougher which bridge the gap between the two pieces of bone.

    • Word count: 757
  3. An Examination of the Human Brain: Evidence of Neuroplasticity and Neurogenesis

    These examples will give insight and a more extensive understanding of the capacity and function of the human brain. Both of these aspects are interconnected and strongly linked to the brain's neuroplasticity, including neurogenesis as an important mechanism. The brain's capacity and function change as morphological changes occur in the brain because there is a causational relationship. Specifically, this is true because neuroplasticity is a "...morphological modification in a cell or group of cells that changes intercellular communication" and neurogenesis refers to the birth of new neurons (Shaw et.

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  4. The Ras Superfamily

    proteins discovered, all of which transduce signals through the use of specific effecter molecules to alter different cellular processes, such as proliferation, migration, gene transcription, apoptosis and others.5, 7, 8 Ras GTPases have a common general structure, which comprises of a 20kDa, 166 residue, G domain, similar to the ? subunit of G proteins, and a C-terminal CAAX (cysteine-aliphatic-aliphatic-variable sequence) box. The G domain is divided into 5 subdomains, G1-G5, and G1 is responsible for binding the �-phosphate of the guanine nucleotide held in the G domain.9, 10 The G domain also possesses switch I and switch II sequences, made of residues 30-38 and 59-67 respectively, in which threonine-35 and glycine-60 are crucial.

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  5. CD4+ Cell Development, Function & Dysregulation in Allergy and Autoimmune Diseases

    and interleukin-12 (IL-12) are required from the APC. IL-12R�2, on the CD4+ cell, then induces phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 protein (STAT4) and T-bet activation. The cytokines produced by this cell type, due to STAT4 and T-bet are mostly pro-inflammatory, such as IFN-? (which up-regulates T-bet thus forming a positive feedback loop), tumour necrosis factor � (TNF�), IL-2 and lymphotoxin-? (LT?)[1-3]. Around this time, TH2 cells were also discovered in response to extracellular pathogens and parasites e.g.

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  6. Cardiovascular system and health promotion

    Within the heart, there are four chambers; two ventricles and two atria's, one of each on the right side and on the left side of the heart (Katz 2006). The ventricles are thick walled as they pump the oxygenated blood from the heart around the body, whereas the atriums are thin walled as they receive the venous blood according to Seifter et al. (2005). Contained inside the heart are also four valves which control the flow of blood and prevent the backflow of blood.

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  7. The mechanisms which control the blood pressure within normal limits and how drugs can be used to correct abnormalities of these mechanisms.

    As the heart rate is increased the cardiac output (volume of blood ejected from the heart per minute) will also increase. Together with the vasoconstriction of the blood vessels, the blood pressure is lowered. When there is an increase in blood pressure, the increase is also detected by the baroreceptors due to the stretch of the blood vessels. The baroreceptors send a signal to the cardiovascular centre in the brain (medulla oblongata) which causes an increase in parasympathetic activity. This will include reducing the heart rate and vasodilating the blood vessels.

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  8. The major effects, mechanisms and major side effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the basis of the cardiovascular benefits of aspirin

    Ibuprofen can be used to relieve pain and inflammation caused by rheumatic and muscular pain, migraine, back ache, period pain, pain after surgery and dental pain. It can also be used to relieve cold and 'flu-like' symptoms including fever (high temperature) in adults and children. Paracetamol is a painkiller that lowers a high temperature. Paracetamol is relatively safe, provided that the correct dose at the right intervals is taken. It works by blocking the way in which pain signals are processed in the brain.

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  9. Molecular targets of best-selling drugs (short review)

    This will therefore increase the amount of salts (Na+ + K+) and water filtered out of the blood. Reducing the water content in the body will then reduce the pressure. Amiloride is a potassium-sparing diuretic which belongs to the pyrazine carboxamide class. The Amiloride also acts on the distal part of the rental tubule. It increases the excretion of sodium and chloride ions and reduces the excretion of potassium. This is to prevent losing too much potassium. Both active ingredients work together to ensure that the correct level of potassium is maintained while reducing the blood pressure.

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  10. Medicine. I will talk about the importance of both Galen and the Hippocrates and what they did to improve the importance of medicine.

    Gods were a part of everyday life for all most every person, so if they couldn't afford treatment then they wouldn't think twice about going to see there God, seeing your God was never a last resort many people chose to go there first. People thought that if they went to sleep inside the temple the God would come and see them and heal them, but it wasn't actually this, it was the fact that they were being given warmth, food, and appliances to keep them fit and the most needed one, rest.

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  11. What measures of blood pressure would indicate that a person has high or low blood pressure?

    The lowest pressure is known as the diastolic pressure and is measured by heartbeat. Both of these pressures are vital for your health information and a risk of having high blood pressure is shown if either one of the pressure has gone higher. High blood pressure can cause heart and kidney failures, strokes, coronary diseases, and many other problems. Low blood pressure can be caused by severe bleeding, inflammations of organs and dehydration. Pulse rate The number of times your heart beats in a minute is known as your heart rate, and your pulse measures the rate of your heart and show's how hard it is beating.

    • Word count: 1047
  12. Cell cycle abnormalities in cancer

    Other cells may enter this phase and retain the ability to reactivate their cell cycle control mechanisms as they need to; this is true of hepatocytes [1a]. G1 phase is the growth phase of the cell. For a cell to move into this phase, growth factors from extracellular sources must be received by the cell's specific receptors and initiate a cascade of cyclin-dependent kinases, that have an effect of promoting transcription of DNA in preparation for mitosis. This will be explored in more depth in my discussion.

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  13. 'Diseases are cultural constructs.' Discuss with reference to Mesopotamia.

    Mesopotamians also believed in this dichotomy: perfect health constituted the protection of a personal god, good omens within the local environment, and avoidance of the wrath of any "witchcraft, spells, magic, or other evil incantations of men" (Kinnier Wilson, 1967b). A reversal of any of these conditions was believed to incur illness and disease. Divinity played a large role in Mesopotamian medicine and healthcare simply because divinity was a significant part of all aspects of Mesopotamian culture. During difficult times, such as war or famine, Mesopotamian people would seek divine intervention to provide help.

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  14. Human physiology for Health and Social Care NQF Level 3: BTEC National P2: The structures of the main tissues of the body

    Simple cuboidal epithelium Simple cuboidal epithelium is a single layer of cube shapes cells. These cells are roughly and square. Cuboidal epithelium is found in glands and in the lining of the kidney tubules as well as in the ducts of the glands. Simple columnar epithelium Columnar cells are taller than they are wide, these cells are elongate and look like column shape. That is specialized for secretion and absorption. Ciliated epithelium Ciliated epithelium consists of columnar cells that have cilia on their free surfaces.

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  15. Sports injuries outcome 2 Muscular systemWhen a muscle tissue is damaged it undergoes a repair process, which

    Ligaments connect bone to bone and tendons connect muscle to bone. Ligaments and tendons can adapt to changes within their mechanical environment due to cause such as injury, disease or exercise. A ligament or tendon is made up of fascicles. Each fascicle contains the basic fibril of the ligament or tendon, and the fibroblasts, which are the cells that make the ligament or tendon. Unlike normal ligaments, healed ligaments are partly made up of a different type of collagen, which has fibrils with a smaller diameter and is therefore a mechanically inferior structure.

    • Word count: 752
  16. What are the alternatives to animal experiments?

    To encourage the use of human tissue the Dr Hadwen Trust has helped establish the Human Tissue Bank at Leicester. The Trust has funded research using human cells and tissues to replace animal experiments, into Alzheimer's disease, cancer, rheumatism, cataracts, allergies, meningitis, and more. Molecular methods Technological advances are resulting in new and improved molecular methods for analysing and identifying new compounds and medicines. The Trust has provided analytical equipment to researchers selecting new anti-cancer and anti-malaria drugs, based on their molecular interaction with DNA, as an alternative to selecting drugs by animal tests.

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  17. Shock Syndromes Shock is defined as an alteration in tissue perfusion that occurs at the cellular level.

    * Most common causes are hemorrhage, burns and dehydration * May be seen when the total circulating blood volume has been decreased by 15-20% (approx. 500-1500 ml) Cardiogenic Shock * Occurs when the pumping action of the heart fails * Most common causes are myocardial infarction, cardiac trauma, cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure Distributive Shock * Occurs when blood vessels dilate without a subsequent increase in circulating blood volume * Blood volume is normal, but the vascular bed is greater in size Anaphylactic Shock

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  18. Stress and Bodily response

    Selye did a lot of experimental studies on stress and response. He said that 'any physical or psychological stressor activated the two pathways'. (The two pathways being those of the two adrenal glands - hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex pathway and the hypothalamic-autonomic nervous system-adrenal medulla pathway). He made a model to show this, which explained the short-term effects of exposure to stressors and it including changes in the human body, which may also cause stress such as different illnesses. The two pathways, when aroused, prepare the body for a rush of energy.

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  19. Case Study A: The Case Of The Worried Tax Inspector.

    ( pg.386) 3) In order to prevent thromboemboli in a person undergoing extensive bed rest they must do gentle exercise as soon as they feel able. The sooner they move around the less chance there is of the blood flow slowing down and an accumulation of a thrombus. Albert must reduce or even stop smoking, reduce his alcohol intake and also reduce his cholesterol intake as all of these factors contribute to DVT. Patients would often be prescribed anticoagulants that are blood thinners, to decrease the bloods ability to clot.

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  20. To examine the evidence for a link between stress and ill health

    As well as giving meanings to events, people also assess their ability to cope with those events for example, if two people were faced with redundancy, one person may feel they cannot cope and this may lead to a stress response. Another person may feel they can cope quite adequately and, as a result, take things in their stride. The effects of stress can be positive or negative. Stress can be used positively to overcome a challenge. It can also have negative effects leading to illness and even death, for example, Lazurus and Folkman (1984)

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  21. The effects of posture on heart rate and blood pressure

    (Beashel, Taylor 1996) There are many ways in which the cardiovascular system can react to maintain equilibrium. This study specifically looks at heart rate and blood pressure, and the effects which posture has upon them. Heart rate can provide a degree of information regarding the efficiency of the cardiovascular system. An individual who has a low heart rate (lower than 60 beats per minute at rest) has bradycardia. Someone who has bradycardia has a well conditioned heart, and is more often than not a trained individual.

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  22. Anatomical pathology lecture 3 Pleurisy - inflamed pleura Components of acute inflammation

    margination of leucocytes, along endothelium 7. leucocyte emigration & diapedesis of red blood cells 8. chemotaxis of polymorphs 9. phagocytosis by and lysis of polymorphs 10. arrival of phagocytic macrophages * chemotaxis - chemotropism, attraction to a chemical stimulus and movement toward that stimulus * diapediesis - the passive passage blood or any of its cell constituents through the intact wall of a blood vessel * phagocytosis - ingestion of foreign matter or debris by a polymorphs or macrophages * plasma cell - activated lymphocyte of the B series, which makes immunoglobulin * hallmarks of acute inflammation are: > polymorphs > macrophages > fibrin > oedema > exceptions 1.

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  23. Types of tissue specimens I. Cytological - smear, scrape, brushing, washing or fine needle aspirate II. Biopsy (Bx

    Retains tissue structure iv. Increase permeability for future chemical processing Chemical tissue preservation works: i. Denatures protein, breaking down autolytic enzymes, unfolding molecules ii. Disrupting internal bonds (H+ & 2S-) increasing permeability & leaving molecules to make new links with fixatives and dyes iii. Precipitating proteins and preventing loss during subsequent chemical processing Important factors of chemical tissue preservation i. pH (hydrogen ion concentration) ii. temperature iii. penetration iv. osmolality (critical for electron microscopy) v. concentraton vi. duration * Types of tissue preservatives: i. Aldehydes: Formalin & Gluteraldehyde ii. Oxidizing agents: osmium tetroxide iii. Protein denaturing: alcohols iv.

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  24. Anatomical Pathology - lecture 2Aetiology: the cause of disease Pathogenesis: the course of disease

    * Possible causes of injury i. Ischaemia: loss of blood supply ii. Hypoxia: lack of oxygen or Anoxia: none of oxygen iii. Physical trauma iv. Chemical agents v. Derangement of immune mechanism vi. Genetic derangement vii. Nutritional imbalance viii. Ageing SENECENCE(cell have a limited life span) * The damage of cell depends on its type : phase of mitotic cycle, point in life span & agent of damage * Cellular response to injury i. Swelling is the first response and is independent of injury severity which increase blood flow ii.

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  25. Estimation of Cardiac Output.

    The left ventricle has the thickest wall because it has to force blood all the way around the body. The heart has two atria acting as receiving chambers, the right atrium receives blood returning from all parts of the body and the left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs. The heart also has two ventricles acting as sending units. The right ventricle pumps the blood to the lungs for aeration by way of the pulmonary circulation. The left ventricle pumps the oxygenated blood into the aorta for distribution throughout the body in the systemic circulation. (Wilmore et al. 1994)

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Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Discuss the use of ACE and Angiotensin 2 receptor blockers in diabetic nephropathy. Is there a role for a double blockade?

    "In conclusion, it can be said that multiple factors and complications in diabetes lead to the development of diabetic nephropathy. The functioning or overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a central role in the pathogenesis. Its protein cascade being effected by the high glucose levels typical of diabetes causing increases in angiotensin II and other peptides which set off other sets of reactions which result in damage to the kidneys, through certain factor, TGF- ? being a prominent one. The main target ACEI and ARBs is the RAAS and both have been shown to be effective individually and in combination. I do not feel that either one ACEI or ARBs outplays the other in effectiveness of renoprotection. Therefore, the choice of drug or drug combination will depend on the individual patient, his or her response to certain drugs in terms of adverse side effects, the type of diabetes present and the stage at which their nephropathy is residing."

  • To what extent can autoimmunity be described as the breakdown of self tolerance and how far have animal models contributed to our understanding of human autoimmune disease?

    "Conclusion The state of self tolerance includes those subsets of autoreactive cells that are not subject to clonal deletion or inactivation. The existence of such immunologically silent cells are the necessary result of the process of thymocyte selection that occurs during development and normally do not cause autoimmunity. Only a few of such peptides can act as autoantigens (shown by the fact that there are relatively few distinct autoimmune diseases and that all individuals with a particular autoimmune disease tend to recognize the same antigens) and the immune system has developed regulatory mechanisms (T suppressor cells) to ensure that if these cells do become recognised they will be eliminated. However, the consequence of infection, particularly if coupled with a genetic susceptibility, can increase the activation of these silent cells, overcoming the defence of the suppressor T cells and leading to autoimmunity. The failure of clonal inactivation, as seen in the failure of apoptosis can be considered as a true breakdown of self tolerance. The activation of the immunologically silent cells that constitute a normal part of the immune system as a result of infection can also be considered as a breakdown, but the presence of such cells themselves should not be considered a failure of self tolerance."

  • For the completion of the Applied Physiology assignment, students are asked to research and discuss the structure and function of three of the bodies systems, these systems are respiratory, cardiovascular and renal.

    "Conclusion The assignment was to look at three different body systems, looking at the way they work and how they can be affected during disease. It was also asked of us to look at the blood groups and the composition of blood, seeing how important the Rhesus factor is and how pregnancy can be affected if the rhesus factors are different in a relationship. Looking at the homeostasis was difficult when trying to link it to the different systems, I found difficulty in this. Applied physiology assignment Stephanie Allen Tutor - Hilary Davies Page 1"

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