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University Degree: Behavioural Science

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  1. How does attachment influence the social and emotional development of the child? In your answer refer to the usefulness and the critiques of the attachment theory.

    This bond develops within the first year of the child's life, and if the bond is not developed or the bond is broken, the child's emotional development may suffer. (Davenport, 1994, P9). Bowlby's theory has been used and extended and has influenced changes in social care, child care, institutions and other areas. The emphasis is on providing a nurturing, loving environment as a basis to build an emotional bond between the child and the caregiver to encourage the social and emotional development of the child.

    • Word count: 2882
  2. Case Study 3: Strategic Action Plan to Encourage the Positive Behaviour of Ruby.

    Or perhaps, just the fact that it is a new environment that is making Ruby unhappy? -Ruby's Mum has a new partner who is living with them. Is this causing distress for Ruby? This is sensitive information which may be difficult to obtain. -Ruby's Mum has just had a new baby. Before the arrival, was Ruby the only child, and has this caused a problem for Ruby? Will Ruby's Mum, assuming cooperation, be able to recognize the change in personality? -Ruby is most often isolated, in class and in the playground, from fellow pupils. Was Ruby not the initial cause of this and has she been isolated from the other children?

    • Word count: 2877
  3. PROFESSIONALISM STANDARDS

    DESCRIPTION I will discuss nursing professional issues of confidentiality and record keeping from different perspectives including nursing code of conduct, local Trust and national policies, common law applied to professional practice and ethics and other literature. Nurses have legal and professional responsibilities to respect the rights of patients and to treat them equally. Patient's records are to be kept confidential at all times. When a nurse accesses the patient records, the nurse is not to discuss the patient's conditions or any other confidentiality information with anyone not assigned to care for the patient.

    • Word count: 2625
  4. the man who mistook his wife for a hat

    What was so odd about this unnamed disorder is that the Dr. P had normal vision, he was not blind, so what was wrong was not his eyes but was how his brain perceived what his eyes saw. Somewhere along the line between his eyes and the part of his brain that recognizes what he is seeing something goes haywire and he is helpless. He sees a human yet cannot identify one, it is extremely bizarre. This disorder is very interesting, it is difficult however, to understand how this man can see what everyone else sees yet cannot interpret what he is seeing the way other do and the way that he did for the most part of his life.

    • Word count: 2269
  5. Sibling Relationships

    Gender roles Children's sibling relationships are a place where social learning involves the production of femininity and masculinity. Edwards believes that being a boy or a girl is not biologically driven or a matter of socialization into premade gender roles by parents, but it is a continual interactive process. The relationship with siblings plays part in the social learning, producing, and reproducing of femininity and masculinity (2005). It is also seen in the relational patterns of the parents' interactions with each other and their children. Parents interact with each child differently which accounts for the differences in siblings even though they have grown up in the same family.

    • Word count: 2916
  6. the effect of a coloured letter in a word or non word on the reaction time of recognition processes.

    The analyses of single words of semantic and lexical are uncontrollable. The "Stroop effect" occurred when the identification of the colour of an incongruent word is much slower than the identification of a congruent word (Besner, Stolz, & Jones, 1997). J.R Stroop was the man who introduced the "Stroop task" in 1935. He published an article on interference and attention and his Stroop task had kept many psychologists interested in the functions of cognition and processes of attention ( MacLeod, 1991). In an experiment conducted by Stroop (1935), a number of variations of two main tests have been administered.

    • Word count: 2217
  7. The Vulnerable Population of Alcoholics

    craving for alcohol, continued use despite harm or personal injury, the inability to limit drinking, physical illness when drinking stops, and the need to increase the amount drunk in order to feel the effects" ("What is the Difference", 2006). I make the assumption based on my own experiences that many people can still be functional in everyday life and still be classified as an alcoholic. In my family, men on both sides do not consider themselves alcoholics or alcohol abusers solely on the fact that they can perform in everyday life and accomplish their tasks.

    • Word count: 2896
  8. Preventative Intervention for Alcohol Abuse among College Students

    Another basic part of the education portion in this intervention was providing a written one-page list of tips for harm reduction of alcohol abuse to each of their participants. A final note even though it is obvious in the title, is the unique aspect of this intervention being an ongoing assessment lasting a total of four years (Baer, Kivlahan, Blume, McKnight & Marlatt, 2001). Critical Appraisal of the Evidence Study a. The purpose of study A was to examine the Lifestyle Management Class (LMC)

    • Word count: 2869
  9. Breathlessness in patients with advanced cancer.

    Only recently has breathlessness been understood as more than just a symptom of disordered breathing. It is now seen as a symptom where there is a complex interaction between physical, psychosocial and emotional factors (O'Driscoll, Corner & Bailey, 1999). Major causes of breathlessness The causes of breathlessness in advanced cancer are numerous and multifactorial, as it may be due to the cancer itself, the treatment given or due to coexisting conditions. Physical factors that cause breathlessness can be divided into four groups: 1.

    • Word count: 2813
  10. Stressors and coping mechanisms: a variation in gender, adolescence and ethnic identity.

    Carver and Sheire argue that depression can result from a number of losses and worries that occur in an individual's life. These losses and worries have been referred to as daily hassles (Kanner & Feldman, 1991). Coping strategies The ability to cope is seen as a crucial factor in determining whether someone adapts to life's stressors. Successful behavioural and or cognitive reactions to stressors are known to lead to heightened feelings of worth and value and a decreased amount of stress and anxiety (Mearns, 2000).

    • Word count: 2457
  11. Why do people drink alcohol

    * Physical dependence, after prolonged and severe intake of alcohol physiological dependence and withdrawal occur. Dependence is when the body can't do without a drug because it has adjusted to its presence. The symptoms include, insomnia, increased sweating, trembling, nausea, fever, restlessness and hallucinations. In some cases, withdrawal produces such a shock to the body that death occurs. There is no doubt that tolerance develops and in some cases dependence does occur. * Tolerance, the need to drink greater amounts of alcohol. Alcoholism has little to do with willpower; they are in the grip of a powerful craving, or uncontrollable need, for alcohol that overrides their ability to stop drinking.

    • Word count: 2526
  12. Investigating changing the behaviour of cigarette smokers.

    After 1776 tobacco farming expanded from Virginia south to North Carolina and west as far as Missouri. In about 1864 an Ohio farmer happened upon a chlorophyll-deficient strain of tobacco called white burley, which became a main ingredient of American blended tobaccos. Cigarettes were invented in 1614 by beggars in Seville, Spain, a center for cigar production. The beggars collected scrap tobacco and rolled it in paper. However, cigarettes did not become popular for two and a half centuries; snuff, cigars, and pipes remained the most popular means of using tobacco.

    • Word count: 2440
  13. Discuss the Nature of Some Major Psychotherapies and Critically Evaluate Their Effectiveness.

    Freud believed that given certain situations the majority of individuals will develop in a particular way, and behaviour therapist tend toward the idea that since conditioning is the basis for the formulation of behaviour (and indirectly personality) given certain conditions all individuals will develop in a specific direction. The contrasting approach is that each individual is unique, no two reacting or developing in the same way within situational factors, this is an idiographic approach and an example of this would be Carl Roger's Humanistic therapies.

    • Word count: 2850
  14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is defined as a severe difficulty in focusing and maintaining attention. Often leads to learning and behaviour problems at home, school, and work.

    The implications of this dysfunction towards children are extensive. In essence, the child can keep and store memories but have no emotions attached to them. They become meaningless thoughts. ADHD, previously known as hyperkinesis, is one of the most common childhood mental disorders, effecting 3-5% of the childhood population. The National Institute of Mental Health states that on average there is at least one child in every classroom across America diagnosed with ADHD. It often continues into adolescence and adulthood causing broken dreams, ambitions and relationships. The diagnosis of ADHD is based on behaviours displaying certain characteristics such as hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention over a period of time which is usually six months and must have an onset before the age of seven.

    • Word count: 2761
  15. Can the period 1750-1850 be viewed as one of medical reform?

    This chaotic system led to a demand for a 'single portal of entry' in which one exam held simultaneously across the country awarded the certification needed to become a medical practitioner. Although this can be seen as a reforming move the motivation behind it was not to produce better doctors but to make it easier to identify the irregular practitioners and so abolish them. According to Loudon periods of reform require two sorts of preceding events. The first being a period running up to the time of reform in which there is a general feeling of discontent and a realisation that change may be beneficial.

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  16. Medieval Medicine

    The theory was that the body comprised of 4 major elements. These were Blood, Black Bile, Yellow Bile and Phlegm. It was understood that if these were not in perfect balance then the body would suffer and the patient would be ill, leading to one of the four conditions which were being Melancholy, Phlegmatic, Choleric or Sanguine.4 To restore the patient to full health it was understood that these four elements needed to be rebalanced. This generally occurred by "purging" of the patient, more commonly known as Bloodletting.

    • Word count: 2102
  17. Ancient Oath with A Modern Meaning: An Examination of the Validity of the Hippocratic Oath.

    It will also attempt to answer the question-does the oath, representing a medical legacy from an ancient past, written so many hundreds of years ago, stand the test of time? To facilitate this discussion it would behoove the reader to acquaint themselves with the original oath, written around 400 B.C., and the updated version by Dr. Louis Lasagna, in 1969 (pages 9 and 10 respectively in the appendix). Before tackling these questions, first let us look at some of the history behind the Hippocratic Oath to gain a better perspective of how it came into being.

    • Word count: 2880
  18. Chinese medical theory.

    It is the origin of what is called the Yin-Yang school of Chinese thought. The essentials of the Yin-Yang school are based on the idea that the universe is run by a single principle, Tao. This principle is divided into two opposite principles, which oppose one another in their actions. Theses are called Yin and Yang. This concept is also applied to medicine. The Concept Of Yin and Yang The concept of Yin-Yang is probably the most important concept in Chinese Medicine. Yin-Yang is said to be the basis of Chinese medical physiology, pathology and treatment.

    • Word count: 2597
  19. Complementary Therapies.

    The point may be stimulated with needles or alternatively an electrical current or by laser heat and massage. Treatment is usually painless although the patient may feel some dull heavy pain this is associated with a positive response relief mat be immediate or improvement may take several sections although some patients don't respond at all there is a growing interest by the general public in natural forms of medicine, unfortunately in the UK anyone is allowed to set up as an acupuncturist and treat patients medically qualified acupuncturists are responsible to the general medical council. The British medical acupuncture society was formed in 1980 members include general practioners, rheumotoliogists, anaesthetists, pain specialists and orthopedic surgeons as well as dentists and vets.

    • Word count: 2040
  20. Ancient Egyptian and Greek Medicine, a Comparison.

    So money plays a large part in the progress of medicine. The rich could afford to employ metal workers, to make jewellery and tools. These craftsmen could also make bronze instruments for doctors and physicians, much better than any tools before. The rich Greeks could also do this, but, the invention of iron and steel meant that the Greeks could do more with their tools as they were stronger. This must have helped the progression of practical medicine. Although the rich in both Egypt and Greece had doctors and were generally in good health (more so in Greece than Egypt).

    • Word count: 2280
  21. Intervention for ADHD should not involve medication behavioural intervention is sufficient.

    Though educational intervention a better cognitive outcome was produced than the use of medical or psychological approach (Purdie et al., 2002). The use of medication as a suggested treatment for ADHD created a controversy, especially on the side effects and pharmacological use. For example, the long term use of drugs throughout childhood could lead to an increase in risk of substance abuse by 50 percent (Sales, 2000). Drug therapy having either a positive or negative long-term effect has yet to be unresolved.

    • Word count: 2219
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