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University Degree: Behavioural Science

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  1. Medicine in Ancient Greece.

    Three other works-Prognostic, Coan Prognosis, and Aphorisms-advanced the then new idea that, by observing enough cases, a physician can predict the cause of a disease. Hippocrates' teachings and ability to make direct, clinical observations influenced the other authors of these works and had a lot to do with freeing ancient medicine from superstition. Hippocrates had many important ideas and theories, like the theory of the four humours, which was the idea that the body is made up of four liquids known as humours.

    • Word count: 669
  2. How much progress did the Egyptians make in Medicine?

    The Egyptians believed that the body was full of channels, just like the Nile was. If an irrigation channel was blocked on the Nile, the water would not flow into the fields - a disaster for Egyptians because they inhabited the area surrounding the Nile because of the fertile land it offered. The Egyptians believed the same thing happened with the human body - that the blockage of the vessels lead to the person becoming ill. Vomiting was encouraged in some patients, as it was thought to clear blockages from the body. They also had a limited understanding of the way in which the organs worked, because they could not see them functioning, as the person was dead when mummification took place.

    • Word count: 880
  3. Chinese medical theory.

    It is the origin of what is called the Yin-Yang school of Chinese thought. The essentials of the Yin-Yang school are based on the idea that the universe is run by a single principle, Tao. This principle is divided into two opposite principles, which oppose one another in their actions. Theses are called Yin and Yang. This concept is also applied to medicine. The Concept Of Yin and Yang The concept of Yin-Yang is probably the most important concept in Chinese Medicine. Yin-Yang is said to be the basis of Chinese medical physiology, pathology and treatment.

    • Word count: 2597
  4. History and development of Western medicine.

    Moving onto Egyptian, Ancient Greek and Roman times, we see significant changes in medical practices, beliefs and treatments. The most important changes came about through people like Hippocrates and Galen. It was the Greeks who first developed 'rational' systems of medicine free from magical, superstitious and religious causes of disease and sickness. Explanations began to be based on natural, physical causes, and the first 'physicians' and 'scholars of medicine' appeared. Nevertheless, herbal medicines were still used and women's traditional roles did not change. Women were still the primary 'healer's within the home and local communities. Women, using traditional herbal remedies, would treat the majority of people, and deliver the babies. From the 2nd and the 4th centuries A.D.

    • Word count: 3206
  5. Twentieth Century Medicine: is it good for you?

    Put it simply it seems to put the power of God into the hands of a doctor, who is only human, and humans are not infallible, so mistakes are made occasionally and people die. That said high technology is also powerful enough to tackle the some of the most serious injuries and diseases known to man, like cancer, without powerful drugs and radio therapy (radiation - not the wireless!) most cancer patients would die, but because of powerful medical advances, 7 out of 10 children survive the most common childhood form of leukaemia and advances in treating cancer are occurring as I type this.

    • Word count: 848
  6. "Describe the developments of Medicine Through Time"

    The ancient Egyptians were able to make considerable progress by writing down what they had found and observed so they could pass their cures on to other people. They were also able to examine what they saw and diagnose proposed cures. The only draw back with this being that it was forbidden to dissect any parts of the body needed for the after life! The development of medicine in ancient Greece followed a similar kind of pattern. Philosopher scientists such as Hippocrates began to come up with rational explanations, based on observations.

    • Word count: 1637
  7. Complementary Therapies.

    The point may be stimulated with needles or alternatively an electrical current or by laser heat and massage. Treatment is usually painless although the patient may feel some dull heavy pain this is associated with a positive response relief mat be immediate or improvement may take several sections although some patients don't respond at all there is a growing interest by the general public in natural forms of medicine, unfortunately in the UK anyone is allowed to set up as an acupuncturist and treat patients medically qualified acupuncturists are responsible to the general medical council. The British medical acupuncture society was formed in 1980 members include general practioners, rheumotoliogists, anaesthetists, pain specialists and orthopedic surgeons as well as dentists and vets.

    • Word count: 2040
  8. Ancient Egyptians knowledge of the body.

    The Egyptians new about the pulse, liver, brain and other organs but they wouldn't of known there proper uses. The Egyptians prepared bodies for the return of the soul in the after-life. During embalming, they took out the major organs and preserved them. We also no that the heart of an Egyptian was known to be considered important and was therefore left in the mummified body rather than being dissected. This gave them good knowledge of the anatomy. Embalming also provided skills in surgery and pharmacy - the use of drugs to preserve the body gave many doctors a good idea of their properties.

    • Word count: 621
  9. Wounds, Autopsies and Mysteries

    During the motorcade, Governor Connally heard the first shot, then was hit about two seconds later. The Parkland doctors confirmed the bullet that hit Connally still in his left thigh. The president was first hit at the back of his neck, and then the second bullet hit his head from the back. The Parkland Doctor Perry said the shot was at the lower portion of the neck and was an entry wound. The president's body, at Parkland Hospital wrapped in a sheet and placed in a bronze casket, one of the most expensive that Parkland Hospital had.

    • Word count: 449
  10. Qualifications to Enter Veterinary Medicine.

    A Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (or equal) degree is needed for entry to the Doctor of Veterinary Science program. Applicants must have shown achievement in the understanding of scientific material and must be able to quickly and effectively learn large amounts of material and solve problems. In order to see if the student has these qualifications they (College) will refer to the student's previous school records. The College will look for the quality and constant grades. For admission to the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine the student must have a full semester, which will include 5 courses (2.5 credits)

    • Word count: 1519
  11. Alternative Medicine, also called unconventional medicine, therapeutic practices, techniques, and beliefs that are outside the realm of mainstream Western health care

    Acupuncture is used for many ailments, including chronic pain, drug addiction, arthritis, chemotherapy-induced nausea, and mental illness. In the past 40 years acupuncture has become a well-known and widely available treatment in both developed and developing countries. There are 29 schools of acupuncture in the United States that are accredited or candidates for accreditation by the National Accreditation Commission for Schools and Colleges of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine. Many conventionally trained physicians take courses in acupuncture and incorporate it into their practices. Licensure or registration in acupuncture is available in 29 states plus the District of Columbia.

    • Word count: 1509
  12. The Psychodynamic Approach - or What Freud Really Thought

    During his training, Sigmund made friends with Josef Breuer, another physician and physiologist. They often discussed medical cases together, and it is through this that Sigmund first encountered hysteria. Breuer used the 'talking cure' on his patients, which involved hypnosis under which they talked about thoughts that were usually repressed, relieving their symptoms. Sigmund was fascinated by hysteria, and later went to Paris for further study under Jean-Martin Charcot, a neurologist renowned for his studies of hysterics and use of hypnosis.

    • Word count: 1164
  13. What caused the discoveries of the Medical Renaissance?

    The second most important factor of the medical Renaissance was the improved methods of printing. This meant that people's ideas could spread really quickly and be seen by many. There were many men who helped change the face of medicine but there were three men who stand out from the rest. These men are Andreas Vesalius, William Harvey and Ambroise Pare. We will look at each of these men in turn so we will start off with Andreas Vesalius. In 1500 the most important medical book were that of the great Greek physician Cladius Galen.

    • Word count: 896
  14. Religion was a Hindrance to the Development of Medicine in the Middle Ages

    The Muslims translated the texts into Arabic and with the Arabic spread through west and south Asia and parts of Europe it was easy to spread the information. In this, more people were able to learn about medicine and this helped the development. Both religions taught that each person should take care of the sick and build hospitals. This encouraged people to help others and saw the general people learning more about medicine to try to heal people so helped medicine.

    • Word count: 739
  15. The Renaissance was a time of good medical progress but very few practical advantages

    All small animals were culled, and decaying food was cleared. Beggars and other travellers were banned from cities on penalty of death. Gatherings and all social events were stopped, and a watch was kept on ale houses to make sure they were orderly. Sources at the time (journals and diaries) showed that people at the time thought that the infection was spread by contact with others. Some thought it was caused by God, and some thought it was spread by air on tiny creatures, this theory (although frowned upon at the time)

    • Word count: 3336
  16. Ancient Egyptian and Greek Medicine, a Comparison.

    So money plays a large part in the progress of medicine. The rich could afford to employ metal workers, to make jewellery and tools. These craftsmen could also make bronze instruments for doctors and physicians, much better than any tools before. The rich Greeks could also do this, but, the invention of iron and steel meant that the Greeks could do more with their tools as they were stronger. This must have helped the progression of practical medicine. Although the rich in both Egypt and Greece had doctors and were generally in good health (more so in Greece than Egypt).

    • Word count: 2280
  17. Folklore in Medicine.

    Although we no longer believe in 'medicine men', 'shamans' and 'witch doctors' in the west we still have many deep seated superstitions, rituals and some medical practices that have been taken from our murky past. Such things as saying bless you when we sneeze originate from a time when it was believed that a sneeze was your soul attempting to escape your body and by saying 'bless you' you some how stopped it! Even things such as funerals are believed to be based around a ritual that prehistoric man used to carry out.

    • Word count: 711
  18. Will Hong Kong maintain its position of being the leader of the Traditional Chinese Medicine Market after China Accession to World Trade Organisation?

    These changes would inevitably create challenges and opportunities to the small TCM market in Hong Kong. This essay is going to explore Hong Kong's traditional Chinese medicine market through four aspects. First, it is necessary to understand the differences between the TCM and the "Western medicine" to appreciate the full potential of the TCM market. Secondly, we need to understand the current TCM market both in Hong Kong and China, especially to understand the changes in the market conditions after China's assertion of WTO. Third part, probably the most important part, I will seek the strength and opportunities when facing these new challenges for Hong Kong.

    • Word count: 3164
  19. Latin Speech

    And how did the son react? Well all his dreams of getting into the best medical school were shattered. Instead he had to settle for a poor quality school for second rate doctors, and was left to explore the medical world on his own, learning from no basis more reliable than his own meandering experiences. And so, his life fell from high to low. For each failure he made he blamed his father. This son was afraid of the future. Very afraid. Let us take words form Master Yoda: "Fear leads to anger, anger leads to hate, hate leads to suffering."

    • Word count: 1001
  20. Using Sources A and B, and your own knowledge, describe two significant changes in medicine in the period 1450 - 1700.

    Naturally, poorer women had no choice to make use of the services of women midwives but richer women went to the professionals. Of course, women were banned from studying anatomy due to the fact that no universities would accept a female student. The second significant change was the change in medical theory that happened during this time period. Since Roman times Galen had always been the foremost authority on anatomical theory. Nobody had questioned his theories; the Church had forbidden any challenges to Galens work because his theories fitted in with the Churches belief in a system dictated by nature.

    • Word count: 3167
  21. Intervention for ADHD should not involve medication behavioural intervention is sufficient.

    Though educational intervention a better cognitive outcome was produced than the use of medical or psychological approach (Purdie et al., 2002). The use of medication as a suggested treatment for ADHD created a controversy, especially on the side effects and pharmacological use. For example, the long term use of drugs throughout childhood could lead to an increase in risk of substance abuse by 50 percent (Sales, 2000). Drug therapy having either a positive or negative long-term effect has yet to be unresolved.

    • Word count: 2219
  22. Narrative Medicine connotes a medicine practiced with narrative competence and marked with an understanding of the highly complex narrative situations among doctors, patients, colleagues, and the public

    How are illness and care depicted in various art forms? That is the narrative in medicine. Novels, poems, music (opera, pop music), paintings and films are fascinating sources for studying the story of the patient. Medical students to be better doctors if they indulge in novels about being ill? Are doctors a better look at real patients at the Department of Dermatology when they learned what they have to the skin of a naked woman on a Rembrandt painting to see? Narrative medicine is not only useful for training in medicine but will also benefit the patient.

    • Word count: 1752
  23. Within Crazy Like Us, Ethan Watters explains many ways in which Western biomedicine has incorrectly pushed an essentialist way of treating certain mental illnesses onto other cultures

    Getting to know and understand a certain culture before rushing in and helping them is going to helpful in some situations, while it may cause damage in other situations. It is our obligation as people of our own culture to understand each situation and assess whether or not it is our duty to go to these other countries and give them aid. Watters? assertion that ?the mistake in applying Western notions of trauma without consideration for local beliefs goes beyond just being ineffective: there is real danger of doing harm?, certainly gets his point across (107).

    • Word count: 862

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