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University Degree: Problem Based Learning cases

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  1. Clinical care case study. Mrs. Burton was left with a mixture of emotion mostly feeling of dissatisfaction after her appointment, especially as she had been so nervous and apprehensive about seeing the doctor in the first place. Mrs. Burton had suspected

    There will also be relevant literature to underpin the care that Mrs. Burton had receive when being diagnosed with depression, as well as the rational of choosing Mrs. Burton. The rationale for choosing Mrs. Burton were both professional and personal rationale as the professional rationale for choosing Mrs. Burton was the fact that she was an elderly woman who is suffering from depression. I am fascinated with her condition as a student nurse perspective to gain knowledge and understand of how and what causes the different types of mental illness such as depression in my particular nursing branch.

    • Word count: 2384
  2. Praxis Note on Alzheimer's Disease

    I also remember there are three different stages of AD, early stage, intermediate stage, and late stage. The later the stages the more advance the condition is. Depending on the development of AD, individual may have memory difficulties of where item should be place and repetition of takes and doing the same or similar task respectively. In terms of nursing care, I know that redirection is the key to nursing care. Nurses also have to cope with each individual's difficulties and needs. For the past two weeks for observing in home, I got a glimpsed of different stages of AD and what AD is.

    • Word count: 1348
  3. Praxis Note on Evaluating the outcome

    It is not uncommon for different staffs to have their own opinion towards a similar task or situation. The problem is when this situation arises in a health care setting, there is no one person can who is right or wrong and decide what the best approach is that is the most beneficial for the resident. In my past couple of weeks in the home, I have seen several occurrences regarding of staffs having different value and attitude for a resident who has a high risk of fall and some of the staffs' approaches troubles me in many ways.

    • Word count: 1569
  4. Praxis Note on Dignity

    My colleagues and I have just presented the hand-hygiene presentation last week. I was very excited by it because I am no longer sitting in front of nursing stations or in the lounge to collect data and see if people have washes their hands before and exiting the unit entrance. I am actually doing something where it will influence other people's practices. I believe that I am a very easily satisfied person because my personal goal and objective for this project is very low.

    • Word count: 1091
  5. Origin,causes and treatments of gastroenteritis using a case study

    What can cause lower gastrointestinal infections? Microbes can cause gastrointestinal infections and the common agents are: Viral: rotavirus (common in children),noravirus (norwalk agent), calciviruses and astroviruses. These are usually self limiting and common in children. Bacterial: This is a common cause of food poisoning. Salmonella enterica: is usually associated with drinking un-pasteurised milk. Shigella: This is the most common cause of dysentery. Escherichia coli: most common species that cause diarrhoea are: entero-toxigenic and enteropathogenic species. These can either be heat stable or heat labile.

    • Word count: 2516
  6. Advanced directives

    This case addressed the right for a healthy individual to have an advanced directive recognised. This then led to the Patients Self-Determination Act 1991, this Act validates the existence of advanced directives and states that patients must be asked if they wish to make an advanced directive on admission to hospital (Humphrey 2003). At the present time the UK does not have anything similar to the Patients Self - Determination Act 1991. In the United Kingdom common law recognises advanced directives, but there has been no Act put through Parliament, to set out a law related to the enforcement of advanced directives (McLean 1996).

    • Word count: 3342
  7. reflective case study

    Confidentiality has been preserved throughout in accordance with the Health Professions Council (HPC) Code of Professional Conduct (HPC, 2002). To achieve and understand the use of reflection in a structured manner, the Gibbs (1988) Reflective Cycle will be utilised. Bulman and Schutz (2004) believe that reflection is a dynamic progression, and using a cyclical framework is of an advantage in providing structured guidance through a learning experience. Description I was told by one of the Doctors in the A&E department, there was a young boy in one of the cubicles that had fallen over and bumped his chin on the seat of a chair as he fell.

    • Word count: 2286
  8. reflective essay on placement

    Models of Nursing: The Roper - Logan - Tierney Model: The primary focus of the Roper - Logan - Tierney Model in practice is about the nursing of adult patients with a variety of health care needs as well as problems in an acute and community - based scenario. This model utilizes a holistic approach and assessment of the patient which allows him to explore his own health and illness with the medical practioner, so that no doubts are left in his mind about his condition.

    • Word count: 3148
  9. Anaphylactoid reactions from Iopromide in patient with angina undergoing angiography - Pharmacovigilance Brief Report Essay

    Iopromide-induced anaphylactoid reactions has the highest occurrence among the same drug class. Cardiologists and Radiologists should be aware in the use of Iopromide in severely ill cardiovascular patients, as the adverse reactions are likely to occur. It is crucial to recognise and treat anaphylactoid reactions immediately and appropriately. Key Words - Iopromide, Contrast Media, Anaphylactic, Anaphylactoid Reactions, Adverse Reactions INTRODUCTION Iopromide is a non-ionic iodinated contrast media, with osmolality of 0.6-0.7/kg water, considered as low osmolar contrast media. Intravascular iodinated contrast media are commonly used in imaging modalities. Iopromide is indicated mostly for angiography, arteriography, aortography, venography, urography, and tomography. 1 Contrast media is known to commonly cause incidence of anaphylactoid reactions.

    • Word count: 1773
  10. Reflective Portfolio

    During my clinical placement in a surgical ward, I had the opportunity to observe and participate in pre-admission/assessment and pre-operative care of patients. I was very keen to learn and I worked very hard to assimilate all that I have observed and participated in. During my first shift I received my first report about the patients on the ward, their diagnoses and their treatments. I was privy to their confidential information. I felt so privileged that they have given me their trust about their health and their information.

    • Word count: 2256
  11. With medical advances promising ever more detailed pre-natal genetic screening, do we have a duty to prevent the birth of physically and/or mentally impaired individuals?

    Who decides which disabilities are bad enough to prevent life? Are the problems faced by disabled people really just prejudice from the rest of us? Are we playing god by making value judgments on who lives and dies? In this essay we will consider these questions more deeply, and look at potential avenues of reasoning that can steer us to a conclusion beneficial to all. We do not have space to touch on screening for late onset disability (Alzheimers etc) but this is also a consideration that the reader is encouraged to persue.

    • Word count: 2781
  12. Should my child have the MMR vaccination?

    Step 4 If you meet the real disease MO, the antibodies you need are made very quickly. Step 5 The MOs are destroyed before they can make you ill. Vaccines Vaccines make use of the bodies own defence system. They kick- start your white blood cells into making antibodies. So you become immune to the disease without having to catch the disease first. Are vaccines safe? In the UK any medical treatment used on people should do two things: . Improve your health . Be safe to use Doctors decide that a treatment is safe to use when: .

    • Word count: 1851
  13. Discuss Meningitis B vaccine

    And the meningococcemia is the infection of the blood stream. An individual infected may suffer one or both of these diseases (http://dermnetnz.org, 2002). Meningococcal invasive disease usually has a sudden onset with fever, malaise, prostration and a variety of other possible symptoms including nausea, vomiting and headache. Invasive meningococcal disease can also give rise to arthritis, myocarditis, pericarditis, endophthalmitis and pneumonia. 2. HOW TO GET MENINGOCOCCAL DISEASE Neisseria meningitidis bacteria are spread from person to person by inhaling when infected person sneezes cough or close contact. Carrier rates depend on age and the highest rate is found in young adults 15-24 years at 20% - 40%.

    • Word count: 1269
  14. Anatomy Assignment 1:Factors affecting joint stability. The stability of a joint is a measure of how difficult it is to cause disruption from its desired position

    The function of the joints is obviously to provide the bones with a means of moving or being moved. But because such provisions bring with them a threat of instability, the joints have a secondary function for providing stability without interfering with the desired motions. All the joints of the body do not have the same degree of strength or stability.

    • Word count: 288
  15. A Review of Two Journal Articles.

    The way this argument is presented is in a style that reads more like an opinion. There is a distinct lack of evidence. Jackson talks about two 'blunders' but only quotes newspaper headlines about one of the cases. He also only uses headlines from two newspapers. Similarly, Jackson makes points but doesn't back them up with any evidence. For example he says, "Mistakes of the kind that led to such deaths are not as rare as the public believes" but has no figures to prove that his statement is true. Jackson compares the reporting styles of newspaper journalists and a radio reporter.

    • Word count: 916
  16. What is to blame for Autism?

    About one in 2,000 people have an autistic disorder. Boys are four times more likely to be affected than girls, although some research suggests that when girls have the condition they may be more severely affected.2 So what is causing autism? A paper was published by a Dr. Andrew Wakefield in the medical journal The Lancet in 1998,3 where he wrote a report on the connection between the combined MMR vaccine and autism. MMR is a live vaccine which contains measles, mumps and rubella viruses that have been modified.

    • Word count: 926
  17. MMR Jab - Vaccine or Poison

    Sunday Express, 6th October 2002, an exclusive article by Lucy Johnston, Health Editor. The child appeared to be developing normally until 15 months of age, then he was given the MMR jab. Only days after receiving the vaccine a rash broke out, his development stopped, he began to have violent seizures, which became more frequent - sometimes every few minutes. At nine years old, he was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit at Southampton General Hospital. Doctors, twice tried to break the cycle of convulsions with an anesthetic, each time he was brought round,the fits started again.

    • Word count: 963
  18. Is there a link between the MMR triple vaccine and the increasing number of cases of autism?

    This figure fell to 82% in 2002. Many parents are faced with the decision to listen to the reassurances by the government and the scientific community, that the vaccine is safe, or such allegations made by e.g. Wakefield that the vaccine is linked to autism. What is autism? This is a term that refers to a collection of neurologically-based developmental disorders in which individuals have impairments in social interaction and communication skills, along with a tendency to have repetitive behaviours or interests. A variety of factors could be associated with forms of autism including infectious, metabolic, genetic, neurological, and environmental factors.

    • Word count: 1422
  19. Is there a link between the MMR vaccine and the increasing number of cases of autism?

    Mumps can cause deafness and before the MMR vaccine it was the biggest cause of viral meningitis in children. Rubella can cause inflammation of the brain and can affect blood clotting. In pregnant women it can cause disastrous consequences such as a miscarriage or health problems for the child such as heart problems or brain damage. In 1998 claims were made by Wakefield and his colleagues that there was a link between the increase in cases of autism and the widespread use of the MMR vaccine. They reviewed reports of children with bowel disease and regressive development disorders mainly autism.

    • Word count: 1011
  20. Are vaccinations really a safe method of disease prevention?

    But are they? The number of cases of several different fatal diseases has declined and many diseases have been eradicated in the past years, but is it the vaccine that should be awarded for this or is it that living standards have improved? Microbiologists would probably attribute the decline of reported cases of disease to the increase in mass vaccination. They would claim that it is safer to vaccinate and suffer the lesser risks associated, than to not vaccinate at all.

    • Word count: 846
  21. To Vaccinate or not to Vaccinate?

    It has however been proven that from past studies that measles, mumps, small pox and polio outbreaks have all occurred in vaccinated populations and in fact the DTP vaccine can cause autism and brain damage when administered into newborn babies. On the other hand children with "na�ve" systems appear to have no problems in dealing with some of these diseases. Maternal immunoglobulins are said to protect the neonatal however the effects are said to be limited in capacity and short-lived and therefore vaccinating children is the only answer but other evidence clearly shows that childhood infectious diseases are benign and

    • Word count: 829
  22. What is immunisation and how does it work?

    This is what is known as active immunity. The first vaccination using active immunity was against smallpox and was developed by Edward Jenner. Once a child has been vaccinated in general, the normal immune response takes several weeks to work. This means protection from an infection will not occur immediately after immunisation. Most immunisations need to be given several times to build long lasting protection. Generally vaccinations protect us all our lives; however, the protective effect of some immunisations is not always life-long and then a booster jab will be given which will top-up the original vaccine.

    • Word count: 1705
  23. What Is Immunisation?

    For the purposes of this book, we have always used the term 'immunisation' because this is the expression most commonly used in the community. How does immunisation work? All forms of immunisation work in the same way. When someone is injected with, or swallows, a vaccine, their body produces an immune response in the same way it would following exposure to a disease but without the person getting the disease. If the person comes in contact with the disease in the future, the body is able to make an immune response fast enough to prevent the person getting sick.

    • Word count: 1154
  24. This report aims to outline the processes, eligibility criteria and Medicare funding involved with IVF in Australia, and discusses in-depth two ethical issues associated with IVF in relation to the 42 year old woman scenario.

    As such, individuals wanting to conceive a baby will usually only resort to IVF after preliminary approaches to basic lifestyle changes (weight loss, dietary adjustments or limiting drug and/or alcohol consumption) and medical treatment (drugs to stimulate ovulation, microsurgery to correct tubal defects) (HCF, 2013). Although IVF legislation varies across the states and territories in Australia, there are general criteria that must be satisfied to be eligible for IVF treatment: * If the woman and her partner (if any) have given consent to the treatment.

    • Word count: 3433
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