Freud, Watson, and Raynor
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Fear and love Final paper 12/23/2007 This paper will examine Freud's " Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year-Old-Boy" in comparison/contrast to John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner " Conditioned Emotional Reactions" Nastasia Garcia Professor Celesti Colds Fechter Original Sources Freud In the article "Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year-old-boy" by Sigmund Freud describes the events of child named Hans who begins to develop an anxiety disorder about being outside amongst horses, big carts with lots of belongings with baggage, and busses. Along with this anxiety driven phobia he begins to acquire both Oedipus and castration complexes. Freud's stemmed the phobia from sequence of events that he believed derived from: 1. Fear of being castrated when his mother said she would send him to the doctor to have his "widdler" cut off if he touched his widdler agagin (Freud, 1909, p. 49). 2. Developing an Oedipus complex especially when his father went away and he had his "mummy" all to himself. Freud correlated both these complexes to the fear of horses which in turn made him fearful of being outside. Freud states that these phobias originated because of initial reactions of his mother when he found out he played with "his member" and also due to fact that his father did not let him sleep in the same bed with them. Freud decided to train the father of Hans to be his insider psychoanalyst. He instructed the father to write down the events of each conversation he had with the child pertaining to the events of his phobia and psychosis.
Anyway most neurosis originate with families and/or parents, past down from generation to generation. Also the whole idea that somehow Hans fear of horses or just being outside came about because of a castration and Oedipus complex is simply plain "nonsense" to me. Watson and Rayner In the article "Conditioned and Emotional Reactions" by John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner we see here that the emotional conditioned responses are mainly derived from: 1. Love (sex) 2. Fear 3. Possibly rage (aggression) They begin the experiment with a nine month old baby named Albert B. he then goes through testing's that allow Watson and Rayner to see how one forms a conditioned feared response , their experiment was as follows: 1. Could they condition fear of a animal 2. If conditioned established could they transfer fear to other animals or objects 3. The effect of time on such conditioned responses 4. If emotional responses do not diminish, what other applications must take place. We see with the first stage for conditioning fear of an animal with a white rat was successful, after showing the rat to Albert and slamming on a bell. He thus became afraid and pulled back. The next day Albert had the same reaction but without the sound of the bell, he then was given blocks to play with and no feared response, played easily. The next step was to see if any transfers would take place, they tested this by putting a rabbit in front of Albert, right away he started to cry.
.In these cases the transfer emotion of fear on to another subject different from the original subject. In Hans's story we see that Hans manage to take his fear of horses and transfer it to fear of going outside, busses, and busses. Hans managed to take one primal fear of horses and transfer it to anything big and scary in the outside world that was out of his control. Albert in addition acquired a fear of animals when shown the rat with a sound, consequently he became scared of the rabbit, dog, and a fur coat when shown alone without any sound. This proves that his fear transferred to other animals and even objects that were not the original reason for they fear response. "These experiments would seem to show conclusively that directly conditioned emotional responses as well as those conditioned by transfer persist, although with a certain loss in the intensity of the reaction, for a longer period than one month. Our view is that they persist and modify personality throughout life" (Watson, 1920, p. 7). Reading these articles allowed me to get more of a sense of how each of the theorists came up with their reasoning behind the causes of phobias, between the Freud and Watson/ Rayner I would have to say that Watson/ Rayner theory behind phobias are much more realistic and understandable. Freud presented no evidence of any kind which allows me to assume he probably wrote and arrived at most of his theories while drug induced. In the end it is evidently clear the emotion of love is separate from the emotion of fear, unless in which case you fear love, which in itself is another case to be analyzed.
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