• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Freud, Watson, and Raynor

Extracts from this document...


Fear and love Final paper 12/23/2007 This paper will examine Freud's " Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year-Old-Boy" in comparison/contrast to John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner " Conditioned Emotional Reactions" Nastasia Garcia Professor Celesti Colds Fechter Original Sources Freud In the article "Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year-old-boy" by Sigmund Freud describes the events of child named Hans who begins to develop an anxiety disorder about being outside amongst horses, big carts with lots of belongings with baggage, and busses. Along with this anxiety driven phobia he begins to acquire both Oedipus and castration complexes. Freud's stemmed the phobia from sequence of events that he believed derived from: 1. Fear of being castrated when his mother said she would send him to the doctor to have his "widdler" cut off if he touched his widdler agagin (Freud, 1909, p. 49). 2. Developing an Oedipus complex especially when his father went away and he had his "mummy" all to himself. Freud correlated both these complexes to the fear of horses which in turn made him fearful of being outside. Freud states that these phobias originated because of initial reactions of his mother when he found out he played with "his member" and also due to fact that his father did not let him sleep in the same bed with them. Freud decided to train the father of Hans to be his insider psychoanalyst. He instructed the father to write down the events of each conversation he had with the child pertaining to the events of his phobia and psychosis. ...read more.


Anyway most neurosis originate with families and/or parents, past down from generation to generation. Also the whole idea that somehow Hans fear of horses or just being outside came about because of a castration and Oedipus complex is simply plain "nonsense" to me. Watson and Rayner In the article "Conditioned and Emotional Reactions" by John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner we see here that the emotional conditioned responses are mainly derived from: 1. Love (sex) 2. Fear 3. Possibly rage (aggression) They begin the experiment with a nine month old baby named Albert B. he then goes through testing's that allow Watson and Rayner to see how one forms a conditioned feared response , their experiment was as follows: 1. Could they condition fear of a animal 2. If conditioned established could they transfer fear to other animals or objects 3. The effect of time on such conditioned responses 4. If emotional responses do not diminish, what other applications must take place. We see with the first stage for conditioning fear of an animal with a white rat was successful, after showing the rat to Albert and slamming on a bell. He thus became afraid and pulled back. The next day Albert had the same reaction but without the sound of the bell, he then was given blocks to play with and no feared response, played easily. The next step was to see if any transfers would take place, they tested this by putting a rabbit in front of Albert, right away he started to cry. ...read more.


.In these cases the transfer emotion of fear on to another subject different from the original subject. In Hans's story we see that Hans manage to take his fear of horses and transfer it to fear of going outside, busses, and busses. Hans managed to take one primal fear of horses and transfer it to anything big and scary in the outside world that was out of his control. Albert in addition acquired a fear of animals when shown the rat with a sound, consequently he became scared of the rabbit, dog, and a fur coat when shown alone without any sound. This proves that his fear transferred to other animals and even objects that were not the original reason for they fear response. "These experiments would seem to show conclusively that directly conditioned emotional responses as well as those conditioned by transfer persist, although with a certain loss in the intensity of the reaction, for a longer period than one month. Our view is that they persist and modify personality throughout life" (Watson, 1920, p. 7). Reading these articles allowed me to get more of a sense of how each of the theorists came up with their reasoning behind the causes of phobias, between the Freud and Watson/ Rayner I would have to say that Watson/ Rayner theory behind phobias are much more realistic and understandable. Freud presented no evidence of any kind which allows me to assume he probably wrote and arrived at most of his theories while drug induced. In the end it is evidently clear the emotion of love is separate from the emotion of fear, unless in which case you fear love, which in itself is another case to be analyzed. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Miscellaneous section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Miscellaneous essays

  1. E Commerce Applications

    E-mekaniks will ensure that the customer information is not in danger of unauthorized users. Data encryption and password, routers, firewalls, antivirus and anti spy-ware will be security measures taken into consideration by E-mekaniks. Poor communication infrastructure and decline in productivity are also major threats for E-mekaniks.

  2. Punishment vs. Rehab

    Many victims believe that criminals should not have many rights left to them. Until 2004, criminals' rights were highly protected unlike victims. It was not until President Bush signed the Crime Victims Rights Act which "guaranteed rights to victims of federal crime" (Larrabee, 2006, p.2).


    policies, an ability to create their own corporate culture and values, but keep their reward mechanisms similar to those of the corporate parent. Charitou and Markides' (2003) research showed that the success of these units rested predominantly with how they were managed along these dimensions, rather than their simply being separate.

  2. The Ethics of Animal Testing

    Animal research is always valuable, whether it is to find a cure for a specific disease or just improving our knowledge of the body. In fact, the U.S Department of Health and Human Services claims that animal research has extended the human life 20.8 years (Pringle, 1989).

  1. Psychology Theories

    He was also talking about making our unconscious, conscious. He encouraged patients to say whatever was in there mind, no matter what. It's the therapist's job to keep sessions a conflict free experience with discussions on certain areas brought up. To go through this form of therapy i.e. the patient has to trust the therapist and vice versa, this

  2. Do Institutions Matter: A Case Study of Gun Control

    provide more of an understanding of how institutions can explain policy outcomes. Despite this there is still the problem of individuals being confined to a set of rules, and being able to pursue self interest. This is the main issue presented here because institutionalism assumptions regarding how individuals react to

  1. Personality Testing in the Workplace

    surprising that HR professionals, some of whom are untrained, have problems with test selection. Added to this is the fact that there are almost no thorough comparisons of the different tests on which to base the decision of what measure to use (Goldberg, in press).

  2. Hair and fibre analysis

    Drug testing in human hair Hair samples can provide proof on whether a subject has been abusing drugs like cocaine, heroin and cannabis or using drugs for therapeutic reasons. Hair samples can show the trend of drug use over a relatively vast period of time (compared to blood, urine and saliva samples)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work