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Religious group action to challenge new law which legalizes prostitution & brothels

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Running Head: RELIGIOUS GROUP ACTION TO CHALLENGE NEW LAW

Religious group action to challenge new law which legalizes prostitution & brothels

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Religious group action to challenge new law which legalizes prostitution & brothels

Libertarianism is a philosophy that states we have free will and thus we are responsible for their actions. Thus, political libertarianism argues that since we already have certain rights (eg right to express their opinions), but the role of government is to protect our rights. Nevertheless, if we have a government that the introduction of laws or reprimand us to bend our rights, then it becomes a police state. Political libertarianism requires that government play a smaller role. This type of society, while demand from their citizens tolerance and responsibility. Citizens need to understand other acting within their rights if they do not physically harm anyone, despite their own feelings and ideals. They have to contend with other actions and beliefs. Nevertheless, the current government does not engage in libertarianism. They set rules and penalties, if their rules.

Many controversial issues have arisen in connection with these violations of privacy. Among the contentious issues of debate about prostitution and brothels should be legalized or decriminalized. Because of its illegality and ambiguous definition of prostitution, it is difficult to think of a specific number of persons who currently work or have worked as a prostitute. The National Task Force on Prostitution suggests that over one million people in the U.S., worked as prostitutes in the U.S., or about 1% of American women.[1] Despite the religious opposition or opinions about the morality and legalization of prostitution is actually for the benefit of society in many ways.

Prostitution Debate 1, which divides feminists into two groups: religious groups, who want to abolish prostitution, and liberal feminists, who would like to see the decriminalization of prostitution, and normalized in our society. There are strengths and weaknesses of both religious groups, and the arguments of the liberals, with the most positive emphasis on the position of a religious group for the abolition of the institute. Dr Maggie O'Neill would like to brothel-keeping laws are removed, so that women can work in environments with health and safety standards, as well as to protect that come with operating in small groups of women with common interests. Many people who are opposed to prostitution are very bias, describing the horrors of violence by men who "express pure hatred for the female body" who believe prostitution is "too patriarchal to be tolerated." [2]

On the other hand, what they call "sex-religious groups (but who share the same values and opinions, as others called liberals or liberal feminists) argue that sex can be good: courageous form of liberation for women, the path for some to take control of their lives. A lot of sites, I was looking to the end, I read a lot of descriptions and analysis of the institution of prostitution, its problems and possible solutions. Based on the arguments, one site was the most thorough, well-supported by either side in the debate, and provides a reliable conclusion: that a ban on prostitution and brothels would be better for society in the long term, on the grounds that its normalization is in fact more degrading than in its current state, and would require victims of sexual autonomy. There are many possible social results of the normalization of an organization or its abolition. In analyzing the debate over the fact that prohibit prostitution or to have it decriminalized, and normalized in society, I will show you both sides of the debate. Then I be able to explore the solutions presented by liberal feminists, the problem with those, and the solutions presented religious groups, and problems with their arguments, as well. I believe that the arguments on both sides are the basis of the current question: should prostitution be legalized?

What is prostitution? The legal definition of prostitution is defined as "participation in the sexual behavior of financial payment. Many describe it as a basic principle of prostitution as "the use of sexual excitation in the system of domination in order to achieve non-sexual purposes, mainly, survival, and correlates it with our close relatives, the primates. But obviously this can not be a full definition of prostitution, and one could not go into the woods and see a monkey to be arrested by the police because prostitutes do sexual things to distract the other, so the former can swallow the food before the other takes it by force. In addition, many other institutions in our culture, which is very respectable, are in some sense, trade goods for sexual non-sexual, life needs, such as marriage. It will also include the use of attractive people in the shops, cafes, advertising, film. This creates an analogy with the man taking his date! An expensive restaurant, and spend a fair amount of money in exchange for which he will rely on some kind of sexual reciprocity. Such payments are not required by the second party, and if she does not agree to sex, he can not demand it. If he tries to take him by force? That would be harassment, and violations. In the business of prostitution, neither of the parties uses sex for socially acceptable purposes; one is looking for fun, the other for money.

Thus, the sociological definition of prostitution "events, in which sex is exchanged for an immediate monetary reward, and in which there is no on going emotional and / or social relations between the parties." There are many problems associated with commercial sex work, which must be addressed in order to use prostitutes, and in society in general.

There are two groups of problems with the institution of prostitution. The first "small circle" and then "broad range". "Small circle" consists of the problems that directly affect the prostitute, such as specific acts of violence clients and pimps who harm, abuse, humiliation and exploitation of prostitutes they employ. In addition, this set of problems are the issues that arise from the State's efforts to end prostitution, such as an inability to prostitutes to organize a collective basis, and the fact that prostitutes are not protected by law because they had "outlaw." Wide “consisting of those problems that affect society more as a whole, not individuals. These are gender marked features of trade", a kind of inhuman violence aimed at the female body, the social stigma against prostitutes and pimps.[3]

 The fact that women receive lower wages than men, and that there are fewer employment options available to them could be an important factor. If the wages of working girls were raised, there would be less incentive for women to go into prostitution, rather than the more socially acceptable forms of employment. There will thus be less prostitution on the streets, and they still would not have been in higher demand, and then will be charging more for their services. Large sums of money being made by prostitutes and then entice even women who have legitimate careers in prostitution, and there would be many prostitutes as it was from the outset. Social conditions that push women into trafficking, and seems to undermine their ability to avoid harm and violations that accompany this kind of work also fall under this category. Many girls go into prostitution because of prior physical or sexual abuse and violence, or because of lack of housing, maintenance of addiction or financial emergency. And finally, the idea that the problems of prostitutes are rarely seen public injustice that must be addressed.

They do not like us, they do things that we would dream of doing. What prostitutes need ... not a lot of sentimental delicacy looking at them? In search of solution to these problems, I will first address religious groups and their campaigns, how, why, prohibiting prostitution, it is the best solution for women, and society.

Religious groups against prostitution and brothels because of discrimination based on sex nature of the organization: they claim that it exploits women and reinforces their status as sexual objects, undoing many of the gains women have made over the past century. They are against normalization of prostitution because of its threat of sexual autonomy, radical feminist values, and if the sex was accepted as "just another way of using your body, this value must be sacrificed. According to many sources, religious groups, believe that the absolute abolition of prostitution is because a good buy prostitutes part of its degradation, the existence of prostitution depends on the disparity between the client and prostitution, the social and economic power, and because prostitution contributes to the perpetuation of inequality, that practice depends. Religious groups believe that the very existence of prostitution is an insult to all women by raising the chauvinistic attitudes towards women as sexual property, and prohibiting the practice of determining the end of women in general as sexual objects are available to any man who desires them. Since it is unlikely that the organization of prostitution will disappear the way religious groups that would like to see, in their opinion, the next best choice for driving on a prostitute, exempting them from legal sanctions and condemnation, and male clients and pimps. That would be prostitutes, life is much easier because they are already at a disadvantage, and it makes sense to blame those who make it dangerous and degrading [4]. Legal regulation in Toronto found that clients who were mostly middle-class people with families, were easier than to keep prostitutes, because the latter group usually have long criminal records.

The liberal feminists would also like to see swift legal measures taken against those who abuse prostitutes. This group would like to see all sex-trade workers treated as fairly as any other social-service worker. The liberal feminists see that prostitution & brothels as it is right now is a harmful, degrading institution, but they believe prostitution (and sexual commerce in general) is not necessarily a bad institution. Their solution to the problem is not to get rid of it, but to legalize it, or at least decriminalize it, and to make it a normal part of our society. A hand full of liberals, such as Nussbaum hold that "any reluctance to normalizing prostitution is based in an unjustifiable prejudice, one that we should strive to overcome," just as we have overcome prejudices pertaining to women working on the stage, as actors and dancers.

Answers liberals to radical feminist approval to eradicate prostitution, that prostitution may be the best employment option, some women, and that its elimination would be worse for poor women, depriving them of the possibility that the small benefits they may receive from such work, and that there is great diversity within the framework of child prostitution and brothels, and that different agencies may not have the same problematic characteristics in common. Normalization will be largely path to protect prostitutes from harm, they are from clients, pimps and psychopaths and police. They could organize collectively, and it would be easier for them to sue for damage caused by violence against them. Lifting laws against brothels would improve conditions for prostitutes and allow them to work in a safe, healthy environment, and provide the protection that comes with operating in small groups of mutual interest. In the Netherlands, where prostitution is decriminalized, police and prostitutes on one side. Prostitutes speak at police academies, as well as respect pays off in safer working conditions.

Since prostitution is illegal trouble. It is expensive and time consuming for the courts, police and the prostitutes themselves. It also can be very racist. Among those arrested on such a charge assessment for 100 thousand, 70% are women and 20% of men. It is unfair, the majority were arrested and sentenced to imprisonment of ethnic minorities. Although only 20% of prostitutes working the streets, most of the arrests occurred there. Actual indoors, such as massage parlors, escort services, and saunas are very rarely closed. Police officers who arrest the prostitutes are usually able to help capture (posing as a lawyer), invasion of privacy of those workers, and the use of discriminatory tactics (in 1987, California prohibits consent to prostitution, allowing this form of capture is the law) . [5]For every prostitute arrested, court and prison costs nearly $ 2,000.00 for his arrest. Cities spend an average of 7.5 million dollars on prostitution control every year, starting with 1 million dollars (Memphis) to 23 million dollars (New York). [6] In addition, 46% of women working as street prostitutes are mothers, and most of them single mothers.[7] Although they are trying to earn money to support their families, as a result of unlawful activities working on the streets, they risk having their children taken away. Many of them have lost children. Children in care costs of government thousands of dollars a year for each child. Therefore, this endless cycle in which there prostitutes were arrested and fined constantly. Because they are the poorest workers in the sex industry, and perhaps no other source of income, they are forced to spend more time on the streets to pay those fines, only to wait another arrest. Not able to pay these fines, increasing numbers of women were sent to prison. After his release, and economically unsustainable, they come back to this lifestyle. Taxpayer, burdened with paying these enormous legal, management, police and prison costs. Therefore, the decriminalization save all the money.

How they are victims of violence, the legalization will reduce the rate of rape and even murder. Figures vary, but one report citing 60% of abuse against street prostitutes perpetrated by clients, 20% of police officers and 20% in family relationships. According to a massage parlor owner of more than 90% of ill-treatment against some of the prostitutes are within domestic relationships. Between 35 and 85% of prostitutes are survivors of incest or early sexual abuse. (The numbers differ for different populations.) study of 130 street workers (mostly homeless) who engage in prostitution or survival sex found that 80% of them were physically assaulted.[8] Some prostitutes were raped by 8 to 10 times a year or more. 7% seek help, and only 4% report a rape to the police. A recent study showed that in cases (not household) rape and abuse, 5% of perpetrators identified themselves as police officers, often produces signs and police identification. (This does not include actual cases of abuse and violence.) [9] According to statistics compiled by prostitutes in Victoria, on average, 2 week, rape suffered by street prostitutes in the area and at least one night of the assault is reported that the outreach workers . [10] Street prostitutes are also constantly being robbed. The killers often target prostitutes. Nevertheless, these women may not report incidents of violence to the police because they could jeopardize their own legal standings. Thus, decriminalization will help customers reduce power to threaten, violence and intimidation of women.

Health myths of prostitutes, that they contribute a significant number of HIV / AIDS. Nevertheless, the Ministry of Health consistently reports that only 3 to 5% of the sexually transmitted diseases in this country, prostitution-related (compared with 30-35% among adolescents). There is no statistical indication in the U.S., that prostitutes are vectors of HIV infection. Despite the small percentage of prostitutes may be HIV positive, William Darrow, the official epidemiology of AIDS, there are no results confirmed cases of HIV transmission from prostitutes to clients. [10]123 of 202 665 adult and adolescent males diagnosed with AIDS since 1981, has denied any risk factor, but sex with a woman, a prostitute, or 0.04% (a 4 / 100 of 1%), adult / youth with diagnosed with AIDS. [11] With legalization, departments of social security and education will be more creative in ensuring the free flow of information and education in the field of public health preventive measures by eliminating the fear of persecution and oppression. Legalization would also help to combat drug addiction among prostitutes. Between 60% and 80% of street prostitutes are drug addicts. Their illegal status makes them more hesitant to seek help. Their illegality also makes it difficult for experts on drug rehabilitation, access to them.[12]

As these facts indicate, the legalization of prostitution and brothels would be very useful to society. In 1949, the United Nations adopted a resolution supporting the decriminalization of prostitution, which was adopted by 50 countries, but not in the United States.[13] Nevertheless, in spite of any strict laws, bans, the U.S. has not diminished prostitution by any means. Most women who turn to prostitution, often homeless, uneducated, poor and drug addiction (It is believed that 90% of street prostitutes and homeless people living in poverty).[14]In the current economic problems, more unemployed women become prostitutes. Thus, we can not expect to stop all prostitution, if the reasons why they are on the streets, in the first place are addressed. By making it legal, housing agencies and social workers will have access and assistance to prostitutes and easier solutions to important issues, such as their right. These people are no exception to the basic human rights. They also need protection in order to stop any exploitation and abuse by others. In addition, the legalization of prostitution would actually help reduce the number of sex workers. Ability to know where they work is easier to protect, inform and assist them in their efforts to leave the profession.

Moreover, since these workers tend to fill their criminal past, these so-called crime, which prevents them to find another type of work, and they are then ostracized by society. Services and strategies, such as drug detoxification centers, social protection programs and housing programs would be more effective, and provide opportunities and a better life for them. Libertarianism argues that we can do as we please as long as we do not harm anyone and to take responsibility for their actions. These women do not hurt anyone. Their clients can spend their money as they please. They have the right to take in private, adult relationship[15]. The government should not intervene. In the political libertarian society, the government will simply ensure that the prostitute was not injured, is now being paid correctly, and give them full access to social services such as rehabilitation of drug or hospital treatment. However, because our government does not act in such a way of liberation, the society the burden of huge costs, violence, misinformation about preventing sexually transmitted diseases or by drugs, and the constant struggle with the profession that is not going away[16].

Some sociologists define predatory behavior. Purchase prostitutes as normal, arguing that prostitution is only a part of human nature. Prostitution as a form of labor (sex), which is regarded as an unpleasant job, but not different from other kinds of unpleasant tasks, such as factory work. From this point of view, women in prostitution are regarded as just another category of workers with special problems and needs. Dissemination of consumer culture had dramatic consequences; the sex becomes more commercial it can not compare a woman's body, such as strings, which can be purchased anywhere. Trafficking and prostitution in the literal sense, embodied in the use of women and young girls for sexual exploitation. Commercialization of the female body is allowed and even encouraged to satisfy male sexual needs and desires, and defended as a solution to the problems of male sexuality and sexual identity, and relational problems men.61 generations of men in Victoria, it is now known that it is acceptable to treat women as objects for sexual use. Women's bodies and emotions must belong only to them. They should not be sold or sold.

Finally, religious groups, want to completely get rid of prostitution and brothels in any form, because of his sexist, chauvinistic patriarchal nature, and because it is harmful and degrading women. Liberal feminists want to make life better for prostitutes and allow them to continue working in the sex trade, and the law on their side to protect them and make their working conditions safe and healthy as any other worker in our society. I do not believe that is the most complete argument, which presents both sides equally, and gives good reasons for siding with religious groups to abolish the sex trade, because normalization would be to abandon the sexual autonomy, or the liberal party will go on safe working conditions for prostitutes.


Endnotes

  1. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. 1993
  2. French Dolores, Working, My Life as A Prostitute. (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1988).
  3. James Jennifer. Prostitutes and Prostitution. Deviants in Hostile World. (General Learning Press, 1977).
  4. Lambert, Bruce. AIDS in Prostitutes, Not as Prevalent as Believed, Studies Find. (New York Times, September 20, 1988).
  5. Pearl Julie. The Highest Paying Customers: Americas Cities and The Cost of Prostitution Control. (Hastings Law Journal, April 1987. pp 769-800)
  6. Prince D. A Psychological Profile of Prostitutes in California and Nevada, PhD. Thesis, United States International University, March 1986.
  7. San Francisco Bay Area Homeless Project. 1995.
  8. Silbert Mimi. Sexual Assault of Prostitutes: San Francisco. (Delancy Street Foundation, 1981).
  9. The Toronto Prostitutes' Community Service Project. Study of the Criminality of Prostitution and It's Relationship to Violence Against Prostitutes. (August 1992).
  10. University of Melbourne. The Decriminalization of Street Prostitution in Victoria.23 May 2002 http://www.arts.unimelb.edu.au/amu/ucr/student/1996/m.dwyer/index.html


[1]  Pearl Julie. The Highest Paying Customers: Americas Cities and The Cost of Prostitution Control. (Hastings Law Journal, April 1987. pp 769-800)

[2] 6.        Prince D. A Psychological Profile of Prostitutes in California and Nevada, PhD. Thesis, United States International University, March 1986.

[3] 2.        French Dolores, Working, My Life as A Prostitute. (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1988).

[4]  James Jennifer. Prostitutes and Prostitution. Deviants in Hostile World. (General Learning Press, 1977).

[5] Prince D. A Psychological Profile of Prostitutes in California and Nevada, PhD. Thesis, United States International University, March 1986.

[6] Pearl Julie. The Highest Paying Customers: Americas Cities and The Cost of Prostitution Control. (Hastings Law Journal, April 1987. pp 769-800)

[7] University of Melbourne. The Decriminalization of Street Prostitution in Victoria.23 May 2002 http://www.arts.unimelb.edu.au/amu/ucr/student/1996/m.dwyer/index.html

[8]James Jennifer. Prostitutes and Prostitution. Deviants in Hostile World. (General Learning Press, 1977).James Jennifer. Prostitutes and Prostitution. Deviants in Hostile World. (General Learning Press, 1977).

[9] 7 San Francisco Bay Area Homeless Project. 1995.

[10] Lambert, Bruce. AIDS in Prostitutes, Not as Prevalent as Believed, Studies Find. (New York Times, September 20, 1988).

[11]  The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. 1993

[12] James Jennifer. Prostitutes and Prostitution. Deviants in Hostile World. (General Learning Press, 1977).

[13] Prince D. A Psychological Profile of Prostitutes in California and Nevada, PhD. Thesis, United States International University, March 1986.

[14]  San Francisco Bay Area Homeless Project. 1995.

[15]  The Toronto Prostitutes' Community Service Project. Study of the Criminality of Prostitution and It's Relationship to Violence Against Prostitutes. (August 1992).

[16] Silbert Mimi. Sexual Assault of Prostitutes: San Francisco. (Delancy Street Foundation, 1981).

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